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Launching Europe

Author: Stacia E. Zabusky
Publisher: Princeton University Press
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In this first ethnographic study of the European Space Agency, Stacia Zabusky explores the complex processes involved in cooperation on space science missions in the contemporary context of European integration. Zabusky argues that the practice of cooperation does not depend on a homogenizing of interests in a bland unity. Instead, it consists of ongoing negotiation of and conflict over often irreconcilable differences. In this case, those differences are put into play by both technical and political divisions of labor (in particular, those of big science and of European integration). Zabusky shows how participants on space science missions make use of these differences, particularly those manifest in identities of work and of nationality, as they struggle together not only to produce space satellites but also to create European integration. She argues that the dialectical processes of production include and depend on conflict and contradiction to maintain energy and excitement and thus to be successful. Participants in these processes are not, however, working only to produce tangible success. In her epilogue, Zabusky argues that European space science missions can be interpreted as sacred journeys undertaken collectively, and that these journeys are part of a fundamental cultural project of modernity: the legitimation of and aspiration for purity. She suggests, finally, that this project characterizes not only the institution of technoscience but those of bureaucracy and nationalism as well.


Integral Europe

Author: Douglas R. Holmes
Publisher: Princeton University Press
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Over the past 15 years, the project of advanced European integration has followed a complex secular and cosmopolitan agenda. As that agenda has evolved, however, so have various hard-line populist movements with goals diametrically opposed to the ideals of a harmonious European Union. Spearheaded by figures such as Jean-Marie Le Pen, the controversial leader of France's National Front party, these radical movements have become increasingly influential and, because of their philosophical affinities with fascism and national socialism--politically worrisome. In Integral Europe, anthropologist Douglas Holmes posits that such movements are philosophically rooted in integralism, a sensibility that, in its most benign form, enables people to maintain their ethnic identity and solidarity within the context of an increasingly pluralistic society. Taken to irrational extremes by people like Le Pen, integralism is being used to inflame people's feelings of alienation and powerlessness, the by-products of impersonal, transnational "fast-capitalism." The consequences are an invidious politics of exclusion that spawns cultural nationalism, racism, and social disorder. The analysis moves from northern Italy to Strasbourg and Brussels, the two venues of the European Parliament, and finally to the East End of London. This multi-sited ethnography provides critical perspective on integralism as a form of intimate cultural practice and a violent idiom of estrangement. It combines a wide-ranging review of modern and historical scholarship with two years of field research that included personal interviews with right-wing activists, among them Le Pen and neo-Nazis in inner London. Fascinating, provocative, and sobering, Integral Europe offers a rare inside look at one of modern Europe's most unsettling political trends.


Policy Logics and Institutions of European Space Collaboration

Author: Kazuto Suzuki
Publisher: Routledge
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Focusing on European collaboration outside of the European Union (EU), this volume deepens the analysis of the current status of space policy in Europe, looking at the roles and functions of the institutions of European space collaboration, and what influences the interests and strategies of experts and policy-makers. Providing a new conceptual framework, the book also develops an innovative perspective for understanding the interactions between international and domestic policy-making, as well as a comprehensive analysis of how European states collaborate in a security-sensitive area such as space. This invaluable work is suitable for courses on and specialists in European studies, international relations and international political economy.


Culture Rhetoric

Author: Ivo A. Strecker
Publisher: Berghahn Books
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While some scholars have said that there is no such thing as culture and have urged to abandon the concept altogether, the contributors to this volume overcome this impasse by understanding cultures and their representations for what they ultimately are - rhetorical constructs. These senior, international scholars explore the complex and multifarious relationships between culture and rhetoric arguing that just as rhetoric is founded in culture, culture is founded in rhetoric. This intersection of rhetoric and culture constitutes the central theme of the first part of the book, while the second is dedicated to the study of figuration as a common ground of rhetoric and anthropology. The book offers a compelling range of theoretical reflections, historical vistas, and empirical investigations, which aim to show how people talk themselves and others into particular modalities of thought and action, and how rhetoric and culture, in this way, are co-emergent. It thus turns a new page in the history of academic discourse by bringing two disciplines—anthropology and rhetoric—together in a way that has never been done before.


Beyond the Handshake

Author: Dalia Dassa Kaye
Publisher: Columbia University Press
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Arabs and Israelis have battled one another in political and military arenas, seemingly continuously, for some fifty years. The 1991 Madrid Peace Conference sought to change this pattern, launching bilateral and multilateral tracks in the Arab-Israeli peace process. As a result, a broad group of Arab states sat down with Israel and began to cooperate on a wide range of regional issues in what became known as the Middle East multilaterals. Yet why did enemies reluctant even to recognize one another choose to cooperate on regional problems? And once this process began, what drove the parties to continue such cooperation or, in some cases, halt their cooperative efforts? Beyond the Handshake addresses these fundamental questions, exploring the origins of the multilaterals and the development of multilateral cooperation in the areas of arms control and regional security, economic development, water management, and the environment. Dalia Dassa Kaye, challenging conventional concepts of cooperation, argues that multilateral cooperation in the Middle East must be appreciated as a process of interaction rather than solely as a set of outcomes. Presenting theoretical insights of value to students of regional and international relations, Beyond the Handshake provides a unique look at the evolving nature of Arab-Israeli relations and exposes the foundation the multilateral peace process laid for future regional cooperation in the Middle East.


An anthropology of the European Union

Author: Irène Bellier
Publisher: Berg Publishers
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One of the problems facing Europe is that the building of institutional Europe and top-down efforts to get Europeans to imagine their common identity do not necessarily result in political and cultural unity. Anthropologists have been slow to consider the difficulties presented by the expansion of the EU model and its implications for Europe in the 21st Century. Representing a new trend in European anthropology, this book examines how people adjust to their different experiences of the new Europe. The role of culture, religion, and ideology, as well as insiders' social and professional practices, are all shown to shed light on the cultural logic sustaining the institutions and policies of the European Union. On the one hand, the activities of the European institutions in Brussels illustrate how people of many different nationalities, languages and cultures can live and work together. On the other hand, the interests of many people at the local, regional and national levels are not the same as the Eurocrats'. Contributors explore the issues of unity and diversity in 'Europe-building' through various European institutions, images, and programmes, and their effects on a variety of definitions of identity in such locales as France, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Belgium. Adopting an anthropological approach, this book explores the quest to construct a sense of common identity at institutional level in the European Union (EU), and is particularly useful in identifying current research on the EU as project and object. The introductory essay by Ir ne Bellier and Thomas M. Wilson laments the marginalization of culture and identity in the EU and offers a useful overview of different approaches to the anthropology of Europe from American, British and French traditions. It examines the complexity of the concept of EU, which can refer to member states but also to a wider social system. Although Europe is currently in the process of defining and expanding a new public space, this project is severely hampered by the nation-state model, which dominates proceedings. Contributions to the book are divided in two parts. The first deals primarily with the institutional f0level in Europe. Marc Ab l s's contribution adopts an unusual approach by querying whether the construction of a harmonious Europe should be regarded as an indefinite, ongoing process, rather than an end product. Although in theory the EU is a borderless, post-national or perhaps supra-national region, its political practice has been rooted in a strong sense of territorial identity. The concept of a virtual Europe could serve as the catalyst for new perspectives on regional or national traditions. Ir ne Bellier explores the very interesting question of identity politics in the EU and the consequences of formal institutional recognition of many diverse interests. In the beginning, the European Common Market defended national interests and sustained sources of national identification among its civil servants. This process has been challenged by the identification of other sources of interest such as trans-national cultures or regional bodies, which also demand formal recognition of their interests. The change in the locus of representation from Parliament to specific lobby groups is impacting on the authority of individual nation-states. Gilbert Weiss and Ruth Wodak explore the globalization rhetoric of the EU with specific reference to unemployment policies. The central concern of this chapter is the linguistic nature of the decision-making process in the Competitiveness Advisory Group. Business-speak, location-speak and globalization rhetoric are used to construct an EU identity that differs significantly from other larger identities such as that of Japan or the USA. Essentially the EU is a collaborative project, which requires the input of all its member states. This is a process, which is not without tension as the EU has itself impacted on the authority of nation-states. Despite its constant reference to the principle of subsidiarity, the EU has implemented certain policy-making decisions at supra-national rather than national levels and created a new set of hierarchial relations. The principle of subsidiary is the focus of Douglas Holmes' essay, which examines the surrogate discourse of power in the EU. Holmes observes the significance of subsidiarity underlying the development of an increasingly federal EU but the principle also provides the substance of a complex moral discourse designed to sustain the European project and its relations with existing diversities. Four essays in part two of this book examine the concept of belonging and identity in the European Union. Catherine Neveu's contribution is particularly useful in its exploration of the potential contribution of anthropologists to the construction of European citizenship. Anthropologists can investigate different ways through which background models and representations regarding citizenship are invoked by European officials and lobbyists. They can investigate the negotiation process in deciding, implementing and evaluating policies and programmes. She suggests that an anthropological critique of European citizenship is increasingly necessary to address global questions of citizenship, issues of identity and the relative weight of representation and participation for the democratic process. Thomas Wilson examines the role of anthropology in EU scholarship on culture and identity. This chapter champions an approach exploring the impact of EU institutions as experienced on a day-to day basis. Wilson is a well-established authority on Northern Ireland and sets his argument in the context of Northern Ireland's borderlands where nationalist ideologies restrict the political and economic integration of Britain and Ireland. EU actions designed to alleviate this ethno-nationalist struggle are accepted or resisted within this context. Richard Jenkins's essay also emphasizes the benefits of an anthropological approach to everyday life in a local community. This contribution focuses on a small town in Jutland prior to the 1992 referendum on the Maastricht Treaty. Jenkins examines the complexity of the relationship between Danish identity and the EU, where a sense of Danish-ness has served both pro- and anti- EU camps. He examines the pro- and anti- positions to arrive at a complex picture of Danish-ness, which emphasizes similarity with the Nordic world and difference from Germany. It emphasizes equality of relationships within Denmark and positive feelings regarding ethnic-cultural homogeneity. Stacia Zabusky explores institutional discourses and practices of belonging in the European State Agency. She focuses in particular on European officials such as members of the European Parliament, Commission officials and civil servants of the Council who are frequently regarded as the new 'true Europeans' by individuals within and outside core EU institutions. These officials operate as 'architects' or 'engineers' of Europe's public space and have clear conceptions of a cultural and linguistic European identity at individual and collective levels. Although national boundaries are theoretically irrelevant in the EU, its citizens continue to feel strong loyalties to their member states. For this reason, Zabusky avails of the expression 'boundaries at work' to denote the significance of borders which are theoretically irrelevant. This book is extremely useful in its exploration of the construction of an EU in which centripedal and centrifugal forces are constantly at work. As the process of harmonization and integration gathers momentum, there is great potential for the proli


European Studies

Author: Thomas M. Wilson
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Historical Abstracts

Author: Eric H. Boehm
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Space Marketing

Author: W. Peeters
Publisher: Springer
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Space activities are currently in a transitional phase: the shift from publicly financed to private activities is a result of reduced public funding and increased commercial space opportunities. This leads to an increased commercial space marketing mix and marketing management. A classical `4Ps' approach is proposed, covering the Product, Price, Physical distribution, and Promotion of space activities. Special emphasis is placed on technology transfer, spin-off, and intellectual property aspects, as well as on aspects of space economy, such as alternate financing schemes like PPP (Public-Private Partnership) and sponsoring. However, space activists require broad public support and the exploratory aspect of space activities, the `Space Frontier' dimensions should not be ignored. For this reason, the philosophical dimension as an integral part of the marketing mix is elaborated in detail. The approach is illustrated with two case studies: commercialisation of the International Space Station (ISS) and the emerging Space Tourism market.


American Book Publishing Record

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