A Life Cycle for Clusters

This book studies the determinants of cluster survival by analyzing their adaptability to change in the economic environment.

A Life Cycle for Clusters

This book studies the determinants of cluster survival by analyzing their adaptability to change in the economic environment. Linking theoretic knowledge with empirical observations, a simulation model (based in the N/K method) is developed, which explains when and why the cluster's architecture assists or hampers adaptability. It is found that architectures with intermediate degrees of division of labor and more collective governance forms foster adaptability.

The Life Cycle of Clusters

In this highly insightful book, these stage-specific cluster policies are analysed and evaluated.

The Life Cycle of Clusters

One-size-fits-all cluster policies have been rightly criticized in the literature. One promising approach is to focus cluster policies on the specific needs of firms depending on the stage of development (emergence, growth, sustainment or decline) their cluster is in. In this highly insightful book, these stage-specific cluster policies are analysed and evaluated. Moreover, several chapters also focus on smart specialization policies to promote regional development by taking into account the emergence and adaptation of clusters and industries. In so doing, the book contributes to a newly emerging literature on how the cluster life cycle concept can inform policies and how these policies differ from static approaches that ignore the dynamism of clusters. The underlying idea is to foster the ability of clusters to renew themselves and to generate new developmental paths, thus preventing stagnation and decline.This state-of-the-art exploration of smart specialization from a cluster life cycle perspective is an invaluable book for academics in the fields of economic geography, entrepreneurship, innovation, industrial economics, regional studies and cluster research. It will also appeal to regional policy makers and practitioners dealing with public policy.

Life Cycle of Clusters in Designing Smart Specialization Policies

75–107 (1990) Dong-Ho, S. and Hassink, R. (2011) Cluster Life Cycles: The Case of the Shipbuilding Industry Cluster in South Korea, Regional Studies, 45(10), pp. 1387–1402. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 00343404.2011.579594 E. Stam, ...

Life Cycle of Clusters in Designing Smart Specialization Policies

This book investigates cluster-life-cycle (CLC) analysis to inform the entrepreneurial discovery process (EDP), in order to support the effectiveness of the smart specialization strategy (S3). It focuses on the evolutionary analysis of clusters’ development stages (emergence, development, maturity, decline/transformation), highlighting how different phases of the CLC have a different role in informing S3-policy-making and identifying regions’ potentials to specialize. In so doing, it offers an original conceptual model that explains what information can be provided by CLC analysis in the effective design and implementation of S3 and EDP, systematizes clusters' stage-specific features, and unveils the role played by each CLC stage. It contributes to the emerging academic debate on the role of the CLC concept in policy-making, by highlighting the importance of CLC analysis in dynamically investigating regional contexts and tailoring development policies such as S3. The book is an invaluable resource for academics and regional policy makers, providing them with guidance and recommendations on how to effectively approach the design and implementation of S3 and EDP, by fully tapping the potential of CLC analysis.

The Life Cycle of Clusters

The cluster initiatives we observe in real economic life can be and factually are established in each stage of a cluster life cycle, starting from the cluster's emergence until its final decline. Thus, the 435 cluster initiatives4 that ...

The Life Cycle of Clusters

One-size-fits-all cluster policies have been rightly criticized in the literature. One promising approach is to focus cluster policies on the specific needs of firms depending on the stage of development (emergence, growth, sustainment or decline) their cluster is in. In this highly insightful book, these stage-specific cluster policies are analysed and evaluated. Moreover, several chapters also focus on smart specialization policies to promote regional development by taking into account the emergence and adaptation of clusters and industries.

Innovative Clusters and the Industry Life Cycle

The purpose of this paper is to link the propensity for innovative activity to cluster spatially to the stage of the industry life cycle.

Innovative Clusters and the Industry Life Cycle

The purpose of this paper is to link the propensity for innovative activity to cluster spatially to the stage of the industry life cycle. The theory of knowledge spillovers, based on the knowledge production function for innovative activity, suggests that geographic proximity matters most in industries where tacit knowledge plays an important role in the generation of innovative activity. According to the emerging literature on the industry life cycle, tacit knowledge plays the most important role during the early stages of the industry life cycle. Based on a data base that identifies innovative activity for individual states and specific industries in the United States, the empirical evidence suggests that the propensity for innovative activity to concentrate geographically is shaped by the stage of the industry life cycle. The generation of new economic knowledge tends to result in a greater propensity for innovative activity to cluster during the early stages of the industry life cycle, and to be more highly dispersed during the mature and declining stages of the life cycle, particularly after controlling for the extent to which the location of production is geographically concentrated.

Do Clusters Follow the Industry Life Cycle

Empirical studies indicate that clusters do not necessarily follow the life cycles of their dominant industries, as different clusters that belong to the same industry life cycle follow different evolutionary paths (Saxenian, 1994).

Do Clusters Follow the Industry Life Cycle

TitleAbstract/titlePurpose– This paper aims to examine whether in old industrial regions, the trajectory of clusters follows that of their corresponding industry or deviates from it and which are the factors that account for cluster evolution. This paper deals with the issue of how established clusters either renew or transform themselves in such regions and how they adapt to changes in their corresponding international industries.Design/methodology/approach– This research paper draws from in-depth case studies on six industrial clusters, takes a longitudinal perspective and uses a multi-level and qualitative analysis. Based on existing literature, the paper suggests and exploratory analytical framework with four alternative scenarios for cluster evolution and three broad factors: cluster knowledge base, social capital at cluster and region-level and public policies.Findings– Clusters do not always follow the life cycle of its dominant industry. The paper clearly shows a diversity of cluster evolution across clusters and even within clusters (at subcluster level). This study suggests that cluster knowledge diversity and heterogeneity allow to broaden the scope of evolutionary trajectories available; the same goes for social capital at cluster and region levels.Research limitations/implications– The main limitation of this paper lies in its qualitative approach that makes its conclusions more suggestive than conclusive. In any case, further research on other Basque clusters may corroborate or question its findings.Originality/value– The paper offers an empirical and longitudinal study on cluster evolution, very much needed to the ongoing theoretical discussion on this issue. So far, there are very few empirical studies on cluster evolution with this perspective. At the same time, it presents a theoretical framework to analyse diversity of cluster evolution in old industrial regions that builds on Menzel and Fornah’s (2010) model.

Entrepreneurship Innovation and Business Clusters

The Life Cycle of Clusters The final part of this chapter explores the 'life cycle' of clusters. As we discussed above, clusters, or as otherwise stated, industrial districts have been developing internationally since the nineteenth ...

Entrepreneurship  Innovation and Business Clusters

In Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Business Clusters, Panos Piperopoulos provides a comprehensive introduction to what entrepreneurship is all about, how and why entrepreneurs innovate and how innovation systems operate. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) constitute the backbone of most economies, so the author examines their characteristics and the crucial role played by the owners and entrepreneurs who innovate to ensure the survival and continued growth of their firms. He also includes the particular phenomena that arise where the entrepreneurs are either female or from ethnic groups, or where the context is that of a developing region or country. The importance of co-operative strategic alliances and networks between firms is discussed, along with how these strengthen SMEs' competitiveness. The concept of open innovation has been proposed as a new paradigm for the management of innovation and the author presents a hypothetical model for enhancing the competitiveness and performance of SMEs by properly utilizing employees' creative potential, emotional intelligence, tacit knowledge and innovative ideas. The contemporary model of business clusters, involving partnerships with competitors, agents, universities, research centres and local, regional and national governments is discussed. The ways, means and methods through which SMEs' competitiveness and innovation can be enhanced within business clusters is illustrated by cases that identify four types of SMEs, that behave differently and play different roles in the networks and clusters of which they form a part, but all of whose performance and competitiveness is a function of their position and role in the wider scheme of things.

The Cluster Organization

According to this approach, a cluster changes along with its growth stages (Swann, 1998; Braunerhjelm & Feldman, 2006) and the transformation through individual stages in the life cycle is the result of evolution of its components ...

The Cluster Organization

Cluster organizations are becoming more and more popular, both in developing and developed countries. Considering the development of cluster policy and the related dynamic growth of cluster initiatives in the world, the lack of sufficient knowledge on the development of cooperation in cluster organizations inhibits their development and, in many cases, causes their complete disintegration. The book provides new important elements to the current system of knowledge, filling in cognitive and research gaps in the scientific literature on problems related to cooperation in cluster organizations. The most valuable features for the reader concern the epistemological, methodological, and application aspects. The new element includes a theoretical concept, which refers to the trajectory of development of cooperative relationships in cluster organizations that facilitates the understanding and explanation of mechanisms responsible for cooperation in such organizations. The concept also has great practical advantages, especially for people implementing the idea of "clustering": coordinators, facilitators, and members of cluster organizations as well as politicians and public authorities are responsible for shaping and implementing the cluster policy. It will be of value to researchers, academics, and students in fields with an interest in organizational studies, management of innovation and technology, strategic management, industrial economics, and economic geography.

Unfolding Cluster Evolution

142142 9.2 Theoretical background 9.2.1 Life cycles and path dependence in cluster evolution Although clusters have acquired 'something akin to hegemonic status' (Martin and Sunley, 2011), both among scholars and policy makers, ...

Unfolding Cluster Evolution

Various theories have been put forward as to why business and industry develops in clusters and despite good work being carried out on path dependence and dynamics, this is still very much an emerging topic in the social sciences. To date, no overarching theoretical framework has been developed to show how clusters evolve. Unfolding Cluster Evolution aims to address this gap by presenting theoretical and empirical research on the geography of innovation. This contributed volume seeks to shed light on the understanding of clusters and its dynamic evolution. The book provides evidence to suggest that traditional perspectives from evolutionary economic geography need to be wedded to management thinking in order to reach this point. Bringing together thinking from a range of disciplines and countries across Europe, this book explores a wide range of topics from the capability approach, to network dynamics, to multinational corporations, to firm entry and exit and social capital. This book will be of interest to policy makers and students of urban studies, economic geography, and planning and development.

Industrial Clusters and Inter firm Networks

In general , quality of life is an essential locational factor in the economic development of urban areas . It can include services that ... Clusters and Technological Discontinuities The patterns of technological life cycles ( cf.

Industrial Clusters and Inter firm Networks

'This well-edited volume should be on the shelf of every regional development agency library. Its seventeen chapters written by 31 predominantly academic contributors are divided into four coherent sections: the first on cluster and network modelling, the next on empirical analysis, a third on case studies, finishing with two chapters on policy analysis and strategies.' - Tony Jackson, Journal of Economic Development This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of spatial industrial clusters and inter-firm networks. Given the prevailing political belief that clusters can be a major vehicle for economic development and growth, it is important to have a sound understanding of clusters and how they emerge, grow, eventually stagnate and disappear. It is also vital to know when and how to apply policy measures to support cluster development in order to increase economic welfare. This book illuminates both the theoretical and empirical issues relating to clusters and inter-firm networks, and presents a number of interesting case studies from a variety of different countries.

The Capacity to Innovate

Specifically, the boundary between networks and clusters has been a challenging one. The term “network” refers ... Cluster Life Cycles A large portion of the literature approaches clusters from an evolutionary or life-cycle perspective.

The Capacity to Innovate

"In The Capacity to Innovate, Sarah Giest provides insight into the collaborative and absorptive capacities needed to provide public support to local innovation through cluster organizations. The book offers a detailed view of the vertical, multi-level, and horizontal dynamics in clusters and cluster policy and addresses how they are managed and supported. Using the biotechnology field as an example, Giest highlights challenges in the collaborative efforts of public bodies, private companies, and research institutes to establish a successful eco-system of innovation in this sector. The book argues that cluster policy in collaboration with cluster organizations should focus on absorptive and collaborative capacity elements missing in the cluster context in order to improve performance. Currently, governments operate at different levels--local to supranational--in order to support clusters, and cluster policies are often pursued in parallel to other programs. As the book shows, this can lead to uncoordinated efforts and ineffective cluster strategies. Relational dynamics are often overlooked when working backwards from performance indicators, since their effects are largely indirect but Giest demonstrates that both the cluster organization and the cluster eco-system play a role. The Capacity to Innovate advocates for a coordinated effort by government and cluster organizations to support capacity elements lacking within the specific cluster context."--

Handbook of Local and Regional Development

A reaction to this criticism is the recently emerging literature on cluster life cycles, with clear links to key ... It considers the stage of the cluster in its life cycle and recommends adapting policies to the position of the cluster ...

Handbook of Local and Regional Development

The Handbook of Local and Regional Development provides a comprehensive statement and reference point for local and regional development. The scope of this Handbook’s coverage and contributions engages with and reflects upon the politics and policy of how we think about and practise local and regional development, encouraging dialogue across the disciplinary barriers between notions of ‘local and regional development’ in the Global North and ‘development studies’ in the Global South. This Handbook is organized into seven inter-related sections, with an introductory chapter setting out the rationale, aims and structure of the Handbook. Section one situates local and regional development in its global context. Section two establishes the key issues in understanding the principles and values that help us define what is meant by local and regional development. Section three critically reviews the current diversity and variety of conceptual and theoretical approaches to local and regional development. Section four address questions of government and governance. Section five connects critically with the array of contemporary approaches to local and regional development policy. Section six is an explicitly global review of perspectives on local and regional development from Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and North America. Section seven provides reflection and discussion of the futures for local and regional development in an international and multidisciplinary context. With over forty contributions from leading international scholars in the field, this Handbook provides critical reviews and appraisals of current state-of-the-art conceptual and theoretical approaches and future developments in local and regional development.

Clustering for Competitiveness in Agriculture

-clusters have a life cycle Clusters are dynamic and have a recognizable life cycle. The interventions that are appropriate at an early stage in the lifecycle of a cluster are likely to differ from those appropriate at later stages.

Clustering for Competitiveness in Agriculture


Economics of Clusters

Clusters for Life or Life Cycles of Clusters: In Search for the Critical Factors of Clusters Resilience. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 26(1–2), 142–164. Tödtling, F., & Trippl, M. (2005). One Size Fits All? Towards a ...

Economics of Clusters

When we talk about clusters, it's the fabulous destiny of Silicon Valley that first comes to mind – the place where entrepreneurs and policymakers alike flock. But do we really understand the complex mechanics of these clusters? What tools can economics and other related disciplines use to analyze their performance? When it comes to spending taxpayer money to support cluster development, do benefits actually exceed costs? This book provides a synthesis of cluster theory and presents methodologies to analyze their structure and performance. It also contains insights into how to renew regional innovation policy. The French edition of this volume was granted Best Book in Economics 2016 by The French Association of Economics (AFSE)

Regional Science Matters

Network linkages—strengthen over the life-cycle; decrease as clusters lock-in on decline 7. ... 12.3 Cluster Life Cycles Figure 12.1 depicts a staged life-cycle model for clusters largely derived from Bergman (2008) based on his ...

Regional Science Matters

​This volume is a collection of fresh and novel contributions to regional science. They commemorate the scientific inheritance of the founding father of regional science, the late Walter Isard. All papers are written by well-known scholars in the field and serve to highlight the great importance of regional science theory and methodology for a better understanding of current spatial and environmental problems throughout our planet. The book showcases a multidisciplinary panorama of modern regional science research and presents new insights by applying regional science approaches.

New Challenges in Economic Policy Business and Management

The.transition. through.particular.phases.in.the.life.cycle.is.the.result.of.the.evolution.of.its. components.(Menzel.&.Fornahl,.2009)..Various.approaches.used.to.describe. the.life.cycle.of.clusters.can.be.found.in.the.literature.

New Challenges in Economic Policy  Business  and Management

The first part of this volume broadens the understanding of contemporary industrial policy in local, regional, national, and international contexts. The chapter by Wojnicka-Sycz (2020) undertakes one of the most important challenges in RIS3, i.e. the evaluation of the impact of regional SS industries on the development of Polish regions. Based on the spatial panel models for 2012–2017, she reveals the positive impact of SS industries’ employment dynamics on regional GDP per capita. The chapter responds to the research gap in a direct measurement of how SS areas affect regional development. The results provide the rationale for policy-makers to pursue these strategies further. The chapter contributes to regional New Industrial Policy by proving the efficiency of SS in strengthening regional performance. Factors and barriers to the development of smart mobility in mediumsized Polish cities are the focus of the chapter by Kachniewska (2020). The author applies a comprehensive set of methods to tackle this issue and identifies the conditions for smart mobility, drawing primarily on expert opinions. The results enable a natural generalization of the identified determinants to the similar context of Polish towns, the more important that the research on medium cities is much rarer than studies on metropolises. This contribution belongs to the research streams of city governance and databased services, which are closely connected to and dependent on industrial digital transformation. Moreover, smart mobility addresses the objective of environmental protection, one of the crucial targets of NIP. Godlewska-Dzioboń (2020) performs international comparisons between Central and Eastern European Countries in 2020–2018. Particularly, she focuses on the sectoral transformation of the employment structure in these countries. Besides the important observations of spatial dynamics in sectoral structures, the chapter points to the increased importance of services relative to manufacturing in contemporary structural transformations. Thus, it justifies the expanded scope of New Industrial Policy that encompasses not only industry, recently refreshed with 4.0 Revolution, but also services, particularly the digital ones. The chapter by Czech (2020) identifies the impact of global debt on the national amounts outstanding of credit default swap contracts (CDS) in nonfinancial institutions. She finds the dynamics of the CDS notional amounts outstanding in response to global household indebtedness and total non-financial sector indebtedness in domestic banks. This contribution brings valuable practical insights about the core and dynamics of CDS and their usefulness in alleviating risks in international exchange. We find this input particularly relevant for industries and enterprises operating in global value chains. Widera (2020) performs a spatial analysis of the induced population potential of the communes in the Opolska region in 2000 and 2018. The econometric analysis revealed both the own potential of the communes and the interactions with neighboring communes to develop this potential. These findings are important to theorize about the bottom-level sources of territorial units’ potential, both internal and those stemming from spatial interactions. We find these conclusions relevant to understand local-level origins of regional transformations, as well as interdependencies among local territorial units. The next two parts of this volume present micro-level and bottomup contexts for industrial policy. Particularly, these are the insights from management and business research and from the research on governing various stakeholder interests and networks. In the second part, based on management and business theory and empirical evidence, the authors discuss human resource and technological challenges faced by the contemporary industry. Potoczek (2020) performs a bibliometric research to recognize the advancement of the process approach in organizations. She finds the research on process improvement as emerging. The major research community in that area belongs to the IT field, while management researchers are still a minor group. The author recommends the increased interest from the management field as conducive to the 4.0 transformation of organizational processes. These results provide policy-relevant input to the understanding of how academic research tackles digital transformation in organizational processes. The chapter by Igielski (2020) uses a survey among a sample of large enterprise senior managers headquartered in Poland to check whether and how they develop employee skills for the challenges of Industry 4.0. The results are pessimistic since they reveal the lack of adaptive and developmental actions in this regard. Nevertheless, there is also a positive sign, namely the awareness of the challenges posed by the 4.0 revolution. Thus, the chapter is valuable for the recommendations as to competence development in industrial transition to the digital economy. Flak (2020) presents an interesting test for the system of organizational terms as to its usefulness in the practice of motivating people and in a dedicated software. Based on a research experiment in real-life business settings, the author proves the applicability of theory-driven organizational terms in software applications supporting managers in their motivating functions. The chapter contributes important observations as to the interrelations among managerial and technological resources in motivating employees. Sztorc (2020) investigates lean management tools at hotels in Poland, based on a large sample of hotel representatives. The results are helpful in understanding the types of lean management tools, as well as their major targets in the researched organizations. The input of the study rests in filling the research gap as to the particular tools of lean management applied in the hotel industry to improve services and processes. The focus of this chapter on a particular industry provides a relevant basis for further application and upgrading of this service sector. The chapter by Mazurkiewicz (2020) offers an assessment of the impact of national culture on career orientation and career values among Polish and Chinese students of economics. Surprisingly, the value system does not differ much between the two national samples, despite the distinct characteristics of the two national cultures, according to Hofstede’s method. Consequently, the author assumes national culture as moderator of career values rather than their determinant. These results provide a contribution to the understanding of job motivations among future corporate employees, a critical determinant of all industrial transitions. Kowalik (2020) investigates the economic benefits perceived by student participants of scientific projects. Based on the survey, the author reveals students’ recognition of scientific projects as bringing economic effects. The study offers practical implications for young people engaging in research activities, as well as for research policy that might acknowledge additional important outcomes, besides purely scientific objectives. The third part discusses how governing networks and interests can ensure sustainable and socially responsible industries and enterprises. Sectoral and industrial collaborations are supposed to enhance industrial convergence (EOCIC, 2019). In this vein, Lis (2020) focuses on collaborative attitudes in clusters and technological parks. Cluster organizations are established to rip the localization and agglomeration economies, as well as synergies from cooperative links. Despite some history of operations, the surveyed Polish cluster initiatives and technology parks still reveal low development of enterprise cooperation. The author suggests self-evaluation of management and participants of the researched organizations to understand the accomplished level of collaboration and derive practical implications. This contribution is important to understand the performance of some organizational measures of industrial policy and their real input to industrial transformation. The chapter by Kowalczyk (2020) investigates sociocultural conditions of CSR-practices in the construction industry of selected European countries. Based on a survey with a large convenience sample, the author confirms the strength of stakeholder pressure on CSR practice as well as the mediating role of company culture in this relationship. At the same time, country differences were indicated as significant for CSR practice and worth further explanation of its variance. This study is valuable for the explanation of interests and stakeholder pressure affecting a particular industry, thus determining the development conditions of that industry. Another industry-specific study has been proposed by Kurzak-Mabrouk (2020), who focuses on food businesses. This chapter addresses the critical strategic direction of NIP that refers to sustainable and responsible growth with regard to environmental protection. The author performed the interviews with top and middle managers of a large representative sample of Polish food companies. The findings are optimistic, since the majority of companies undertake the efforts towards comprehensive sustainable development strategies voluntarily, and not only due to legal enforcement. Still, the researched enterprises do not fully apply these strategies as yet. Resonating with the study by Lis (2020), Flieger (2020) identifies network types according to the collaboration maturity level in a local government unit. The research on collaborative networks in public organizations still remains unique. Therefore, this study fills the research gap. The author uses a casebased approach to identify the network features that change according to the maturity level of relationships. The findings are useful for the practice of developing collaboration in local governments and contribute to our understanding of the context for industrial development.

Managing Inter Organizational Relations

Menzel and Fornahl (2009) hereby argue that cluster life cycles are not the same as the life cycles of the industries ... by the Silicon Valley versus Route 128 cases – clusters within the same industries can have different life cycles.

Managing Inter Organizational Relations

Inter-organizational relations are increasingly important in today's organizational landscape. The management of these relations requires unique understandings and capabilities. Hence it comes as no surprise that the formation, purpose and management of inter-organizational relations are a vital part of most curricula in the fields of business, economic geography, sociology, and policy studies. Managing Inter-Organizational Relations offers both a thorough review and innovative systematization of the main theoretical debates surrounding different forms of inter-organizational relations – and of the challenges of their management. With a unique collection of cases from around the world addressing different managerial issues, it provides a pioneering and comprehensive analysis of different types of inter-organizational collaboration, including strategic alliances, joint ventures, regional clusters, global value and supply chains, and project as well as innovation networks. Key features: • Contains up-to-date empirical research. • Utilises an innovative structure of debates and cases. • Packed with a wide-ranging collection of international case studies and examples. • Offers a unique managerial perspective on inter-organizational relations across different types or forms of collaborative governance.

Business Clusters

A long-term view holds that dynamic effects, of whatever form, ultimately have a limited life. A life-cycle perspective on clusters suggests that they typically pass through four stages: critical mass, take-off, saturation and maturity ...

Business Clusters

Clusters of specialized businesses are being promoted around the world, aided by high-profile examples such as Silicon Valley. Using evidence from high- and low-income economies, as well as detailed case studies that show the special conditions behind successful clusters, this book provides a new vantage point on this high-interest topic, making it ideal for students of business location, policy-makers and managers seeking a real-world understanding of clustering.

Convergence of Mobile and Stationary Next Generation Networks

Clusters are dynamically created and deleted for conferencing. The signaling system is responsible for maintaining the state of conference and clusters. Each signaling cluster has a life cycle. The first phase is its creation.

Convergence of Mobile and Stationary Next Generation Networks

The Only Resource to Cover Wireless, Wireline, and OpticalNetworks in One Volume Mobile and stationary next-generation networks that access thephotonic core are destined to become as ubiquitous as traditionaltelephone networks. These networks must efficiently provideadequate network quality to multimedia applications with highbandwidth and strict quality-of-service requirements, as well asseamlessly integrate mobile and fixed architectures. Today'sengineering students must be properly prepared to meet thechallenges of next-generation network development anddeployment. Featuring contributions from top industrial experts and academicprofessors, this authoritative work provides a comprehensiveintroduction to next-generation networks. It explains wirelessnetworks such as wireless local area networks (WLAN), wirelesspersonal area networks (WPAN), wireless access, 3G/4G cellular, andRF transmission, as well as optical networks like long-haul andmetropolitan networks, optical fiber, photonic devices, and VLSIchips. Rather than focusing on heavy math or physical details, thisresource explores how the technology is being used. It describesaccess and transport network layer technologies while alsodiscussing the network and services aspects. Chapter coverage includes: Fiber–wireless networks: technologies, architectures, andfuture challenges Packet backhaul network Point-to-point microwave backhaul Fourth-generation broadband: paving the road to Gbit/s withcopper Dynamic bandwidth allocation in EPON and GPON Next-generation ethernet passive optical networks: 10G-EPON Power line communications and smart grids Signaling for multimedia conferencing in 4G: architecture,evaluation, and issues Self-coexistence and security in cognitive radio networks Mobile WiMAX UWB personal area networks—MIMO extensions Next-generation integrated metropolitan-access network:technology integration and wireless convergence Resilient burst ring: a novel technology for the next-generationmetropolitan area networks Filled with illustrations and practical examples from industry,this book will be invaluable to engineers and researchers inindustry and academia, as well as senior undergraduate and graduatestudents, marketing and management staff, photonics physicists, andchip designers.

Local Industrial Clusters

Industrial life cycle To study the evolution of a local industrial cluster that is purely determined by the developments in the respective industry, the developments in the industry have to be defined first. A usual industrial life ...

Local Industrial Clusters

The key approach taken in this book is that all local economic clusters have something in common - specific case-studies are thus put into wider perspective in a masterly study that will be of keen interest to both economists and geographers.