Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program Project Apollo

" Contents include: The Kennedy Perspective on Space * The Soviet Challenge Renewed * Reevaluating NASA's Priorities * The NASA Position * Decision * An Assessment of the Decision * Gearing Up for Project Apollo * The Program Management ...

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program   Project Apollo

This official NASA history document presents a narrative account of the Apollo lunar landing program from its origin through its assessment. The preface states: "The program to land an American on the Moon and return safely to Earth in the 1960s has been called by some observers a defining event of the twentieth century. Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., even suggested that when Americans two centuries hence study the twentieth century, they will view the Apollo lunar landing as the critical event of the century. While that conclusion might be premature, there can be little doubt but that the flight of Apollo 11 in particular and the overall Apollo program in general was a high point in humanity's quest to explore the universe beyond Earth." From the introduction: "On 25 May 1961 President John F. Kennedy announced to the nation a goal of sending an American safely to the Moon before the end of the decade. This decision involved much study and review prior to making it public, and tremendous expenditure and effort to make it a reality by 1969. Only the building of the Panama Canal rivaled the Apollo program's size as the largest non- military technological endeavor ever undertaken by the United States; only the Manhattan Project was comparable in a wartime setting. The human spaceflight imperative was a direct outgrowth of it; Projects Mercury (at least in its latter stages), Gemini, and Apollo were each designed to execute it. It was finally successfully accomplished on 20 July 1969, when Apollo 11's astronaut Neil Armstrong left the Lunar Module and set foot on the surface of the Moon." Contents include: The Kennedy Perspective on Space * The Soviet Challenge Renewed * Reevaluating NASA's Priorities * The NASA Position * Decision * An Assessment of the Decision * Gearing Up for Project Apollo * The Program Management Concept * How Do We Go to the Moon? * Prelude to Apollo: Mercury * Bridging the Technological Gap: From Gemini to Apollo * Satellite Support of Apollo * Building Saturn * The Apollo Spacecraft * The Lunar Module * Trips to the Moon * A Meaning for Apollo

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

The subsatellite was designed to investigate the moon's mass and gravitational variations, particle composition of space near the moon and the interaction of the moon's magnetic field with that of Earth.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

This official NASA document provides the complete transcription of the Apollo 15 post-flight debriefing given by astronauts, with their first-hand description of the fourth moon landing - featuring the first use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). This ebook is an invaluable addition to the library of anyone interested in the Apollo moon landings. Contents include: SUITING AND INGRESS * STATUS CHECKS AND COUNTDOWN * POWERED FLIGHT * EARTH ORBIT AND SYSTEMS CHECKOUT * TLI THROUGH S-IVB CLOSEOUT * TRANSLUNAR COAST * LOI, DPI, LUNAR MODULE CHECKOUT * LUNAR MODULE CHECKOUT THROUGH SEPARATION * SEPARATION THROUGH LM TOUCHDOWN * LUNAR SURFACE * CSM CIRCUMLUNAR OPERATIONS * LIFTOFF, RENDEZVOUS, AND DOCKING * LUNAR MODULE JETTISON THROUGH TEI * TRANSEARTH COAST * ENTRY * LANDING AND RECOVERY * TRAINING * CSM SYSTEMS OPERATIONS * LUNAR MODULE SYSTEMS OPERATIONS * LRV OPERATIONS * EMU SYSTEMS * FLIGHT EQUIPMENT * FLIGHT DATA FILE * VISUAL SIGHTINGS * PREMISSION PLANNING * MISSION CONTROL * HUMAN FACTORS Apollo 15 was the first of the Apollo "J" missions capable of a longer stay time on the moon and greater surface mobility. There were four primary objectives falling in the general categories of lunar surface science, lunar orbital science and engineering-operational. The mission objectives were to explore the Hadley-Apennine region, set up and activate lunar surface scientific experiments, make engineering evaluations of new Apollo equipment, and conduct lunar orbital experiments and photographic tasks. Exploration and geological investigations at the Hadley-Apennine landing site were enhanced by the addition of the Lunar Roving Vehicle, or LRV. Setup of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, or ALSEP, was the third in a trio of operating ALSEPs (on Apollos 12, 14 and 15). Orbital science experiments were concentrated in any array of instruments and cameras in the scientific instrument module, or SIM, bay. Engineering and operational objectives included evaluation of modifications to the lunar module, or LM, made for carrying a heavier payload and for a lunar stay time of almost three days. Changes to the Apollo spacesuit and to the portable life support system, or PLSS, were evaluated, and performance of the Lunar Roving Vehicle and the other new J-mission equipment that went with it -- lunar communications relay unit, or LCRU, and the ground-controlled television assembly, or GCTA. Another major mission objective involved the launching of a Particles and Fields, or P&F, subsatellite into lunar orbit by the command and service module, or CSM, shortly before beginning the return-to-Earth portion of the mission. The subsatellite was designed to investigate the moon's mass and gravitational variations, particle composition of space near the moon and the interaction of the moon's magnetic field with that of Earth.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

Two technical mission reports, the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Apollo 11 Mission Report and the NASA Headquarters Mission Operation Report (MOR), provide complete details about every aspect of the mission.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

Four comprehensive official NASA documents chronicle the historic mission of Apollo 11, which accomplished the first landing of humans on the moon in July 1969. Two technical mission reports, the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Apollo 11 Mission Report and the NASA Headquarters Mission Operation Report (MOR), provide complete details about every aspect of the mission. Apollo 11 MSC Mission Report: Mission description, pilots' report, lunar decent and ascent, communications, trajectory, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, extravehicular mobility unit performance, the lunar surface, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch vehicle summary, anomaly summary (CSM, LM, government furnished equipment), conclusions, vehicle descriptions, spacecraft histories, postflight testing, data availability, glossary. Apollo 11 MOR: Mission design and execution, spacecraft performance, flight anomalies, detailed objectives and experiments, launch countdown for the Apollo-Saturn AS-506 launch vehicle, detailed flight mission description, back contamination program, contingency operations, configuration differences, mission support, recovery support plan, flight crew, mission management responsibility, program management, abbreviations and acronyms Apollo 11 Press Kit: Countdown, Launch events, mission events, mission trajectory and maneuver description, earth parking orbit (EPO), trans-lunar injection (TLI), translunar coast, lunar orbit insertion, lunar module descent, lunar landing, EVA, lunar sample collection, LM ascent, lunar orbit rendezvous, transearth injection (TEI), transearth coast, entry and landing, recovery operations, quarantine, Lunar Receiving Laboratory, go/no-go decision points, alternate missions, abort modes, deep space aborts, onboard television, photographic tasks, lunar description, lunar landing sites, CSM systems, lunar module structures, Saturn V launch vehicle, Apollo 11 crew, Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package, ALRH, launch operations, Launch Complex 39, Manned Space Flight Network, ARIA, tracking ships, contamination control program, Apollo program management, Principal Investigators and Sample Investigations, Glossary, acronyms and abbreviations. NASA Mission Report (PAO Release) - At 10:56 P.M. EDT, Sunday, July 20. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, spacecraft commander of Apollo 11, set foot on the moon. His descent from the lowest rung of the ladder which was attached to a leg of the lower stage of the Lunar Module (LM), to the footpad, and then to the surface of earth's only natural satellite constituted the climax of a national effort that began in 1961. It was an effort that involved, at its peak, more than 300,000 people in industry, the universities and in government. As he took his epochal step, Armstrong commented "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for Mankind." Sharing this electric moment with Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, the LM pilot, were an estimated half-billion TV watchers in most of the earth's nations. As the astronaut descended the ladder, he pulled a "D" ring that deployed a black and white television camera which was focused to record the event. Framed by parts of the LM's under-carriage, Armstrong's heavily-booted left foot descended across millions of TV tubes until his boot sole made contact.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

The mission also included lunar sampling and lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II experiment and the BIOCORE experiment.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

This official NASA document provides the complete transcription of the Apollo 17 post-flight debriefing given by astronauts, with their first-hand description of the sixth and final lunar landing, and the only mission to feature a scientist-astronaut, Jack Schmitt. This ebook is an invaluable addition to the library of anyone interested in the Apollo moon landings. Contents include: SUITING AND INGRESS * STATUS CHECKS AND COUNTDOWN * POWERED FLIGHT * EARTH ORBIT AND SYSTEMS CHECKOUT * TLI THROUGH S-IVB CLOSEOUT * TRANSLUNAR COAST * LOI, DPI, LUNAR MODULE CHECKOUT * LUNAR MODULE CHECKOUT THROUGH SEPARATION * SEPARATION THROUGH LM TOUCHDOWN * LUNAR SURFACE * CSM CIRCUMLUNAR OPERATIONS * LIFTOFF, RENDEZVOUS, AND DOCKING * LUNAR MODULE JETTISON THROUGH TEI * TRANSEARTH COAST * ENTRY * LANDING AND RECOVERY * TRAINING * CSM SYSTEMS OPERATIONS * LUNAR MODULE SYSTEMS OPERATIONS * LRV OPERATIONS * EMU SYSTEMS * FLIGHT EQUIPMENT * FLIGHT DATA FILE * VISUAL SIGHTINGS * PREMISSION PLANNING * MISSION CONTROL * HUMAN FACTORS The lunar landing site was the Taurus-Littrow highlands and valley area. This site was picked for Apollo 17 as a location where rocks both older and younger than those previously returned from other Apollo missions, as well as from Luna 16 and 20 missions, might be found. The mission was the final in a series of three J-type missions planned for the Apollo Program. These J-type missions can be distinguished from previous G- and H-series missions by extended hardware capability, larger scientific payload capacity and by the use of the battery-powered Lunar Roving Vehicle, or LRV. Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included, geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region; deploying and activating surface experiments; and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast. These objectives included deployed experiments, such as the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, or ALSEP, with a heat flow experiment; lunar seismic profiling, or LSP; lunar surface gravimeter, or LSG; lunar atmospheric composition experiment, or LACE; and lunar ejecta and meteorites, or LEAM. The mission also included lunar sampling and lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II experiment and the BIOCORE experiment.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

The LM flew over Landing Site 2 in the Sea of Tranquility. During this run, the LM landing radar was tested for altitude functioning, providing both "high gate" and "low gate" data.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

Three comprehensive official NASA documents - converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction - chronicle the incredible journey of Apollo 10, which tested the Lunar Module in lunar orbit for the first time, paving the way for the Apollo 11 landing mission. It was conducted by astronauts Stafford, Cernan, and Young in May 1969. Two technical mission reports, the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Apollo Mission Report and the NASA Headquarters Mission Operation Report (MOR), provide complete details about every aspect of the mission. Apollo 10 MSC Mission Report: Mission description, pilots' report, communications, trajectory, command and service module performance, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch vehicle summary, anomaly summary (CSM, LM, government furnished equipment), conclusions, vehicle descriptions. Apollo 10 MOR: Mission design and execution, spacecraft performance, flight anomalies, detailed objectives and experiments, launch countdown, detailed flight mission description, back contamination program, contingency operations, configuration differences, mission support, recovery support plan, flight crew, mission management responsibility, program management, abbreviations and acronyms. Apollo 10 Press Kit: Detailed preview from countdown to landing. The Apollo 10 mission encompassed all aspects of an actual crewed lunar landing, except the landing. It was the first flight of a complete, crewed Apollo spacecraft to operate around the moon. Objectives included a scheduled eight-hour lunar orbit of the separated lunar module, or LM, and descent to about nine miles off the moon's surface before ascending for rendezvous and docking with the command and service module, or CSM, in about a 70-mile circular lunar orbit. Pertinent data to be gathered in this landing rehearsal dealt with the lunar potential, or gravitational effect, to refine the Earth-based crewed spaceflight network tracking techniques, and to check out LM programmed trajectories and radar, and lunar flight control systems. Twelve television transmissions to Earth were planned. All mission objectives were achieved. Apollo 10 launched from Cape Kennedy on May 18, 1969, into a nominal 115-mile circular Earth-parking orbit at an inclination of 32.5 degrees. One-and-a-half orbits later, translunar injection occurred. The S-IVB fired to increase velocity from 25,593 to 36,651 feet per second on a free-return trajectory. Twenty-five minutes later, the CSM separated for transposition and docking with the LM, similar to the maneuver performed on Apollo 9. The orbital vehicle was comprised of the S-IVB stage, and its payload of the CSM, the LM and spacecraft-lunar module adapter, or SLA, shroud. The Apollo 10 crew members were Commander Thomas Stafford, Command Module Pilot John Young and Lunar Module Pilot Eugene Cernan. The first live color TV transmissions to Earth began three hours after launch when Apollo 10 was 3,570 miles from Earth and concluded when the spacecraft was 9,428 miles away. The transmission showed the docking process and the interior of the CSM. About four hours after launch, Apollo 10 separated from the S-IVB sage, which was followed by another telecast from 14,625 miles out. A third TV transmission of pictures of Earth was made from 24,183 miles out, and a fourth telecast of the Earth was made from 140,000 miles. The LM flew over Landing Site 2 in the Sea of Tranquility. During this run, the LM landing radar was tested for altitude functioning, providing both "high gate" and "low gate" data.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

The preface states: "The purpose of this book is only partly to record the engineering and scientific accomplishments of the men and women who made it possible for a human to step away from his home planet for the first time.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

This official NASA history document is an extraordinary review of the planning and problem solving involved in the lunar surface operations of the Apollo program. It chronicles the tug-of-war between scientists and program officials over experiments, missions, landing sites, and crew selection. The preface states: "The purpose of this book is only partly to record the engineering and scientific accomplishments of the men and women who made it possible for a human to step away from his home planet for the first time. It is primarily an attempt to show how scientists interested in the moon and engineers interested in landing people on the moon worked out their differences and conducted a program that was a major contribution to science as well as a stunning engineering accomplishment. When scientific requirements began to be imposed on manned space flight operations, hardly any aspect was unaffected. The choice of landing sites, the amount of scientific equipment that could be carried, and the weight of lunar material that could be brought back all depended on the capabilities of the spacecraft and mission operations. These considerations limited the earliest missions and constituted the challenge of the later ones. President John F. Kennedy's decision to build the United States' space program around a manned lunar landing owed nothing to any scientific interest in the moon. The primary dividend was to be national prestige, which had suffered from the Soviet Union's early accomplishments in space. A second, equally important result of a manned lunar landing would be the creation of a national capability to operate in space for purposes that might not be foreseeable. Finally, Kennedy felt the need for the country to set aside "business as usual" and commit itself with dedication and discipline to a goal that was both difficult and worthwhile. Kennedy had the assurance of those in the best position to know that it was technologically possible to put a human on the moon within the decade. His political advisers, while stressing the many benefits (including science) that would accrue from a strong space program, recognized at once that humans were the key. If the Soviets sent men and women to the moon, no American robot, however sophisticated or important, would produce an equal impact on the world's consciousness. Hence America's leadership in space would be asserted by landing humans on the moon." Contents of the fourteen chapters include: America Starts for the Moon: 1957-1963 * Linking Science to Manned Space Flight * Apollo's Lunar Exploration Plans * Handling Samples from the Moon * Selecting and Training the Crews * Mission and Science Planning * Setback and Recovery: 1967 * Final Preparations: 1968 * Primary Mission Accomplished * Lunar Exploration Begins * First Phase of Lunar Exploration Completed: 1969-1970 * Apollo Assumes Its Final Form: 1970-1971 * Lunar Exploration Concluded * Project Apollo: The Conclusion. Other material includes: Chronology Of Major Events In Manned Space Flight And In Project Apollo, 1957-1975 * Crew Training and Simulations * The Flight of Apollo 13.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

Every aspect of the first manned flight to the moon is discussed from launch to landing. This is an invaluable addition to the ebook library of anyone interested in the Apollo moon landings.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

This official NASA document provides the complete transcription of the historic Apollo 8 post-flight debriefing given by astronauts Frank Borman (Commander), William A. Anders (Lunar Module Pilot), and James A. Lovell Jr. (Command Module Pilot). Every aspect of the first manned flight to the moon is discussed from launch to landing. This is an invaluable addition to the ebook library of anyone interested in the Apollo moon landings. Contents include: INGRESS AND STATUS CHECKS * POWERED FLIGHT * FLIGHT OPERATIONS * LANDING AND RECOVERY * SYSTEMS OPERATION * VISUAL SIGHTINGS * PREMISSION PLANNING * MISSION CONTROL * TRAINING * CONCLUDING COMMENTS Apollo 8 launched from Cape Kennedy on Dec. 21, 1968, placing astronauts Frank Borman, James Lovell Jr. and William Anders into a 114 by 118 mile parking orbit at 32.6 degrees. During the 20-hour period in lunar orbit, the crew conducted a full, sleepless schedule of tasks including landmark and landing site tracking, vertical stereo photography, stereo navigation photography and sextant navigation. At the end of the 10th lunar orbit, at 89 hours, 19 minutes, and 16 seconds, a three-minute, 23-second trans-Earth injection burn was conducted, adding 3,522 feet per second. Only one midcourse correction, a burn of five feet per second conducted at 104 hours, was required instead of the three scheduled. Six telecasts were conducted during the mission: two during translunar coast, two during lunar orbit and two during trans-Earth coast. These transmissions were telecast worldwide and in real time to all five continents. During a telecast on Christmas Eve, the crew read verses from the first chapter of Genesis and wished viewers, "Good night, good luck, a Merry Christmas and God bless all of you -- all of you on the good Earth." All telecasts were of excellent quality. Voice communications also were exceptionally good throughout the mission. Separation of the command module, or CM, from the SM occurred at 146 hours, 31 minutes. A double-skip maneuver conducted during the re-entry steering phase resulted in an altitude gain of 25,000 to 30,000 feet. The re-entry velocity was 24,696 mph, with heatshield temperatures reaching 5,000 degrees F. Parachute deployment and other re-entry events were nominal. Apollo 8 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean at 10:51 a.m. EST Dec. 27. The splashdown was about 5,100 yards from the recovery ship USS Yorktown, 147 hours after launch and precisely on time. According to prior planning, helicopters and aircraft hovered over the spacecraft, and pararescue personnel were not deployed until local sunrise, 50 minutes after splashdown. The Apollo 8 crew reached the recovery ship at 12:20 p.m. EST.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program Enchanted Rendezvous John Houbolt and the Genesis of the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous Concept and Political and Technical Aspects of Placing a Flag on the Moon

The monograph that is printed here is an important contribution to the study of NASA history in general, and the process of accomplishing a large-scale technological program (in this case Apollo) in particular.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program   Enchanted Rendezvous  John Houbolt and the Genesis of the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous Concept  and Political and Technical Aspects of Placing a Flag on the Moon

These official NASA history documents include a Monograph in Aerospace History about the role of John Houbolt and others in advocating the successful Lunar Orbit Rendezvous (LOR) mission concept in the early part of Project Apollo, plus a NASA contractor report on the political and technical aspects of placing the American flag on the lunar surface during the Apollo 11 moonwalk. Enchanted Rendezvous - John C. Houbolt and the Genesis of the Lunar-Orbit Rendezvous Concept: One of the most critical technical decisions made during the conduct of Project Apollo was the method of flying to the Moon, landing on the surface, and returning to Earth. Within NASA during this debate several modes emerged. The one eventually chosen was lunar-orbit rendezvous (LOR), a proposal to send the entire lunar spacecraft up in one launch. It would head to the Moon, enter into orbit, and dispatch a small lander to the lunar surface. It was the simplest of the various methods, both in terms of development and operational costs, but it was risky. Since rendezvous would take place in lunar, instead of Earth, orbit there was no room for error or the crew could not get home. Moreover, some of the trickiest course corrections and maneuvers had to be done after the spacecraft had been committed to a circumlunar flight. Between the time of NASA's conceptualization of the lunar landing program and the decision in favor of LOR in 1962, a debate raged between advocates of the various methods. John C. Houbolt, an engineer at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, was one of the most vocal of those supporting LOR and his campaign in 1961 and 1962 helped to shape in a fundamental way the deliberations. The monograph that is printed here is an important contribution to the study of NASA history in general, and the process of accomplishing a large-scale technological program (in this case Apollo) in particular. In many ways, the lunar mode decision was an example of heterogeneous engineering, a process that recognizes that technological issues are also simultaneously organizational, economic, social, and political. Various interests often clash in the decision-making process as difficult calculations have to be made and decisions taken. What perhaps should be suggested is that a complex web or system of ties between various people, institutions, and interests brought forward the lunar-orbit rendezvous mode of going to the Moon in the 1960s. Where No Flag Has Gone Before: Political and Technical Aspects of Placing a Flag on the Moon - This paper examines the political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the moon, focusing on the first moon landing. During their historic extravehicular activity (EVA), the Apollo 11 crew planted the flag of the United States on the lunar surface. This flag-raising was strictly a symbolic activity, as the United Nations Treaty on Outer Space precluded any territorial claim. Nevertheless, there were domestic and international debates over the appropriateness of the event. Congress amended the agency's appropriations bill to prevent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from placing flags of other nations, or those of international associations, on the moon during missions funded solely by the United States. Like any activity in space exploration, the Apollo flag-raising also provided NASA engineers with an interesting technical challenge. They designed a flagpole with a horizontal bar allowing the flag to "fly" without the benefit of wind to overcome the effects of the moon's lack of an atmosphere. Other factors considered in the design were weight, heat resistance, and ease of assembly by astronauts whose space suits restricted their range of movement and ability to grasp items.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

The initial checkout of lunar module systems during translunar coast and in lunar orbit was satisfactory. At about 104 hours, the Commander and the Lunar Module Pilot entered the lunar module to prepare for descent to the lunar surface.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

Three comprehensive official NASA documents chronicle the amazing journey of Apollo 12, which performed the second manned lunar landing in November 1969. It was conducted by astronauts Conrad, Gordon, and Bean. Two technical mission reports, the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Apollo Mission Report and the NASA Headquarters Mission Operation Report (MOR), provide complete details about every aspect of the mission. Apollo 12 MSC Mission Report: Mission description, pilots' report, communications, trajectory, command and service module performance, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch vehicle summary, anomaly summary (CSM, LM, government furnished equipment), conclusions, vehicle descriptions. Apollo 12 MOR: Mission design and execution, spacecraft performance, flight anomalies, detailed objectives and experiments, launch countdown, detailed flight mission description, back contamination program, contingency operations, configuration differences, mission support, recovery support plan, flight crew, mission management responsibility, program management, abbreviations and acronyms. Apollo 12 Press Kit: Detailed preview from countdown to landing. The Apollo 12 mission provided a wealth of scientific information in this significant step of detailed lunar exploration. The emplaced experiments, with an expected equipment operation time of 1 year, will enable scientific observations of the lunar surface environment and determination of structural perturbations. This mission demonstrated the capability for a precision landing, a requirement for proceeding to more specific and rougher lunar surface locations having particular scientific interest. The space vehicle, with a crew of Charles Conrad, Jr., Commander; Richard F. Gordon, Command Module Pilot; and Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module Pilot; was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 11:22:00 a.m. e.s.t. (16:22:00 G.m.t.) November 14, 1969. The activities during earth-orbit checkout, translunar injection, and translunar coast were similar to those of Apollo 11, except for the special attention given to verifying all spacecraft systems as a result of lightning striking the space vehicle at 36.5 seconds and 52 seconds. A non-free-return translunar trajectory profile was used for the first time in the Apollo 12 mission. The spacecraft was inserted into a 168.8- by 62.6-mile lunar orbit at about 83-1/2 hours. Two revolutions later a second maneuver was performed to achieve a 66.1- by 54.3-mile orbit. The initial checkout of lunar module systems during translunar coast and in lunar orbit was satisfactory. At about 104 hours, the Commander and the Lunar Module Pilot entered the lunar module to prepare for descent to the lunar surface.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

Incorporating a complete reproduction of the final review board report, this authoritative compilation of official NASA documents provides unique insights into NASA s first major tragedy, the Apollo 1 launch pad fire.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

Incorporating a complete reproduction of the final review board report, this authoritative compilation of official NASA documents provides unique insights into NASA s first major tragedy, the Apollo 1 launch pad fire. Contents include detailed biographies of the Apollo 1 crew, overview histories of the Apollo 1 tragedy and recovery, the complete final report of the Apollo 204 review board, and excerpts from the technical appendices covering the review board minutes, a detailed narrative description of the sequence of events in the accident, witness statements and releases, and the report of the medical analysis panel. On January 27, 1967, tragedy struck the Apollo program when a flash fire occurred in command module 012 during a launch pad test of the Apollo/Saturn space vehicle being prepared for the first piloted flight, the AS-204 mission. Three astronauts, Lt. Col. Virgil I. Grissom, a veteran of Mercury and Gemini missions; Lt. Col. Edward H. White, the astronaut who had performed the first United States extravehicular activity during the Gemini program; and Roger B. Chaffee, an astronaut preparing for his first space flight, died in this tragic accident. A seven-member board, under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center Director, Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, conducted a comprehensive investigation to pinpoint the cause of the fire. The final report, completed in April 1967 was subsequently submitted to the NASA Administrator. The report presented the results of the investigation and made specific recommendations that led to major design and engineering modifications, and revisions to test planning, test discipline, manufacturing processes and procedures, and quality control. With these changes, the overall safety of the command and service module and the lunar module was increased substantially. The AS-204 mission was redesignated Apollo I in honor of the crew. The fire which claimed the lives of Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee stunned the nation and rocked the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The disaster had the potential to bring a permanent halt to American efforts in space exploration. Rather than bury its head in the sand, NASA launched a full-scale investigation of the fire, and voluntarily put the entire Apollo program, including its administration, policies and procedures under the scrutiny of a review board. Based on the board's findings, NASA rolled up its sleeves and went to work to resolve the problems that had been identified. A successful failure is a mission which fails to reach its objectives and yet still achieves an element of success. Apollo I never left the launch pad. However, the information gained from this fatal mission paved the way for a totally redesigned Apollo spacecraft, eleven Apollo space flights and six lunar landings. Although Grissom, White and Chaffee never walked on the moon, their sacrifice helped to make it possible for us collectively to take "one giant leap for mankind". It is crucial to remember the hard lessons learned from Apollo I and eulogies are part of that remembering. Yet, Grissom, White and Chaffee may be honored best by continuing the work they began. Each of them believed that reaching the moon was not meant to be an end but a beginning. Thirty years ago, Grissom considered manned missions to Mars and crews assembling, living and working on space stations as realistic follow-ups to a lunar landing. While he recognized the place of ever-improving technology, White was emphatic about the need for manned missions: "You'll never satisfy man's curiosity unless a man goes himself."

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

To preserve the integrity of the audio record, the texts are presented with limited revisions and thus reflect the candid conversational style of the oral history format.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

The fascinating oral histories of nine famous Apollo lunar program astronauts - converted for accurate flowing-text ebook format reproduction - provide new insights into this extraordinary effort, with vital observations about an era of space history that changed the world. The interviews divulge new information and some long-held secrets; they are sometimes emotional, sometimes analytical, with revealing anecdotes, stories of supervisors and colleagues, hardware, spacecraft, rockets, triumphs and tragedies. Even serious space enthusiasts will find numerous "aha, I didn't know that" comments! Contents include: Chapter 1: James A. Lovell, Jr.; Chapter 2: James A. McDivitt; Chapter 3: Edgar D. Mitchell, Chapter 4: Walter M. Schirra, Jr.; Chapter 5: Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt; Chapter 6: Russell L. Schweickart; Chapter 7: Alan B. Shepard, Jr.; Chapter 8: Thomas P. Stafford; Chapter 9: Alfred M. Worden - covering the historic flights of Apollo 1, Apollo 9, Apollo 10, Apollo 13, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 17, plus Mercury and Gemini missions flown by some of these astronauts. The oral histories are the transcripts from audio-recorded, personal interviews with many who pioneered outer space and the Moon, and with those who continue the excitement of space exploration. To preserve the integrity of the audio record, the texts are presented with limited revisions and thus reflect the candid conversational style of the oral history format. Brackets and ellipses indicate where the text has been annotated or edited for clarity. The date of each interview is noted. Established in 1996, the goal of the NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project (JSC OHP) is to capture history from the individuals who first provided the country and the world with an avenue to space and the moon. Participants include managers, engineers, technicians, doctors, astronauts, and other employees of NASA and aerospace contractors who served in key roles during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Shuttle programs. These oral histories ensure that the words of these pioneers live on to tell future generations about the excitement and lessons of space exploration. Oral history interviews began in the summer of 1997, and since that time more than 675 individuals have participated in the NASA Oral History projects.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program Before This Decade Is Out Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program NASA SP 4223 by Von Braun Kranz Lunney Duke Schmitt Low Faget Webb

I am pleased that the comments of some of the key individuals involved in Project Apollo are being preserved by NASA and made available through this book. The people who are quoted in this book were among the top leaders of NASA.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program   Before This Decade Is Out      Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program  NASA SP 4223  by Von Braun  Kranz  Lunney  Duke  Schmitt  Low  Faget  Webb

This official NASA history document provides enlightening tales about the Apollo lunar landing program by those who were there: astronauts (Duke and Schmitt), managers and scientists (von Braun, Webb, Paine, Gilruth, Mueller, Low, Faget, Rogers, Guin), and a protocol assistant who accompanied the Apollo 11 on their whirlwind presidential goodwill mission (Barnes). From the foreword by Christopher Kraft: For a project as massive as the Apollo program, history may distance itself to the extent where modern interpretation distills a feeling that such events took place without extensive human involvement. Nothing could be further removed from the truth. Through the verbal accounts offered by the oral histories such as presented in this volume, we are reintroduced to the critical human factor which is the essence of any history. People made Apollo happen and it is important to preserve their thoughts, feelings, and recollections for future generations. The oral histories presented in this volume offer a sample of what NASA has done to preserve the story of Apollo as part of our nation's human spaceflight heritage. The accounts included in this book are a small sampling of the large number of oral histories that have been conducted under the auspices of the NASA history program, since near the beginning of the Agency. They also represent the many personal contributions made during Project Apollo, the single largest peacetime endeavor in American history. These recollections span the origins, management, and completion of that enormous effort and measurably enhance our appreciation of its difficulty. I am pleased that the comments of some of the key individuals involved in Project Apollo are being preserved by NASA and made available through this book. The people who are quoted in this book were among the top leaders of NASA. All of them played a prominent part in the conduct and accomplishments of Apollo. As one of those who knew and watched these individuals lead, I have a particular sense of their statements. I always had the feeling of having been granted a special privilege to participate and work on the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. The contents of this book reveal that these people had similar experiences. They all recognized that it took literally thousands of dedicated people to bring these efforts to fruition and that it was up to them to provide the necessary leadership to allow all of the workers on the project to accomplish their tasks. It was a wondrous thing to watch. Anyone interested in the underlying strength of NASA in this time period will find these accounts a fascinating read.

Apollo America s Moon Landing Program

Every aspect of the incredible adventure is discussed - from moonwalking to personal hygiene issues, launch through landing. This is an invaluable addition to the ebook library of anyone interested in the Apollo moon landings.

Apollo   America s Moon Landing Program

This official NASA document provides the complete transcription of the historic Apollo 11 post-flight debriefing given by astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins on July 31, 1969. Every aspect of the incredible adventure is discussed - from moonwalking to personal hygiene issues, launch through landing. This is an invaluable addition to the ebook library of anyone interested in the Apollo moon landings. Contents: Suiting and Ingress * Status Checks and Countdown * Powered Flight * Earth Orbit and Systems Checkout * TLI through S-IVB Closeout * Translunar Coast * LOI through Lunar Module Activation * Lunar Module Checkout through Separation * DOI through Touchdown * Lunar Surface * CSM Circumlunar Operations * Lift-Off, Rendezvous and Docking * Lunar Module Jettison through TEI * Transearth Coast * Entry * Landing and Recovery * Geology and Experiments * Command Module Systems Operations * Lunar Module Systems Operations * Miscellaneous Systems, Flight Equipment and GFE * Visual Sightings * Premission Planning * Mission Control * Training * Human Factors * Miscellaneous * Concluding Comments At 10:56 P.M. EDT, Sunday, July 20. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, spacecraft commander of Apollo 11, set foot on the moon. His descent from the lowest rung of the ladder which was attached to a leg of the lower stage of the Lunar Module (LM), to the footpad, and then to the surface of earth's only natural satellite constituted the climax of a national effort that began in 1961. It was an effort that involved, at its peak, more than 300,000 people in industry, the universities and in government. As he took his epochal step, Armstrong commented "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for Mankind." Sharing this electric moment with Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, the LM pilot, were an estimated half-billion TV watchers in most of the earth's nations. As the astronaut descended the ladder, he pulled a "D" ring that deployed a black and white television camera which was focused to record the event. Framed by parts of the LM's under-carriage, Armstrong's heavily-booted left foot descended across millions of TV tubes until his boot sole made contact.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

Three comprehensive official NASA documents chronicle the vital first manned test flight of the Apollo lunar module, Apollo 9, conducted by astronauts McDivitt, Scott, and Schweickart in early 1969.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

Three comprehensive official NASA documents chronicle the vital first manned test flight of the Apollo lunar module, Apollo 9, conducted by astronauts McDivitt, Scott, and Schweickart in early 1969. Two technical mission reports, the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Apollo Mission Report and the NASA Headquarters Mission Operation Report (MOR), provide complete details about every aspect of the mission. Apollo 9 MSC Mission Report: Mission description, pilots' report, communications, trajectory, command and service module performance, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch vehicle summary, anomaly summary (CSM, LM, government furnished equipment), conclusions, vehicle descriptions. Apollo 9 MOR: Mission design and execution, spacecraft performance, flight anomalies, detailed objectives and experiments, launch countdown, detailed flight mission description, back contamination program, contingency operations, configuration differences, mission support, recovery support plan, flight crew, mission management responsibility, program management, abbreviations and acronyms. Apollo 9 Press Kit: Detailed preview from countdown to landing. Apollo 9 was the first manned flight of the lunar module and was conducted to qualify this portion of the spacecraft for lunar operations. The crew members were James A. McDivitt, Commander; David R. Scott, Command Module Pilot; and Russell L. Schweikart, Lunar Module Pilot. The primary objectives of the mission were to evaluate crew operation of the lunar module and to demonstrate docked vehicle functions in an earth orbital mission, thereby qualifying the combined spacecraft for lunar flight. Lunar module operations included a descent engine firing while docked with the command module, a complete rendezvous and docking profile, and, with the vehicle unmanned, an ascent engine firing to propellant depletion. Combined spacecraft functions included command module docking with the lunar module (after transposition), spacecraft ejection from the launch vehicle, five service propulsion firings while docked, a docked descent engine firing, and extravehicular crew operations from both the lunar and command modules. These primary objectives were all satisfied. All spacecraft systems operated satisfactorily in performing the mission as planned. The thermal response of both spacecraft remained within expected ranges for an earth orbital flight, and consumable usages were maintained within acceptable limits. Management of the many complex systems of both spacecraft by the crew was very effective, and communications quality was generally satisfactory. The space vehicle was launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 11:00:00 a.m. e.s.t., on March 3, 1969. Following a normal launch phase, the S-IVB stage inserted the spacecraft into an orbit of 102.3 by 103.9 nautical miles. After the post-insertion checkout was completed, the command and service modules were separated from the S-IVB, transposed, and docked with the lunar module. The docked spacecraft were ejected from the S-IVB at 4:08:06.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program Managers Explain What Made Apollo a Success The First Lunar Landing as Told by the Astronauts Lunar Roving Vehicle LRV Historical Perspective

The First Lunar Landing As Told By The Astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins in a Post-flight Press Conference, the second document in this ebook compilation, is a transcript of the Apollo 11 conference.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program   Managers Explain What Made Apollo a Success  The First Lunar Landing as Told by the Astronauts  Lunar Roving Vehicle  LRV  Historical Perspective

These official NASA history documents provide unique accounts of the Apollo lunar landing program. The first document, What Made Apollo A Success? (NASA SP-287) describes three of the basic ingredients of the success of Apollo: spacecraft hardware that is most reliable, flight missions that are extremely well planned and executed, and flight crews that are superbly trained and skilled. Contents: Introduction by George M. Low; Design Principles Stressing Simplicity by Kenneth S. Kleinknecht; Testing To Ensure Mission Success by Scott H. Simpkinson; Apollo Crew Procedures, Simulation, And Flight Planning by Warren J. North And C. H. Woodling; Flight Control In The Apollo Program by Eugene F. Kranz And James Otis Covington; Action On Mission Evaluation And Flight Anomalies by Donald D. Arabian; Techniques Of Controlling The Trajectory by Howard W. Tindall, Jr.; Flexible Yet Disciplined Mission Planning by C. C. Kraft, Jr., J. P. Mayer, C. R. Huss, And R. P. Parten. The introduction states: We will limit ourselves to those tasks that were the direct responsibility of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center: spacecraft development, mission design and mission planning, flight crew operations, and flight operations. We will describe spacecraft design principles, the all-important spacecraft test activities, and the discipline that evolved in the control of spacecraft changes and the closeout of spacecraft anomalies; and we will discuss how we determined the best series of flights to lead to a lunar landing at the earliest possible time, how these flights were planned in detail, the techniques used in establishing flight procedures and carrying out flight operations, and, finally, crew training and simulation activities - the activities that led to a perfect flight execution by the astronauts. The First Lunar Landing As Told By The Astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins in a Post-flight Press Conference, the second document in this ebook compilation, is a transcript of the Apollo 11 conference. It's a description of man's historic first trip to another celestial body by the men who made the journey. Neil Armstrong, commander of Apollo 11, began the first-hand report to the world of the epic voyage of Eagle and Columbia to the Moon and back to Earth. After 24 hours in lunar orbit Armstrong and Aldrin separated Eagle from Columbia, to prepare for descent to the lunar surface. On July 20 at 4:18 p.m. EDT, the Lunar Module touched down on the Moon at Tranquility Base. Armstrong reported "The Eagle Has Landed." And at 10:56 p.m., Armstrong, descending from Eagle's ladder and touching one foot to the Moon's surface, announced: "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." Aldrin soon joined Armstrong. Before a live television camera which they set up on the surface, they performed their assigned tasks. The third and final document, The Lunar Roving Vehicle - Historical Perspective, is a detailed examination of the success of the moon rover by an engineer at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The purpose of this paper is to raise the consciousness level of the current space exploration planners to what, in the early 1970s, was a highly successful roving vehicle. During the Apollo program, the vehicle known as the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was designed for carrying two astronauts, their tools, and the equipment needed for rudimentary exploration of the Moon. This paper contains a discussion of the vehicle, its characteristics, and its use on the Moon. Conceivably, the LRV has the potential to meet some future requirements, either with relatively low cost modifications or via an evolutionary route. This aspect, however, is left to those who would choose to further study these options.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program Apollo Terminology Comprehensive Dictionary of Aerospace Terms and Acronyms

This invaluable reference work, Apollo Terminology, belongs in the library of every student of the Apollo lunar landing program.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program   Apollo Terminology   Comprehensive Dictionary of Aerospace Terms and Acronyms

This invaluable reference work, Apollo Terminology, belongs in the library of every student of the Apollo lunar landing program. The preface states, "Apollo Terminology definitions presented herein are intended to provide Apollo program participants with an updated collection of terminology used on the Apollo program." From ablation to zero gravity effect, words, terms, and acronyms used in the Apollo program are fully defined.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program Apollo 8 Official NASA Mission Reports and Press Kit the Epic 1968 First Flight to the Moon by Borman Lovell and Anders

Three comprehensive official NASA documents chronicle the epic December 1968 mission of Apollo 8, the first manned lunar orbit mission by Frank Borman, James Lovell, and Bill Anders.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program  Apollo 8 Official NASA Mission Reports and Press Kit   the Epic 1968 First Flight to the Moon by Borman  Lovell and Anders

Three comprehensive official NASA documents chronicle the epic December 1968 mission of Apollo 8, the first manned lunar orbit mission by Frank Borman, James Lovell, and Bill Anders. Two technical mission reports, the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Apollo 8 Mission Report and the NASA Headquarters Mission Operation Report (MOR), provide complete details about every aspect of the mission.Apollo 8 MSC Mission Report: Mission description, pilots' report, lunar decent and ascent, communications, trajectory, command and service module performance, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch vehicle summary, anomaly summary (CSM, government furnished equipment), conclusions, vehicle descriptions. Apollo 8 MOR: Mission design and execution, spacecraft performance, flight anomalies, detailed objectives and experiments, launch countdown, detailed flight mission description, back contamination program, contingency operations, configuration differences, mission support, recovery support plan, flight crew, mission management responsibility, program management, abbreviations and acronyms. Apollo 8 Press Kit: Detailed preview from countdown to landing.The mission objectives for Apollo 8 included a coordinated performance of the crew, the command and service module, or CSM, and the support facilities. The mission also was to demonstrate translunar injection; CSM navigation, communications and midcourse corrections; consumable assessment; and passive thermal control. The detailed test objectives were to refine the systems and procedures relating to future lunar operations.All primary mission objectives and detailed test objectives were achieved. All launch vehicle and spacecraft systems performed according to plan. Engineering accomplishments included use of the ground network with onboard navigational techniques to sharpen the accuracy of lunar orbit determination and the successful use of Apollo high-gain antenna -- a four-dish unified S-band antenna that deployed from the service module, or SM, after separation from the third stage.Mission HighlightsApollo 8 launched from Cape Kennedy on Dec. 21, 1968, placing astronauts Frank Borman, James Lovell Jr. and William Anders into a 114 by 118 mile parking orbit at 32.6 degrees.During the second revolution, at two hours, 50 minutes ground elapsed time, the S-IVB third stage restarted for a five-minute, 17-second burn, initiating translunar coast. Following S-IVB/CSM separation at three hours, 21 minutes, a 1.5 feet per second radial burn of the SM reaction control engines was initiated to establish sufficient distance for S-IVB propellant dumping. Following the propellant dumping, which sent the stage into diverging trajectory and solar orbit, the separation distance still was deemed inadequate and a second SM reaction control burn of 7.7 feet per second was performed.The first midcourse correction occured at about 10 hours, 55 minutes into the mission and provided a first check on the service propulsion system, or SPS, engine prior to committing spacecraft to lunar orbit insertion. The second and final midcourse correction prior to lunar orbit insertion occurred at 61 hours, 8 minutes, 54 seconds.Loss of signal occurred at 68 hours, 58 minutes, 45 seconds when Apollo 8 passed behind the moon. At that moment, NASA's three astronauts became the first humans to see the moon's far side. The first lunar orbit insertion burn, at 69 hours, 8 minutes, 52 seconds, lasted four minutes, two seconds and reduced the spacecraft's 8,400 feet per second velocity by 2,994 feet per second, resulting in an initial lunar orbit of 70 by 193 miles. The orbit circularized at 70 miles by the second lunar orbit insertion burn of 135 feet per second, performed at the start of the third revolution, again on the back side of the moon, at 73 hours, 35 minutes, five seconds.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

To preserve the integrity of the audio record, the texts are presented with limited revisions and thus reflect the candid conversational style of the oral history format.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program

The fascinating oral histories of important Apollo lunar program scientists and researchers provide new insights into this extraordinary effort, with vital observations about an era of space history that changed the world. The interviews divulge new information and some long-held secrets; they are sometimes emotional, sometimes analytical, with revealing anecdotes, stories of supervisors and colleagues, hardware, and much more. Even serious space enthusiasts will find numerous "aha, I didn't know that" comments! In these interviews, the scientists discuss planning for the lunar missions, astronaut training, geological investigations, operation of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL), and scientific controversies that affected the Apollo program. Contents include: Chapter 1: John O. Annexstad; Chapter 2: George R. Carruthers; Chapter 3: Edgar M. Cortright; Chapter 4: James P. Dawson; Chapter 5: Farouk El-Baz; Chapter 6: James W. Head, III; Chapter 7: Wilmot N. Hess; Chapter 8: Gary E. Lofgren; Chapter 9: William R. Muehlberger; Chapter 10: Michael A. Reynolds; Chapter 11: Leon T. Silver. The oral histories are the transcripts from audio-recorded, personal interviews with many who pioneered outer space and the Moon, and with those who continue the excitement of space exploration. To preserve the integrity of the audio record, the texts are presented with limited revisions and thus reflect the candid conversational style of the oral history format. Brackets and ellipses indicate where the text has been annotated or edited for clarity. The date of each interview is noted. Established in 1996, the goal of the NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project (JSC OHP) is to capture history from the individuals who first provided the country and the world with an avenue to space and the moon. Participants include managers, engineers, technicians, doctors, astronauts, and other employees of NASA and aerospace contractors who served in key roles during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Shuttle programs. These oral histories ensure that the words of these pioneers live on to tell future generations about the excitement and lessons of space exploration. Oral history interviews began in the summer of 1997, and since that time more than 675 individuals have participated in the NASA Oral History projects.