Abductive Reasoning

A study of the role of abductive inference in everyday argumentation and legal evidence.

Abductive Reasoning

A study of the role of abductive inference in everyday argumentation and legal evidence.

Abductive Reasoning

"The book is an excellent contribution to the study of abductive reasoning. It applies logical techniques to important problems in the philosophy of science. The new results are also interesting for artificial intelligence." Prof.

Abductive Reasoning

Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations into Discovery and Explanation is a much awaited original contribution to the study of abductive reasoning, providing logical foundations and a rich sample of pertinent applications. Divided into three parts on the conceptual framework, the logical foundations, and the applications, this monograph takes the reader for a comprehensive and erudite tour through the taxonomy of abductive reasoning, via the logical workings of abductive inference ending with applications pertinent to scientific explanation, empirical progress, pragmatism and belief revision.

Abductive Inference

This book analyses abduction as an information-processing phenomenon.

Abductive Inference

This book analyses abduction as an information-processing phenomenon.

Abductive Inference Models for Diagnostic Problem Solving

Making a diagnosis when something goes wrong with a natural or m- made system can be difficult.

Abductive Inference Models for Diagnostic Problem Solving

Making a diagnosis when something goes wrong with a natural or m- made system can be difficult. In many fields, such as medicine or electr- ics, a long training period and apprenticeship are required to become a skilled diagnostician. During this time a novice diagnostician is asked to assimilate a large amount of knowledge about the class of systems to be diagnosed. In contrast, the novice is not really taught how to reason with this knowledge in arriving at a conclusion or a diagnosis, except perhaps implicitly through ease examples. This would seem to indicate that many of the essential aspects of diagnostic reasoning are a type of intuiti- based, common sense reasoning. More precisely, diagnostic reasoning can be classified as a type of inf- ence known as abductive reasoning or abduction. Abduction is defined to be a process of generating a plausible explanation for a given set of obs- vations or facts. Although mentioned in Aristotle's work, the study of f- mal aspects of abduction did not really start until about a century ago.

Truth Seeking by Abduction

This book examines the philosophical conception of abductive reasoning as developed by Charles S. Peirce, the founder of American pragmatism.

Truth Seeking by Abduction

This book examines the philosophical conception of abductive reasoning as developed by Charles S. Peirce, the founder of American pragmatism. It explores the historical and systematic connections of Peirce's original ideas and debates about their interpretations. Abduction is understood in a broad sense which covers the discovery and pursuit of hypotheses and inference to the best explanation. The analysis presents fresh insights into this notion of reasoning, which derives from effects to causes or from surprising observations to explanatory theories. The author outlines some logical and AI approaches to abduction as well as studies various kinds of inverse problems in astronomy, physics, medicine, biology, and human sciences to provide examples of retroductions and abductions. The discussion covers also everyday examples with the implication of this notion in detective stories, one of Peirce’s own favorite themes. The author uses Bayesian probabilities to argue that explanatory abduction is a method of confirmation. He uses his own account of truth approximation to reformulate abduction as inference which leads to the truthlikeness of its conclusion. This allows a powerful abductive defense of scientific realism. This up-to-date survey and defense of the Peircean view of abduction may very well help researchers, students, and philosophers better understand the logic of truth-seeking.

Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology

This book contains contributions presented during the international conference on Model-Based Reasoning (MBR ́012), held on June 21-23 in Sestri Levante, Italy.

Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology

This book contains contributions presented during the international conference on Model-Based Reasoning (MBR ́012), held on June 21-23 in Sestri Levante, Italy. Interdisciplinary researchers discuss in this volume how scientific cognition and other kinds of cognition make use of models, abduction, and explanatory reasoning in order to produce important or creative changes in theories and concepts. Some of the contributions analyzed the problem of model-based reasoning in technology and stressed the issues of scientific and technological innovation. The book is divided in three main parts: models, mental models, representations; abduction, problem solving and practical reasoning; historical, epistemological and technological issues. The volume is based on the papers that were presented at the international

Abductive Reasoning and Learning

This book contains leading survey papers on the various aspects of Abduction, both logical and numerical approaches.

Abductive Reasoning and Learning

This book contains leading survey papers on the various aspects of Abduction, both logical and numerical approaches. Abduction is central to all areas of applied reasoning, including artificial intelligence, philosophy of science, machine learning, data mining and decision theory, as well as logic itself.

Abductive Cognition

This volume explores abductive cognition, an important but, at least until the third quarter of the last century, neglected topic in cognition. The book aims at increasing knowledge about creative and expert inferences.

Abductive Cognition

This volume explores abductive cognition, an important but, at least until the third quarter of the last century, neglected topic in cognition. It aims at increasing knowledge about creative and expert inferences.

Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Fuzzy Systems

A Study on Fuzzy Abductive Inference Yujiro MIYATA , Takeshi FURUHASHI and
Yoshiki UCHIKAWA Dept . of Information Electronics , Nagoya University Furo -
cho Chikusa - ku Nagoya , 464 - 01 , JAPAN Phone : + 81 - 52 – 789 - 2793 Fax ...

Proceedings of the     IEEE Conference on Fuzzy Systems


Abduction in Context

This comprehensive text provides philosophers, logicians and cognitive scientists with a historical, unified and authoritative perspective on abduction. This book offers a novel perspective on abduction.

Abduction in Context

This book offers a novel perspective on abduction. It starts by discussing the major theories of abduction, focusing on the hybrid nature of abduction as both inference and intuition. It reports on the Peircean theory of abduction and discusses the more recent Magnani concept of animal abduction, connecting them to the work of medieval philosophers. Building on Magnani's manipulative abduction, the accompanying classification of abduction, and the hybrid concept of abduction as both inference and intuition, the book examines the problem of visual perception together with the related concepts of misrepresentation and semantic information. It presents the author's views on caricature and the caricature model of science, and then extends the scope of discussion by introducing some standard issues in the philosophy of science. By discussing the concept of ad hoc hypothesis generation as enthymeme resolution, it demonstrates how ubiquitous the problem of abduction is in all the different individual scientific disciplines. This comprehensive text provides philosophers, logicians and cognitive scientists with a historical, unified and authoritative perspective on abduction.

Abduction and Induction

The approach is sometimes philosophical, sometimes that of pure logic, and some papers adopt the more task-oriented approach of AI. The book will command the attention of philosophers, logicians, AI researchers and computer scientists in ...

Abduction and Induction

From the very beginning of their investigation of human reasoning, philosophers have identified two other forms of reasoning, besides deduction, which we now call abduction and induction. Deduction is now fairly well understood, but abduction and induction have eluded a similar level of understanding. The papers collected here address the relationship between abduction and induction and their possible integration. The approach is sometimes philosophical, sometimes that of pure logic, and some papers adopt the more task-oriented approach of AI. The book will command the attention of philosophers, logicians, AI researchers and computer scientists in general.

Automatic Inference

10 ) lay out a basic model of abductive plan recognition , story understanding ,
and speech act analysis . In this model , abduction is used to explain the actions
of the characters in a story , or to infer the motivations that underlie a speaker's ...

Automatic Inference

Theoretical and approximate maximum entropy methods for evaluating probabilities are proposed, as well as the basis for a normative distribution for learning and generalization."

Character Evidence

This book examines the nature of evidence for character judgments, using a model of abductive reasoning called Inference To The Best Explanation.

Character Evidence

This book examines the nature of evidence for character judgments, using a model of abductive reasoning called Inference To The Best Explanation. The book expands this notion based on recent work with models of reasoning using argumentation theory and artificial intelligence. The aim is not just to show how character judgments are made, but how they should be properly be made based on sound reasoning, avoiding common errors and superficial judgments.

A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems

The present work is a continuation of the authors' acclaimed multi-volume A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems. After having investigated the notion of relevance in their previous volume, Gabbay and Woods now turn to abduction.

A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems

The present work is a continuation of the authors' acclaimed multi-volume A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems. After having investigated the notion of relevance in their previous volume, Gabbay and Woods now turn to abduction. In this highly original approach, abduction is construed as ignorance-preserving inference, in which conjecture plays a pivotal role. Abduction is a response to a cognitive target that cannot be hit on the basis of what the agent currently knows. The abducer selects a hypothesis which were it true would enable the reasoner to attain his target. He concludes from this fact that the hypothesis may be conjectured. In allowing conjecture to stand in for the knowledge he fails to have, the abducer reveals himself to be a satisficer, since an abductive solution is not a solution from knowledge. Key to the authors' analysis is the requirement that a conjectured proposition is not just what a reasoner might allow himself to assume, but a proposition he must defeasibly release as a premiss for further inferences in the domain of enquiry in which the original abduction problem has arisen. The coverage of the book is extensive, from the philosophy of science to computer science and AI, from diagnostics to the law, from historical explanation to linguistic interpretation. One of the volume's strongest contributions is its exploration of the abductive character of criminal trials, with special attention given to the standard of proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Underlying their analysis of abductive reasoning is the authors' conception of practical agency. In this approach, practical agency is dominantly a matter of the comparative modesty of an agent's cognitive agendas, together with comparatively scant resources available for their advancement. Seen in these ways, abduction has a significantly practical character, precisely because it is a form of inference that satisfices rather than maximizes its response to the agent's cognitive target. The Reach of Abduction will be necessary reading for researchers, graduate students and senior undergraduates in logic, computer science, AI, belief dynamics, argumentation theory, cognitive psychology and neuroscience, linguistics, forensic science, legal reasoning and related areas. Key features: - Reach of Abduction is fully integrated with a background logic of cognitive systems. - The most extensive coverage compared to competitive works. - Demonstrates not only that abduction is a form of ignorance preserving inference but that it is a mode of inference that is wholly rational. - Demonstrates the satisficing rather than maximizing character of abduction. - The development of formal models of abduction is considerably more extensive than one finds in existing literature. It is an especially impressive amalgam of sophisticated conceptual analysis and extensive logical modelling. · Reach of Abduction is fully integrated with a background logic of cognitive systems. · The most extensive coverage compared to competitive works · Demonstrates not only that abduction is a form of ignorance preserving inference but that it is a mode of inference that is wholly rational. · Demonstrates the satisficing rather than maximizing character of abduction. · The development of formal models of abduction is considerably more extensive than one finds in existing literature. It is an especially impressive amalgam of sophisticated conceptual analysis and extensive logical modelling.

Abductive Analysis

The book provides novel ways to approach the challenges that plague qualitative researchers across the social sciences—how to conceptualize causality, how to manage the variation of observations, and how to leverage the researcher’s ...

Abductive Analysis

In Abductive Analysis, Iddo Tavory and Stefan Timmermans provide a new navigational map for theorizing qualitative research. They outline a way to think about observations, methods, and theories that nurtures theory formation without locking it into predefined conceptual boxes. The book provides novel ways to approach the challenges that plague qualitative researchers across the social sciences—how to conceptualize causality, how to manage the variation of observations, and how to leverage the researcher’s community of inquiry. Abductive Analysis is a landmark work that shows how a pragmatist approach provides a productive and fruitful way to conduct qualitative research.

Informal Logic

It is most likely that the measles inference would nowadays be classified in Al as
an abductive type of inference . Peirce ( 1965 , p . 375 ) defined abduction as a
process of forming a hypothesis that can be used as a tentative step in an ...

Informal Logic


Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology

Systematically presented to enhance the feasibility of fuzzy models, this book introduces the novel concept of a fuzzy network whose nodes are rule bases and their interconnections are interactions between rule bases in the form of outputs ...

Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology

Systematically presented to enhance the feasibility of fuzzy models, this book introduces the novel concept of a fuzzy network whose nodes are rule bases and their interconnections are interactions between rule bases in the form of outputs fed as inputs.

Proceedings

3 Abductive Reasoning Not all uses of logic are deductive . Here we present a
brief overview of abduction , a form of reasoning we believe to be particularly
appropriate for formulating the database inference problem and for designing ...

Proceedings

The papers presented at the June 1991 workshop held in Franconia, New Hampshire address topics in access control, covert channels, database security, integrity, secure information flow, and secure protocols. Three of the topics--secure protocols, integrity, and database security--are also addressed in panel discussions. No index. Acidic paper. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.