Architecture characteristically has a dual objective: 1. to enclose interior spaces, and 2. to define exterior spaces. ... It is dependent on the participation of other architectures and necessitates cooperation on either part.
Author: Rudolf Scheuvens
Publisher: Böhlau Verlag Wien
On the occasion of the bicentennial of the TU Wien the present volume gives a unique overview of the diverse fields of activity constituting the Faculty of Planning and Architecture. The contributions documented in this volume show the extraordinarily broad spectrum of a Faculty concerned with the development of our environment, transcending disciplinary boundaries and using different points of view. This development is pursued from an artistic-architectural as well as from a strategic and planning perspective. The positions presented here range from the assertion of disciplinary autonomy and distinct scientific research to interdisciplinary approaches related to everyday life and user needs.
Während also die digitalen Mühlen den vertrauten Architekturbetrieb nur langsam zermahlen, ist die Internetgesellschaft unablässig auf der Suche nach „architectures“ im metaphorischen Sinne: nach der Architektur eines Friedensabkommens, ...
Three - address , register to register : Op - Code R1 R2 R3 For load / store register file architectures , the sources ... Because the operation instructions address only the register file , this architecture must have load and store ...
Author: Harvey G. Cragon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
"The author begins by describing the classic von Neumann architecture and then presents in detail a number of performance models and evaluation techniques. He goes on to cover user instruction set design, including RISC architecture. A unique feature of the book is its memory-centric approach - memory systems are discussed before processor implementations. The author also deals with pipelined processors, input/output techniques, queuing modes, and extended instruction set architectures. Each topic is illustrated with reference to actual IBM and Intel architectures."--Jacket.
Classification for Computer Architectures 10.3.1 Single Instruction Single Data (SISD) The single instruction single data (SISD) architectures encompass standard serial von Neumann architecture computers. In a sense, the SISD category ...
Author: William F. Gilreath
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The one instruction set computer (OISC) is the ultimate reduced instruction set computer (RISC). In OISC, the instruction set consists of only one instruction, and then by composition, all other necessary instructions are synthesized. This is an approach completely opposite to that of a complex instruction set computer (CISC), which incorporates complex instructions as microprograms within the processor. Computer Architecture: A Minimalist Perspective examines computer architecture, computability theory, and the history of computers from the perspective of one instruction set computing - a novel approach in which the computer supports only one, simple instruction. This bold, new paradigm offers significant promise in biological, chemical, optical, and molecular scale computers. Features include: · Provides a comprehensive study of computer architecture using computability theory as a base. · Provides a fresh perspective on computer architecture not found in any other text. · Covers history, theory, and practice of computer architecture from a minimalist perspective. Includes a complete implementation of a one instruction computer. · Includes exercises and programming assignments. Computer Architecture: A Minimalist Perspective is designed to meet the needs of a professional audience composed of researchers, computer hardware engineers, software engineers computational theorists, and systems engineers. The book is also intended for use in upper division undergraduate students and early graduate students studying computer architecture or embedded systems. It is an excellent text for use as a supplement or alternative in traditional Computer Architecture Courses, or in courses entitled "Special Topics in Computer Architecture."
This is a practical guide for software developers, and different than other software architecture books.
Author: George Fairbanks
Publisher: Marshall & Brainerd
This is a practical guide for software developers, and different than other software architecture books. Here's why: It teaches risk-driven architecting. There is no need for meticulous designs when risks are small, nor any excuse for sloppy designs when risks threaten your success. This book describes a way to do just enough architecture. It avoids the one-size-fits-all process tar pit with advice on how to tune your design effort based on the risks you face. It democratizes architecture. This book seeks to make architecture relevant to all software developers. Developers need to understand how to use constraints as guiderails that ensure desired outcomes, and how seemingly small changes can affect a system's properties. It cultivates declarative knowledge. There is a difference between being able to hit a ball and knowing why you are able to hit it, what psychologists refer to as procedural knowledge versus declarative knowledge. This book will make you more aware of what you have been doing and provide names for the concepts. It emphasizes the engineering. This book focuses on the technical parts of software development and what developers do to ensure the system works not job titles or processes. It shows you how to build models and analyze architectures so that you can make principled design tradeoffs. It describes the techniques software designers use to reason about medium to large sized problems and points out where you can learn specialized techniques in more detail. It provides practical advice. Software design decisions influence the architecture and vice versa. The approach in this book embraces drill-down/pop-up behavior by describing models that have various levels of abstraction, from architecture to data structure design.
Release on 2014-12-08 | by Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger
Constance Adams is a specialist in highperformance architecture, particularly in architectures for human space flight ... in 2005 for her work in space and terrestrial architecture and the adaptive transfer of sustainable technologies.
Author: Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Forty years on from the first moon landing, architecture in Space is entering a new era. Over the last decade, there has been a fundamental shift in the Space industry from short-term pioneering expeditions to long-term planning for colonisation, and new ventures such as Space tourism. Architects are now involved in designing the interiors of long-term habitable structures in Space, such as the International Space Station, researching advanced robotic fabrication technologies for building structures on the Moon and Mars, envisioning new 'space yachts' for the super-rich, and building new facilities, such as the Virgin Galactic 'Spaceport America' in New Mexico designed by Foster + Partners. Meanwhile the mystique of Space remains as alluring as ever, as high-profile designers and educators – such as Greg Lynn – are running designs studios drawing upon ever more inventive computational design techniques. This issue of AD features the most significant current projects underway and highlights key areas of research in Space, such as energy, materials, manufacture and robotics. It also looks at how this research and investment in new technologies might transfer to terrestrial design and construction. Space architects: Constance Adams, Marc Cohen, Ondrej Doule, Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger, Scott Howe, Brent Sherwood, Madhu Thangavelu, Andreas Vogler, Robert Zubrin. Architects: Bevk Perovic Arhitekti, Dekleva Gregoric Arhitekti, Foster + Partners, Neil Leach, Greg Lynn, OFIS architects, SADAR + VUGA.
Open and closed layered architecture: Refers to two types of implementation of the layered architecture. In the closed layered architecture, each layer can access only the layer underneath, while in the open layered architecture, ...
Author: Aharon Yadin
Publisher: CRC Press
Computer Systems Architecture provides IT professionals and students with the necessary understanding of computer hardware. It addresses the ongoing issues related to computer hardware and discusses the solutions supplied by the industry. The book describes trends in computing solutions that led to the current available infrastructures, tracing the initial need for computers to recent concepts such as the Internet of Things. It covers computers’ data representation, explains how computer architecture and its underlying meaning changed over the years, and examines the implementations and performance enhancements of the central processing unit (CPU). It then discusses the organization, hierarchy, and performance considerations of computer memory as applied by the operating system and illustrates how cache memory significantly improves performance. The author proceeds to explore the bus system, algorithms for ensuring data integrity, input and output (I/O) components, methods for performing I/O, various aspects relevant to software engineering, and nonvolatile storage devices, such as hard drives and technologies for enhancing performance and reliability. He also describes virtualization and cloud computing and the emergence of software-based systems’ architectures. Accessible to software engineers and developers as well as students in IT disciplines, this book enhances readers’ understanding of the hardware infrastructure used in software engineering projects. It enables readers to better optimize system usage by focusing on the principles used in hardware systems design and the methods for enhancing performance.
Architecture Quantum Redux: Choosing Between Monolithic Versus Distributed Architectures Recalling the discussion defining architecture quantum in “Architectural Quanta and Granularity”, the architecture quantum defines the scope of ...
Author: Mark Richards
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
Salary surveys worldwide regularly place software architect in the top 10 best jobs, yet no real guide exists to help developers become architects. Until now. This book provides the first comprehensive overview of software architecture’s many aspects. Aspiring and existing architects alike will examine architectural characteristics, architectural patterns, component determination, diagramming and presenting architecture, evolutionary architecture, and many other topics. Mark Richards and Neal Ford—hands-on practitioners who have taught software architecture classes professionally for years—focus on architecture principles that apply across all technology stacks. You’ll explore software architecture in a modern light, taking into account all the innovations of the past decade. This book examines: Architecture patterns: The technical basis for many architectural decisions Components: Identification, coupling, cohesion, partitioning, and granularity Soft skills: Effective team management, meetings, negotiation, presentations, and more Modernity: Engineering practices and operational approaches that have changed radically in the past few years Architecture as an engineering discipline: Repeatable results, metrics, and concrete valuations that add rigor to software architecture
The systems programmers who write operating systems, compilers, linkers, loaders, and so on, need to know and use the details of a computer architecture in order to extract the maximum performance from the system.
Author: Joseph D. Dumas II
Publisher: CRC Press
Not only does almost everyone in the civilized world use a personal computer, smartphone, and/or tablet on a daily basis to communicate with others and access information, but virtually every other modern appliance, vehicle, or other device has one or more computers embedded inside it. One cannot purchase a current-model automobile, for example, without several computers on board to do everything from monitoring exhaust emissions, to operating the anti-lock brakes, to telling the transmission when to shift, and so on. Appliances such as clothes washers and dryers, microwave ovens, refrigerators, etc. are almost all digitally controlled. Gaming consoles like Xbox, PlayStation, and Wii are powerful computer systems with enhanced capabilities for user interaction. Computers are everywhere, even when we don’t see them as such, and it is more important than ever for students who will soon enter the workforce to understand how they work. This book is completely updated and revised for a one-semester upper level undergraduate course in Computer Architecture, and suitable for use in an undergraduate CS, EE, or CE curriculum at the junior or senior level. Students should have had a course(s) covering introductory topics in digital logic and computer organization. While this is not a text for a programming course, the reader should be familiar with computer programming concepts in at least one language such as C, C++, or Java. Previous courses in operating systems, assembly language, and/or systems programming would be helpful, but are not essential.
Sasha Sirotkin Intel Corporation, Israel In this section we discuss the gNB-CU/DU split architecture, which is equivalent to option 2 from the 5G study, which we mentioned in Section 4.1. The RAN architecture has been evolving over the ...
Author: Sasha Sirotkin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
Discover how the NG-RAN architecture is, and isn't, ready for the challenges introduced by 5G 5G Radio Access Network Architecture: The Dark Side of 5G explores foundational and advanced topics in Radio Access Network (RAN) architecture and why a re-thinking of that architecture is necessary to support new 5G requirements. The distinguished engineer and editor Sasha Sirotkin has included numerous works written by industry insiders with state of the art research at their disposal. The book explains the relevant standards and technologies from an academic perspective, but also explains why particular standards decisions were made and how a variety of NG-RAN architecture options could be deployed in real-life networks. All major standards and technologies associated with the NG-RAN architecture are discussed in this book, including 3GPP, O-RAN, Small Cell Forum, IEEE, and IETF. Readers will learn about how a re-design of the RAN architecture would ensure that 5G networks can deliver their promised throughput and low latency KPIs consistently and sustainably. The book is structured as follows: An overview of the market drivers of the NG-RAN architecture, like spectrum models, 5G-relevant regulatory considerations, and 5G radio interface technical requirements An overview of the 5G System, from the core network, to the RAN, to the radio interface protocols and physical layer, with emphasis on how these are different compared to 4G Release-15 RAN architectures defined in 3GPP, O-RAN, and Small Cell Forum RAN architecture evolution in Release-16 and Release-17 Enabling technologies, like virtualization, open source technologies, multi-access edge (MEC) computing, and operations, administration, and management (OAM) NG-RAN deployment considerations, objectives, and challenges, like costs, spectrum and radio propagation considerations, and coverage Perfect for network designers and operators who require a solid understanding of the NG-RAN architecture, 5G Radio Access Network Architecture also belongs on the bookshelves of network engineers who aim to increase their understanding of the standards and technologies relevant to the NG-RAN architecture.
A practitioners guide to choosing relevant Big Data architecture Bahaaldine Azarmi. Defining. the. Processing. Topology. In the previous chapter, I explained how to use a NoSQL technology in the architecture that you're building in this ...
Author: Bahaaldine Azarmi
This book highlights the different types of data architecture and illustrates the many possibilities hidden behind the term "Big Data", from the usage of No-SQL databases to the deployment of stream analytics architecture, machine learning, and governance. Scalable Big Data Architecture covers real-world, concrete industry use cases that leverage complex distributed applications , which involve web applications, RESTful API, and high throughput of large amount of data stored in highly scalable No-SQL data stores such as Couchbase and Elasticsearch. This book demonstrates how data processing can be done at scale from the usage of NoSQL datastores to the combination of Big Data distribution. When the data processing is too complex and involves different processing topology like long running jobs, stream processing, multiple data sources correlation, and machine learning, it’s often necessary to delegate the load to Hadoop or Spark and use the No-SQL to serve processed data in real time. This book shows you how to choose a relevant combination of big data technologies available within the Hadoop ecosystem. It focuses on processing long jobs, architecture, stream data patterns, log analysis, and real time analytics. Every pattern is illustrated with practical examples, which use the different open sourceprojects such as Logstash, Spark, Kafka, and so on. Traditional data infrastructures are built for digesting and rendering data synthesis and analytics from large amount of data. This book helps you to understand why you should consider using machine learning algorithms early on in the project, before being overwhelmed by constraints imposed by dealing with the high throughput of Big data. Scalable Big Data Architecture is for developers, data architects, and data scientists looking for a better understanding of how to choose the most relevant pattern for a Big Data project and which tools to integrate into that pattern.
Architecture Re-Assembled: The Use (and Abuse) of History. London and New York: Routledge, 2013. Gaze, John. Figures in a Landscape; A History of the National Trust. London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1988. Ghirardo, Diane.
Author: Jonathan Hill
The Architecture of Ruins: Designs on the Past, Present and Future identifies an alternative and significant history of architecture from the sixteenth century to the twenty-first century, in which a building is designed, occupied and imagined as a ruin. This design practice conceives a monument and a ruin as creative, interdependent and simultaneous themes within a single building dialectic, addressing temporal and environmental questions in poetic, psychological and practical terms, and stimulating questions of personal and national identity, nature and culture, weather and climate, permanence and impermanence and life and death. Conceiving a building as a dialogue between a monument and a ruin intensifies the already blurred relations between the unfinished and the ruined and envisages the past, the present and the future in a single architecture. Structured around a collection of biographies, this book conceives a monument and a ruin as metaphors for a life and means to negotiate between a self and a society. Emphasising the interconnections between designers and the particular ways in which later architects learned from earlier ones, the chapters investigate an evolving, interdisciplinary design practice to show the relevance of historical understanding to design. Like a history, a design is a reinterpretation of the past that is meaningful to the present. Equally, a design is equivalent to a fiction, convincing users to suspend disbelief. We expect a history or a novel to be written in words, but they can also be delineated in drawing, cast in concrete or seeded in soil. The architect is a ‘physical novelist’ as well as a ‘physical historian’. Like building sites, ruins are full of potential. In revealing not only what is lost, but also what is incomplete, a ruin suggests the future as well as the past. As a stimulus to the imagination, a ruin’s incomplete and broken forms expand architecture’s allegorical and metaphorical capacity, indicating that a building can remain unfinished, literally and in the imagination, focusing attention on the creativity of users as well as architects. Emphasising the symbiotic relations between nature and culture, a building designed, occupied and imagined as a ruin acknowledges the coproduction of multiple authors, whether human, non-human or atmospheric, and is an appropriate model for architecture in an era of increasing climate change.
architecture begins with the cave as a response to the basic human need for shelter.54 Later, shelters became embellished and more commodious. In each case, a basic art of necessity became elevated through embellishment.
Author: Stephen Parcell
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
Where does architecture belong in the larger scheme of things? Is it a liberal art? Is it related to painting, music, medicine, or horse training? Is it timeless, or does it have a beginning? To pursue such questions, Stephen Parcell investigates four historical definitions of Western architecture: as a techné in ancient Greece, a mechanical art in medieval Europe, an art of disegno in Renaissance Italy, and a fine art in eighteenth-century Europe. These definitions situated architecture within larger classifications of knowledge, establishing alliances between architecture and other disciplines. They also influenced elements of architectural practice that we now associate with three characters (designer, builder, and dweller) and three things (material, drawing, and building). Guided by current architectural questions, Parcell examines writings in these historical periods and focuses on practical implications of texts by Hugh of St Victor, Leon Battista Alberti, and Etienne-Louis Boullée. Four Historical Definitions of Architecture shows how the concept of architecture and elements of architectural practice have evolved over time. Even the word "architecture" has ambiguous roots.
 F. Li, C. Nicopoulos, T. Richardson, Y. Xie, N. Vijaykrishnan, and M. Kandemir, “Design and management of 3D chip multiprocessors using network-in-memory,” in International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA'06), 2006.
Author: Yuan Xie
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the "memory wall" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to designing future 3D microprocessor systems, by leveraging the benefits of low latency, high bandwidth, and heterogeneous integration capability which are offered by 3D technology.
Release on 2014-01-01 | by Kathleen James-Chakraborty
Although built of bricks and mortar, concrete and steel, architecture, even an architecture based on the frank depiction of its own construction, rarely succeeded in representing reality. Paradoxically, the modern movement became widely ...
Author: Kathleen James-Chakraborty
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
The first global history of architecture to give equal attention to Western and non-Western structures and built landscapes, Architecture since 1400 is unprecedented in its range, approach, and insight. From Tenochtitlan’s Great Pyramid in Mexico City and the Duomo in Florence to Levittown’s suburban tract housing and the Bird’s Nest Stadium in Beijing, its coverage includes the world’s most celebrated structures and spaces along with many examples of more humble vernacular buildings. Lavishly illustrated with more than 300 photographs, plans, and interiors, this book presents key moments and innovations in architectural modernity around the globe. Deftly integrating architectural and social history, Kathleen James-Chakraborty pays particular attention to the motivations of client and architect in the design and construction of environments both sacred and secular: palaces and places of worship as well as such characteristically modern structures as the skyscraper, the department store, and the cinema. She also focuses on the role of patrons and addresses to an unparalleled degree the impact of women in commissioning, creating, and inhabiting the built environment, with Gertrude Jekyll, Lina Bo Bardi, and Zaha Hadid taking their place beside Brunelleschi, Sinan, and Le Corbusier. Making clear that visionary architecture has never been the exclusive domain of the West and recognizing the diversity of those responsible for commissioning, designing, and constructing buildings, Architecture since 1400 provides a sweeping, cross-cultural history of the built environment over six centuries.
We argue that: • 'Sustainable architecture' is a cultural construction in that it is a label for a revised conceptualization of architecture; • Within this revised conceptualization, by designing (more) 'sustainable architecture' we ...
Author: Helen Bennetts
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Understanding Sustainable Architecture is a review of the assumptions, beliefs, goals and bodies of knowledge that underlie the endeavour to design (more) sustainable buildings and other built developments. Much of the available advice and rhetoric about sustainable architecture begins from positions where important ethical, cultural and conceptual issues are simply assumed. If sustainable architecture is to be a truly meaningful pursuit then it must be grounded in a coherent theoretical framework. This book sets out to provide that framework. Through a series of self-reflective questions for designers, the authors argue the ultimate importance of reasoned argument in ecological, social and built contexts, including clarity in the problem framing and linking this framing to demonstrably effective actions. Sustainable architecture, then, is seen as a revised conceptualisation of architecture in response to a myriad of contemporary concerns about the effects of human activity. The aim of this book is to be transformative by promoting understanding and discussion of commonly ignored assumptions behind the search for a more environmentally sustainable approach to development. It is argued that design decisions must be based on both an ethical position and a coherent understanding of the objectives and systems involved. The actions of individual designers and appropriate broader policy settings both follow from this understanding.
(1987) aRetour en ville,des réactions à brûle pourpoint«, Architecture d'Aujourd'hui 253, October, pp. 2¥ 9 ¦¦ (1990) aPargade voiesparallèles«, d'Architectures,4. April,pp. 24¥7. Lane,A. (1991) aUrban morphology«, Urban Design ...
Author: Sebastian Loew
Modern Architecture in Historic Cities illustrates why France has been so successful in combining conservation and modernity, and points to important lessons for other countries which can be drawn from the French experience. Beginning with an empirical review of particular events which have affected attitudes towards heritage in France, this book highlights the continuity in French thinking and the longstanding role of the French government as patron and leader. Planning, conservation and design control legislation are examined, highlighting the range of instruments available to government in order to influence results and enhance the role of the architectural profession.
[KOL 00] KOLAREVIC B., “Digital morphogenesis and computational architectures”, Proceedings from Sigradi, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 98–103, 2000. [KOL 05] KOLAREVIC B., Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, ...
Author: Xavier Marsault
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book can be first considered as a complete synthesis of the EcCoGen ANR project (2011-2012), involving researchers from different French labs (including MAP) and domains, breaking major difficulties of the real-time generative design in the early stages of a pre-architectural project. Then the scope becomes larger, and the authors introduce major prospects following recent advances on natural and artificial evolution.
Information Technology / Software Engineering & Systems Development Modern-day projects require software and systems engineers to work together in realizing architectures of large and complex software-intensive systems.
Author: Raghvinder S. Sangwan
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Business & Economics
Modern-day projects require software and systems engineers to work together in realizing architectures of large and complex software-intensive systems. To date, the two have used their own tools and methods to deal with similar issues when it comes to the requirements, design, testing, maintenance, and evolution of these architectures. Software and Systems Architecture in Action explores practices that can be helpful in the development of architectures of large-scale systems in which software is a major component. Examining the synergies that exist between the disciplines of software and systems engineering, it presents concepts, techniques, and methods for creating and documenting architectures. The book describes an approach to architecture design that is driven from systemic quality attributes determined from both the business and technical goals of the system, rather than just its functional requirements. This architecture-centric design approach utilizes analytically derived patterns and tactics for quality attributes that inform the architect’s design choices and help shape the architecture of a given system. The book includes coverage of techniques used to assess the impact of architecture-centric design on the structural complexity of a system. After reading the book, you will understand how to create architectures of systems and assess their ability to meet the business goals of your organization. Ideal for anyone involved with large and complex software-intensive systems, the book details powerful methods for engaging the software and systems engineers on your team. The book is also suitable for use in undergraduate and graduate-level courses on software and systems architecture as it exposes students to the concepts and techniques used to create and manage architectures of software-intensive systems.
Analogous to the cloud architectures, the big data landscape can be divided into four layers shown vertically in Figure 1-2: • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): This includes the storage, servers, and network as the base, ...
Author: Nitin Sawant
Big Data Application Architecture Pattern Recipes provides an insight into heterogeneous infrastructures, databases, and visualization and analytics tools used for realizing the architectures of big data solutions. Its problem-solution approach helps in selecting the right architecture to solve the problem at hand. In the process of reading through these problems, you will learn harness the power of new big data opportunities which various enterprises use to attain real-time profits. Big Data Application Architecture Pattern Recipes answers one of the most critical questions of this time 'how do you select the best end-to-end architecture to solve your big data problem?'. The book deals with various mission critical problems encountered by solution architects, consultants, and software architects while dealing with the myriad options available for implementing a typical solution, trying to extract insight from huge volumes of data in real–time and across multiple relational and non-relational data types for clients from industries like retail, telecommunication, banking, and insurance. The patterns in this book provide the strong architectural foundation required to launch your next big data application. The architectures for realizing these opportunities are based on relatively less expensive and heterogeneous infrastructures compared to the traditional monolithic and hugely expensive options that exist currently. This book describes and evaluates the benefits of heterogeneity which brings with it multiple options of solving the same problem, evaluation of trade-offs and validation of 'fitness-for-purpose' of the solution.