Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine

Mitochondria are far more than the “powerhouse” of the cell as they have classically been described.

Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine

Mitochondria are far more than the “powerhouse” of the cell as they have classically been described. In fact, mitochondria biological activities have progressively expanded to include not only various bioenergetic processes but also important biosynthetic pathways, calcium homeostasis and thermogenesis, cell death by apoptosis, several different signal transduction pathways mainly related to redox control of gene expression and so on. This functional and structural complexity may undergo important derangements so to justify the definition of ‘mitochondrial medicine’, which should include all the clinical consequences of congenital or acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions. There are actually a growing number of studies which assign a significant pathogenic role to damaged mitochondria in different diseases: ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer with its dramatic sequelae (i.e, metastasis), metabolic syndrome, hyperlipidemias, just to mention a few of the most important pathologies. In this context, a further aspect that should not be disregarded is the interaction of pharmacological agents with mitochondria, not only in regard of the toxicological aspects but, above all, of the potential therapeutic applications. In fact, it is interesting to note that, while the properties of different so-called “mitoxicants” are well-known, the subtle linkages between drugs and mitochondria is still in need of a real pharmacological and therapeutic control at the clinical level. This lack of consideration can often lead to an underestimation of unwanted toxic effects but also of desirable therapeutic activities. A reevaluation of the potential clinical role of mitochondria could give a new light on some yet obscure aspects of human pathophysiology.

Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine

Mitochondria are far more than the “powerhouse” of the cell as they have classically been described.

Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine

Mitochondria are far more than the “powerhouse” of the cell as they have classically been described. In fact, mitochondria biological activities have progressively expanded to include not only various bioenergetic processes but also important biosynthetic pathways, calcium homeostasis and thermogenesis, cell death by apoptosis, several different signal transduction pathways mainly related to redox control of gene expression and so on. This functional and structural complexity may undergo important derangements so to justify the definition of ‘mitochondrial medicine’, which should include all the clinical consequences of congenital or acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions. There are actually a growing number of studies which assign a significant pathogenic role to damaged mitochondria in different diseases: ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer with its dramatic sequelae (i.e, metastasis), metabolic syndrome, hyperlipidemias, just to mention a few of the most important pathologies. In this context, a further aspect that should not be disregarded is the interaction of pharmacological agents with mitochondria, not only in regard of the toxicological aspects but, above all, of the potential therapeutic applications. In fact, it is interesting to note that, while the properties of different so-called “mitoxicants” are well-known, the subtle linkages between drugs and mitochondria is still in need of a real pharmacological and therapeutic control at the clinical level. This lack of consideration can often lead to an underestimation of unwanted toxic effects but also of desirable therapeutic activities. A reevaluation of the potential clinical role of mitochondria could give a new light on some yet obscure aspects of human pathophysiology.

Recent Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine and Coenzyme Q10

This book is intended for general medical practitioners and specialists in various fields of medicine, including neurologists, cardiologists, geneticists, nephrologists, diabetologists, lipidologists, immunologists, oncologists, pharmacists ...

Recent Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine and Coenzyme Q10


Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine

Roberto Scatena Abstract Mitochondria play a central role in the life and death of cells. ... At the mitochondrial level, there are several potential drug targets that can lead to toxicity, but only for few of them, a real clinical ...

Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine

Mitochondria are far more than the “powerhouse” of the cell as they have classically been described. In fact, mitochondria biological activities have progressively expanded to include not only various bioenergetic processes but also important biosynthetic pathways, calcium homeostasis and thermogenesis, cell death by apoptosis, several different signal transduction pathways mainly related to redox control of gene expression and so on. This functional and structural complexity may undergo important derangements so to justify the definition of ‘mitochondrial medicine’, which should include all the clinical consequences of congenital or acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions. There are actually a growing number of studies which assign a significant pathogenic role to damaged mitochondria in different diseases: ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer with its dramatic sequelae (i.e, metastasis), metabolic syndrome, hyperlipidemias, just to mention a few of the most important pathologies. In this context, a further aspect that should not be disregarded is the interaction of pharmacological agents with mitochondria, not only in regard of the toxicological aspects but, above all, of the potential therapeutic applications. In fact, it is interesting to note that, while the properties of different so-called “mitoxicants” are well-known, the subtle linkages between drugs and mitochondria is still in need of a real pharmacological and therapeutic control at the clinical level. This lack of consideration can often lead to an underestimation of unwanted toxic effects but also of desirable therapeutic activities. A reevaluation of the potential clinical role of mitochondria could give a new light on some yet obscure aspects of human pathophysiology.

Recent Advances in Mitocondrial Medicine and Coenzyme Q10

This book is intended for general medical practitioners and specialists in various fields of medicine, including neurologists, cardiologists, geneticists, nephrologists, diabetologists, lipidologists, immunologists, oncologists, pharmacists ...

Recent Advances in Mitocondrial Medicine and Coenzyme Q10


Mitochondria and Their Role in Cardiovascular Disease

The book begins with a general introduction to mitochondria, followed by laboratory methods to study the structure and function of the organelle, regulation of replication and biogenesis, and the mechanisms and functional consequences of ...

Mitochondria and Their Role in Cardiovascular Disease

Over the past two decades, due to dramatic advances in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics, our view on mitochondria as a relatively static cellular powerhouse has changed radically. We now know that these organelles play a critical role in the normal and in the damaged heart. Written by Dr. José Marín-García, Director of the Molecular Cardiology and Neuromuscular Institute, Mitochondria and Their Role in Cardiovascular Disease brings readers up- to-date on the many significant advances in the field of mitochondrial cardiovascular medicine. The book begins with a general introduction to mitochondria, followed by laboratory methods to study the structure and function of the organelle, regulation of replication and biogenesis, and the mechanisms and functional consequences of mitophagia and mitochondrial dynamics. Subsequent chapters deal with mitochondrial oxidative stress and the role that the organelle plays in cell signaling and cell death. Discussions will be undertaken on the biochemistry of mitochondrial cell signaling, including the nature of the proteins engaged in these processes, many of them only recently discovered. Later chapters examine the role of mitochondria and mitochondrial abnormalities in cardiovascular diseases, including their diagnosis, therapeutic options currently available, animal models of mitochondrial disease, and new frontiers in mitochondria cardiovascular medicine, including areas of research that are relatively new or developing, such as proteomics, next generation sequencing, and systems biology.

Advances in Mitochondria Research and Application 2012 Edition

You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Advances in Mitochondria Research and Application  2012 Edition

Advances in Mitochondria Research and Application / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about Mitochondria in a compact format. The editors have built Advances in Mitochondria Research and Application / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Mitochondria in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Mitochondria Research and Application / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

The Rise of Mitochondria in Medicine

Mitochondria are critical bioenergetic and biosynthetic machines that are essential for normal cell function.

The Rise of Mitochondria in Medicine

Mitochondria are critical bioenergetic and biosynthetic machines that are essential for normal cell function. Traditionally, mitochondria have been considered the powerhouse of the cell, as they supply most of the cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, they supply the building blocks needed for the synthesis of cellular biomass. More recently, mitochondria have been recognized as signaling hubs that receive and transmit signals throughout the cell, thereby affecting cell functionality and fate. The signals generated by mitochondria include changes in metabolites, the NAD+/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, Ca2+, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), but our understanding of their nature, dynamics, targets, and roles in different physiopathological contexts is still under development. Mitochondrial dysfunction, which may originate from primary defects within the organelles or from stress conditions in the microenvironment, is a hallmark of many common diseases, including ischaemia-reperfusion injury, cancer, metabolic disease, and neurodegenerative disorders, and has become a major research focus in medicine. Understanding the biology of mitochondrial signaling and the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of many metabolic, degenerative, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases is crucial for the development of strategies aimed at therapeutically restoring mitochondrial functionality. This Special Issue presents current knowledge in the field of mitochondrial signaling in health and disease, and recent advances in mitochondrial pharmacology.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Nanotherapeutics

This book is structured in two parts that provide a good balance of foundational and applied content.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Nanotherapeutics

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Nanotherapeutics: Aging, Diseases, and Nanotechnology-Related Strategies in Mitochondrial Medicine provides a comprehensive overview of mitochondrial dysfunction and current strategies for targeting the organelle. Based on the most current research, the editor lined up a team of worldwide experts to cover the most exciting research in the area, considering the impact through the human life span. This book is structured in two parts that provide a good balance of foundational and applied content. Part I deals with an overview of mitochondrial dysfunction and its role in the aging process, including metabolic diseases, neuro-affective and neurodegenerative disorders, sepsis, and toxicological aspects. Part II covers therapeutic substance delivery to mitochondria with a focus on cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and increasing the bioavailability of natural compounds of interest. Several nanoscale strategies are described. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Nanotherapeutics: Aging, Diseases, and Nanotechnology-Related Strategies in Mitochondrial Medicine is a complete resource for researchers in this exciting field. Its comprehensive coverage makes this book particularly interesting to bioscience researchers looking to understand the foundations of mitochondrial health throughout the human life span. Additionally, clinician researchers, medical doctors, nutritionists, pharmacologists, and sports scientists may be attracted to the detailed information on the organelle-targeted delivery strategies. Contains detailed information on mitochondrial dysfunction Reviews our current understanding of the role of mitochondria in aging Includes coverage of specific conditions, including sports and affective disorders, among others Discusses mitochondria targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds

Mitochondria and Their Role in Cardiovascular Disease

The book begins with a general introduction to mitochondria, followed by laboratory methods to study the structure and function of the organelle, regulation of replication and biogenesis, and the mechanisms and functional consequences of ...

Mitochondria and Their Role in Cardiovascular Disease

Over the past two decades, due to dramatic advances in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics, our view on mitochondria as a relatively static cellular powerhouse has changed radically. We now know that these organelles play a critical role in the normal and in the damaged heart. Written by Dr. José Marín-García, Director of the Molecular Cardiology and Neuromuscular Institute, Mitochondria and Their Role in Cardiovascular Disease brings readers up- to-date on the many significant advances in the field of mitochondrial cardiovascular medicine. The book begins with a general introduction to mitochondria, followed by laboratory methods to study the structure and function of the organelle, regulation of replication and biogenesis, and the mechanisms and functional consequences of mitophagia and mitochondrial dynamics. Subsequent chapters deal with mitochondrial oxidative stress and the role that the organelle plays in cell signaling and cell death. Discussions will be undertaken on the biochemistry of mitochondrial cell signaling, including the nature of the proteins engaged in these processes, many of them only recently discovered. Later chapters examine the role of mitochondria and mitochondrial abnormalities in cardiovascular diseases, including their diagnosis, therapeutic options currently available, animal models of mitochondrial disease, and new frontiers in mitochondria cardiovascular medicine, including areas of research that are relatively new or developing, such as proteomics, next generation sequencing, and systems biology.

Mitochondria

This book is indispensable to researchers in fields as diverse as Molecular Biology and Biophysics. It covers the important role that mitochondria play in a variety of biochemical spheres.

Mitochondria

This book is indispensable to researchers in fields as diverse as Molecular Biology and Biophysics. It covers the important role that mitochondria play in a variety of biochemical spheres. It analyses how mitochondria affect metabolic pathways, how they are active in the regulation of cytosolic constituents, and their role in initiating signal pathways. Also covered are the way mitochondria help to regulate apoptosis, and how they modulate cellular hypertrophy and proliferation. It gives an overview of the emergence of mitochondria as an important regulator of cell signaling, with a particular focus on their pathophysiology.

Mitochondria and the Heart

Mitochondria and the Heart discusses the role that mitochondria plays in cardiovascular disease, including biogenesis and function of cardiac mitochondria during normal growth, development and aging.

Mitochondria and the Heart

Mitochondria have been pivotal in the development of some of the most important ideas in modern biology. Since the discovery that the organelle has its own DNA and specific mutations were found in association with neuromuscular and cardiovascular diseases and with aging, an extraordi-nary number of publications have followed, and the term mitochondrial medicine was coined. Furthermore, our understanding of the multiple roles that mitochondria play in cardiac cell homeostasis opened the door for intensive experimentation to understand the pathogenesis and to find new treatments for cardiovascular diseases. Besides its role in adenosine triphosphate generation, mitochondria regu-late a complex network of cellular interactions, involving (1) generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion, hy-drogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical; (2) maintenance of the antioxidant glutathione in a reduced state and adequate level of mitochondrial matrix superoxide dismutase; (3) cytoplasmic calcium homeostasis, particularly under conditions of cellular calcium loading; (4) transport of metabolites between cytoplasm and matrix; (5) both programmed (apoptosis) and necrotic cell death; and (6) cell growth and development. It is therefore not surprising that this organelle has come to be the center stage in many current investigations of cardiovascular diseases, aging, and agi- related disease. Concomitant with these advances, an impressive effort is under- way for the development of new tools and methodologies to study mitochondrial structure and function, including powerful ways to visualize, monitor, and alter the organelle function to assess the genetic consequences of these perturbations.

Mitochondrial Intoxication

This is a comprehensive reference on the main toxicants impacting mitochondria in the human body, and the consequences this can have for health and disease.

Mitochondrial Intoxication

Mitochondrial Intoxication explores the effects toxic molecules can have upon mitochondrial physiology in the human body. Each chapter is dedicated to a specific toxicant, including pollutants, food additives, illicit and pharmaceutical drugs, and heavy metals. This book considers the implications and impact these have upon mitochondria, and the diseases that can result from dysfunction and impairment in the human body. Furthermore, the book provides an overview of mitochondrial physiology and assesses the advances and challenges in testing mitochondrial toxicity. Case studies exploring mitochondrial intoxication in pregnancy and in the geriatric population are also included. Mitochondrial Intoxication is a comprehensive reference on the main toxicants impacting mitochondria in the human body, and the consequences this can have for health and disease. Features a wide range of toxicants, and their effects on mitochondrial physiology Covers molecular markers of mitochondrial intoxication Includes case studies illustrating the health impacts of toxicity upon mitochondria Considers future directions regarding the study of mitochondrial intoxication

Progress Pioneers And Process Studies In Physiology And Genetic Medicine

(2016) reported that in the case of mitochondrial DNA mutations that are present in women, recent advances ... Patient care standards for mitochondrial disease In 2017 the Mitochondrial Medicine Society compiled a report on care ...

Progress  Pioneers And Process  Studies In Physiology And Genetic Medicine

This book describes the growth of information on specific aspects of physiology and pathology of particular disorders and provides an analysis of the processes and contributions of pioneers to discovery. It begins primarily in the second half of the 19th century and explores specific contributions of researchers through to the 20th and 21st centuries. The book revisits specific aspects of physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology relevant to genetic medicine. In addition, it provides a review of specific human disorders that the author has encountered during her career, as well as an analysis of the progress in determining disease mechanisms and improving therapies.The chapters in this book provide insights into the processes of research and discovery, as well as how elucidation of disease mechanisms translates into research in diagnostics and treatments.The book provides historical information and current information obtained from recent journals and presentations, on each of the topics discussed.

Mitochondrial Diseases

Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine. Dordrecht, Germany: Springer Science+Business Media BV; 2012. p. 157-183 Kroemer G. Mitochondrial implication in apoptosis. Towards an endosymbiont hypothesis of apoptosis evolution.

Mitochondrial Diseases

Mitochondria are crucial organelles for any cell type. Mitochondria take responsibility for not only energy production but also regulation of cell death, also called apoptosis; calcium storage; and heat production. Therefore, mitochondrial disease is implicated in the mode of action of many harmful factors for cells such as drugs and environmental contaminants, dysfunction of the oxygen transport system, malnutrition, intense exercise, and genetic variations. This book presents up-to-date knowledge about mitochondrial disease and its complex relation to some diseases such as cardiac failure, cancer, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. This book will, therefore, be essential for readers who are interested in life sciences, especially in medicine.

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases Advances in Research and Treatment 2012 Edition

“This articles reviews the development of mitochondrial medicine from the premolecular era (1962-1988), when mitochondrial diseases were defined on the basis of clinical examination, muscle biopsy, and biochemical criteria, ...

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases   Advances in Research and Treatment  2012 Edition

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases—Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases. The editors have built Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases—Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases—Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Subcellular Fractions Advances in Research and Application 2011 Edition

Mitochondrial medicine as an emerging therapeutic strategy targeted to mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases has been proven to be of value, though this area of research is still at in its early stage,” wrote H. Du and ...

Subcellular Fractions  Advances in Research and Application  2011 Edition

Subcellular Fractions: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Subcellular Fractions. The editors have built Subcellular Fractions: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Subcellular Fractions in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Subcellular Fractions: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Mutagenesis and Mitochondrial Associated Pathologies

DOI: 10.1093/brain/ awu005 [4] Prasun P. Mitochondrial Medicine: A Primer for Health Care Providers and Translational Researchers, 1st ed. Academic Press, Elsevier ... Recent advances in mitochondrial disease. Annu. Rev. Genomic. Hum.

Mutagenesis and Mitochondrial Associated Pathologies

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA double-strand breaks can result from mitochondrial defects and external sources, such as ionizing radiation. If not repaired properly, pathogenic mutations are generated. Human diseases resulting from inherited mitochondrial defects manifest in organs that physiologically require a high level of ATP synthesis. These diseases are clinically challenging, but new experimental clinical therapies include gene editing and mitochondrial transplants. Pathogenic ROS-associated cellular damage includes DNA double-strand breaks, and mouse models are now available to study multiple repair pathways. This book discusses the clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases in both the eye and the kidney, and presents new insights into double-strand break repair pathways and developmental phenotypes of g-ray-associated ontogenic mutations of Drosophila melanogaste.

Cell Signalling

Scatena, R. (2011) Mitochondria and Cancer: A Growing Role in Apoptosis, Cancer Cell Metabolism and Dedifferentiation. In Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine. R. Scatena, P. Bottoni and B. Giardina (eds). Volume 942 of Advances in ...

Cell Signalling

'Cell Signalling' presents a carefully structured introduction to this subject, introducing those conserved features which underlie many different extra-and intracellular signalling systems.

Mitochondrial Physiology and Vegetal Molecules

The editor has lined up a team of worldwide experts to cover the most exciting and high-impact advancements of research in this area. This book is structured into two parts that provide a balance of both foundational and applied content.

Mitochondrial Physiology and Vegetal Molecules

Mitochondrial Physiology and Vegetal Molecules: Therapeutic potential of natural compounds on mitochondrial health provides a comprehensive overview of mitochondrial physiology throughout the human life span, as well as the effect of molecules of vegetal origin on mitochondrial health. The editor has lined up a team of worldwide experts to cover the most exciting and high-impact advancements of research in this area. This book is structured into two parts that provide a balance of both foundational and applied content. Part I provides an overview of mitochondrial physiology including its structure, dynamics, biogenesis, membranes, DNA transcription, and translation in the mitochondria. Part I also covers other themes such as apoptosis. Part II then covers the effect of specific vegetable-derived molecules on mitochondrial health, including anthocyanins, caffeine, cannabinoids, carnosic and rosmarinic acids, citrus flavonoids, polyphenols, pterostilbene, resveratrol, and sulforaphane, among others. Mitochondrial Physiology and Vegetal Molecules: Therapeutic potential of natural compounds on mitochondrial health is a complete resource for researchers in this exciting field. Its comprehensive coverage makes it particularly interesting to bioscience researchers willing to understand the foundations of mitochondrial physiology throughout the human life span. Clinician researchers, MDs, nutritionists, pharmacologists, and sports scientists may be attracted to the detailed information on the health effects of vegetal origin molecules on the organelle. Contains detailed information on plant products and their effect on mitochondria Proposes therapies and reviews mechanisms of absorption at the cellular level Discusses the limited bioavailability of plant molecules/compounds in the human organism Includes coverage of specific conditions such as Sports and affective disorders, among others Presents the protective effects of plant products in mitochondrial health through all stages of life