An Introduction to Force of Ice on Structures

This publication provides introductory technical guidance for civil engineers and other professional engineers and construction managers interested in forces that ice imposes on structures. Here is what is discussed: 1. INTRODUCTION, 2.

An Introduction to Force of Ice on Structures

This publication provides introductory technical guidance for civil engineers and other professional engineers and construction managers interested in forces that ice imposes on structures. Here is what is discussed: 1. INTRODUCTION, 2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ICE, 3. ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES, 4. FORCES LIMITED BY ICE FAILURE, 5. FORCES LIMITED BY THE MOMENTUM OF AN ICE FEATURE, 6. CANADIAN AND AMERICAN CODES, 7. VERTICAL ICE FORCES

An Introduction to Force of Ice on Structures

INTRODUCTION 1.1 ANY STRUCTURE PLACED in an environment where the
presence of ice is a hazard to its integrity and stability needs to be designed to
withstand the forces generated by ice moving against it. A designer should also ...

An Introduction to Force of Ice on Structures

Introductory technical guidance for civil and structural engineers interested in force exerted by ice on structures. Here is what is discussed: 1. INTRODUCTION 2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ICE 3. ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES 4. FORCES LIMITED BY ICE FAILURE 5. FORCES LIMITED BY THE MOMENTUM OF AN ICE FEATURE 6. CANADIAN AND AMERICAN CODES 7. VERTICAL ICE FORCES.

An Introduction to Fundamentals of Ice Engineering

FORCE. ON. STRUCTURES. 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.1.1 ANY STRUCTURE
PLACED in an environment where the presence of ice is a hazard to its integrity
and stability needs ... To estimate ice forces on an offshore structure see API (
1995).

An Introduction to Fundamentals of Ice Engineering

Introductory technical guidance for professional engineers and construction managers interested in ice engineering. Here is what is discussed: 1. FUNDAMENTALS 2. FORCE ON STRUCTURES 3. BEARING CAPACITY 4. ICE JAM MITIGATION.

Working Group on Ice Forces

Working Group on Ice Forces


An Introduction to Design of Coastal Revetments Seawalls and Bulkheads

Use Rmax the adjusted runup, RA, in Equation 2-38 to find the force per unit
length of wall is 4.58 kN/m length of wall (317 ... ICE FORCES. 31.1 GENERAL.
Ice can affect marine structures in a number of ways. Moving surface ice can
cause ...

An Introduction to Design of Coastal Revetments  Seawalls and Bulkheads

Introductory technical guidance for civil and marine engineers interested in coastal revetments, seawalls and bulkheads. Here is what is discussed: 1. SHORELINE USE 2. SHORELINE FORM AND COMPOSITION 3. SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF SHORELINE PROFILES 4. DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR PROTECTIVE MEASURES 5. DESIGN WATER LEVELS 6. DESIGN WAVE ESTIMATION 7. WAVE HEIGHT AND PERIOD VARIABILITY AND SIGNIFICANT WAVES 8. WAVE GAUGES AND VISUAL OBSERVATIONS 9. WAVE HINDCASTS 10. WAVE FORECASTS 11. BREAKING WAVES 12. HEIGHT OF PROTECTION 13. WAVE RUNUP 14. WAVE OVERTOPPING 15. STABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY 16. ARMOR UNIT STABILITY 17. LAYER THICKNESS 18. RESERVE STABILITY 19. TOE PROTECTION 20. FILTERS 21. FLANK PROTECTION 22. CORROSION 23. FREEZE-THAW CYCLES 24. MARINE BORER ACTIVITY 25. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT 26. ABRASION 27. VANDALISM AND THEFT 28. GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS 29. WAVE FORCES 30. IMPACT FORCES 31. ICE FORCES 32. HYDRAULIC MODEL TESTS 33. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELS 34. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS 35. PREVIOUS TESTS.

IUTAM Symposium on Scaling Laws in Ice Mechanics and Ice Dynamics

Missing any of the above elements will result in overestimating or
underestimating the ice/structure interaction force. 1. Introduction The calculation
of ice forces due to the crushing of solid, competent ice formations such as sheet
ice, the ...

IUTAM Symposium on Scaling Laws in Ice Mechanics and Ice Dynamics

This Volume constitutes the Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on 'Scaling Laws in Ice Mechanics and Ice Dynamics', held in Fairbanks, Alaska from 13th to 16th of June 2000. Ice mechanics deals with essentially intact ice: in this discipline, descriptions of the motion and deformation of Arctic/ Antarctic and river/lake ice call for the development of physically based constitutive and fracture models over an enormous range in scale: 0.01 m - 10 km. Ice dynamics, on the other hand, deals with the movement of broken ice: descriptions of an aggregate of ice floes call for accurate modeling of momentum transfer through the sea/ice system, again over an enormous range in scale: 1 km (floe scale) - 500 km (basin scale). For ice mechanics, the emphasis on lab-scale (0.01 - 0.5 m) research con trasts with applications at the scale of order 1 km (ice-structure interaction, icebreaking); many important upscaling questions remain to be explored.

Forces Generated in Ice Boom Structures

Roscoe E. Perham. CONTENTS Introduction ..................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Description of ice booms ......................................... - - - -
General description of ice booms................................... - Details of ice booms.

Forces Generated in Ice Boom Structures

Two ice booms in the international section of the St. Lawrence Seaway, near Ogdensburg, New York, were instrumented for measuring ice forces in the winter of 1972-73. These ice booms are among several installed annually by the United States and Canada primarily to prevent ice jams from forming and severely restricting water flows. As presently used, they act as barriers to the navigation of ships. Measurements were initiated at a shore anchor site. The system used for these measurements consisted of a commercial tension cell, located in a new line spliced to the anchor rope, which provided electrical signals to a strip chart recorder that operated continuously. A second system consisted primarily of two special tension cells, an armored signal cable, a direct conversion electric generator, and a recorder. This system was used to measure two concurrent forces at a midstream location where high loads were expected. (Modified author abstract).

Dynamic Effects in Composites

Critical. Force. Prediction. of. High. Velocity. Ice. Impact. onto. Unidirectional.
Carbon/Epoxy. Composite. Panels. JENNIFER RHYMER ... INTRODUCTION
Aircraft structures made from composites are exposed to a variety of impact
threats.

Dynamic Effects in Composites

This bound edition presents multiple investigations into dynamic loading's effects on composite materials. With approaches ranging from weight drop to high-velocity and high-impact testing, as well as FEM and other analytic techniques, leading researchers explain damage, delamination and other effects in a variety of composites types and configurations. The latter include textiles, fabrics, laminates, self-healing laminates, sandwich panels, crash boxes and engine/turbine blades with applications in aerospace, automotive and energy. The volume is the first in the American Society for Composites Series on Advances in Composite Materials under the general editorship of Michael Hyer of Virginia Tech. Contributions on dynamic loading selected for this volume and others in the series are edited and updated versions of ASC presentations made during the past nine years and until now available only via CD-ROM. Keywords include: multi-parameter approach, performance characterization, electrified organic matrix, penetration modeling, ice impact, space debris, engine containment, self-healing CFRP, failure criteria, explosives, blast resistance, crush response.

Ice Forces on Two dimensional Sloping Structures

I. INTRODUCTION Man made structures erected in the high latitude regions of
the globe must be built so as to withstand the large forces exerted by the ice
which they may come in contact with . These structures may be stationary , bridge
piers ...

Ice Forces on Two dimensional Sloping Structures

Analytical expressions for the horizontal and vertical forces exerted by a floating ice sheet against a two-dimensional sloping structure are derived under the assumption that ice is an elastic, homogeneous material. The specific conditions investigated are 1. Quasi-steady form of the governing equation. a. The free end of the semi-infinite ice sheet is subjected to a horizontal force, a vertical force, and a bending moment. Failure of the ice sheet occurs before its free edge becomes fully emerged from or submerged into the water. b. The free end of a semi-infinite ice sheet is subjected only to a vertical force, but failure occurs after the free end has fully emerged from or submerged into the water. c. Finite ice sheet subjected only to a vertical force at one free end which remains at the water surface until failure occurs. 2. Unsteady form of the governing equation for a semi-infinite sheet subjected to only a vertical force at its free end which remains at the water surface until failure occurs. It appears that, for practical applications, the effect of the horizontal force and bending moment at the free end of the ice sheet on the sheet deformation is negligible. It is shown that a finite ice sheet of length at least three times a characteristic length expressed in terms of the ice mechanical properties can be treated as a semi-infinite ice sheet. Also it is shown that when the ice thickness is smaller than a critical value which depends upon the ice mechanical properties and the direction (upward or downward) of the vertical force exerted at the sheet free end, the failure force of the ice sheet is independent of the ice elastic modulus. The analytical results have been verified experimentally, and used in the experimental determination of the bending strength and strain modulus of urea-doped ice.

Dynamic Interactions Between Floating Ice and Offshore Structures

CHAPTER 4 FORMULATION OF A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR ICE - STRUCTURE
INTERACTION ANALYSIS IN THE CRUSHING MODE 4.1 INTRODUCTION The
forces exerted by ice on engineering structures are variable with time and are ...

Dynamic Interactions Between Floating Ice and Offshore Structures


Ice Action on Pairs of Cylindrical and Conical Structures

ICE ACTION ON PAIRS OF CYLINDRICAL AND CONICAL STRUCTURES Fx
Figure 1. Experimental setup for cylindrical structures ( plan. K. Kato and D.S.
Sodhi INTRODUCTION to normalize the ice forces . The results are presented in
terms ...

Ice Action on Pairs of Cylindrical and Conical Structures


Ice Mechanics

The forces are transmitted to the marine structures by friction between the ice
pieces instead of by crushing of the ice itself . ... 0 - INTRODUCTION The most
important force for the design of a dam in northern regions is the horizontal thrust
 ...

Ice Mechanics

Deals with the basics of ice mechanics and some of its applications to engineering problems, covering formation and types of ice, mechanical properties of ice, bearing capacity of ice, forces exerted by ice on structures, icebreakers and ice modelling.

Ice Forces on Rigid Vertical Cylindrical Structures

We found that the sawtooth function provided a good approximation of the force -
time curve of ice crushing against a vertical ... is to find the trends in the
magnitude and variations of the ice forces with respect to other parameters of the
ice - structure ... Bloomfield , P. ( 1976 ) Fourier Analysis of Time Series : An
Introduction .

Ice Forces on Rigid  Vertical  Cylindrical Structures


Design for Ice Forces

The usual method of measuring ice forces is to place a load frame between the
moving ice and the structure and to ... INTRODUCTION The action of ice on
structures situated in inland waterways can be broadly classified into four modes
( 14 ) ...

Design for Ice Forces


Ice Interaction with Offshore Structures

3 Modes of Ice Failure | 356 12 . ... 10 Structure Force / Deformation Curves 1 368
12 . ... BASIC Programs for Ice Interaction with Offshore Structures 1 387
INTRODUCTION TO THE PROGRAMS / 387 PROGRAM FOR FLOE ICE
FORCES ON ...

Ice Interaction with Offshore Structures


Vibro Impact Dynamics

Ice. 3.5.1. Introduction. and. Modeling. Ice impact loadingcan cause significant
damage tooffshore structures and ships. ... When afast–moving ice feature
crushes against a narrow structure, the force of impact is irregular,
randomandcontains ...

Vibro Impact Dynamics

Studies of vibro-impact dynamics falls into three main categories: modeling, mapping and applications. This text covers the latest in those studies plus selected deterministic and stochastic applications. It includes a bibliography exceeding 1,100 references.

Report

CHAPTER 4 FORMULATION OF A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR ICE - STRUCTURE
INTERACTION ANALYSIS IN THE CRUSHING MODE 4.1 INTRODUCTION The
forces exerted by ice on engineering structures are variable with time and are ...

Report


The Proceedings of the First 1990 European Offshore Mechanics Symposium

Hydrodynamics and Structural Mechanics, Tubular Joints and Fatigue, TLP,
Offshore Systems, Pipelines and Risers, ... KEY WORDS: ice forces, continuum
damage, moving ice bar INTRODUCTION Ice forces acting on marine structures
in the ...

The Proceedings of the First  1990  European Offshore Mechanics Symposium


Preprints Offshore Technology Conference

Simultaneously, studies on the fracture criteria for ice are progressing, which
hopefully will lead to analytical investigations Refer TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTF
paper. of ice-force problems. INTRODUCTION The effect of ice forces on
structures has ...

Preprints   Offshore Technology Conference


Proceedings Canadian Society for Civil Engineering

INTRODUCTION The force exerted by ice is one of the environmental factors that
must be taken into consideration in the design of many hydraulic , offshore and
coastal structures in Canada Although the problem had been with us for many ...

Proceedings   Canadian Society for Civil Engineering