Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for the period 1994 2003 were used to compare the characteristics of fatal rural and urban crashes. The study found that there are approximately 42 percent more fatal crashes in rural areas compared to urban areas; however there are fewer vehicle miles traveled in rural areas than urban areas. In addition, fatal rural crashes are more likely to involve multiple fatalities, rollovers, and more trucks. Fatal rural crashes more often occur on curved roadways and have greater vehicle damage. Head-on crashes are more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas. Finally, the length of time for emergency medical services to arrive at the scene is longer in rural areas than in urban areas.
The Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) was developed in 1994 to resolve debates over old-growth forests and endangered species on federal forests in the range of the northern spotted owl. In 2005, federal agencies reviewed the first 10 years under the Plan to learn what worked and what did not, what changed, and what new information or surprises might influence these forests in the future. I highlight the monitoring results and new science from that review. Following are some of the key findings. Nearly all existing older forest habitat on federal land was protected from timber harvest. Older forest on federal land had a net increase of over 1 million acres in the first 10 years of the Plan. Despite protection of northern spotted owl habitat on federal land, spotted owl populations declined at a greater rate than expected in the northern half of their range, likely because of barred owl competition, climate, and the changing condition of historical habitat. Watershed condition improved slightly, because of reduced harvest in riparian areas, tree growth, and increased emphasis on restoration. Federal timber harvest in the Plan area averaged only 54 percent of Plan goals. In spite of mitigation measures, some local communities near federal lands had job losses and other adverse effects. State, federal, and tribal governments worked together on forest issues better than they ever had before. Increased collaboration with communities changed how the agencies get work done.
The socioeconomic monitoring report addresses two evaluation questions posed in the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) Record of Decision and assesses progress in meeting five Plan socioeconomic goals. Volume I of the report contains key findings. Volume II addresses the question, Are predictable levels of timber and nontimber resources available and being produced? It also evaluates progress in meeting the goal of producing a predictable level of timber sales, special forest products, livestock grazing, minerals, and recreation opportunities. The focus of volume III is the evaluation question, Are local communities and economies experiencing positive or negative changes that may be associated with federal forest management? Two Plan goals are also assessed in volume III: (1) to maintain the stability of local and regional economies on a predictable, long-term basis and, (2) to assist with long-term economic development and diversification to minimize adverse impacts associated with the loss of timber jobs. Progress in meeting another Plan goal--to promote agency-citizen collaboration in forest management--is evaluated in volume IV. Volume V reports on trends in public values regarding forest management in the Pacific Northwest over the past decade, community views of how well the forest values and environmental qualities associated with late-successional, old-growth, and aquatic ecosystems have been protected under the Plan (a fifth Plan goal), and issues and concerns relating to forest management under the Plan expressed by community members. Volume VI provides a history of the Northwest Forest Plan socioeconomic monitoring program and a discussion of potential directions for the program.
During the 1980¿2003 period the number of banking org. in the U.S. decreased from 16,000 to 8,000, and mergers of healthy institutions were by far the most important cause of that consolidation. During that period, the share of industry assets held by the ten largest commercial banking org. rose from 22% to 46%, and the share of industry deposits held by the ten largest rose from 19% to 41%. The database employed in this study consists of the vast majority of mergers between separately owned banking org. This study covers every transaction in which the target institution or one of its banking subsid. was chartered in the U.S. and in which the acquirer and the target were, or owned, a commercial bank, savings bank, s&l assoc., or industrial bank.