Arenas of Language Use

This collection presents outstanding examples of Clark's pioneering work on the pragmatics of language use and it will interest psychologists, linguists, computer scientists, and philosophers.

Arenas of Language Use

When we think of the ways we use language, we think of face-to-face conversations, telephone conversations, reading and writing, and even talking to oneself. These are arenas of language use—theaters of action in which people do things with language. But what exactly are they doing with language? What are their goals and intentions? By what processes do they achieve these goals? In these twelve essays, Herbert H. Clark and his colleagues discuss the collective nature of language—the ways in which people coordinate with each other to determine the meaning of what they say. According to Clark, in order for one person to understand another, there must be a "common ground" of knowledge between them. He shows how people infer this "common ground" from their past conversations, their immediate surroundings, and their shared cultural background. Clark also discusses the means by which speakers design their utterances for particular audiences and coordinate their use of language with other participants in a language arena. He argues that language use in conversation is a collaborative process, where speaker and listener work together to establish that the listener understands the speaker's meaning. Since people often use words to mean something quite different from the dictionary definitions of those words, Clark offers a realistic perspective on how speakers and listeners coordinate on the meanings of words. This collection presents outstanding examples of Clark's pioneering work on the pragmatics of language use and it will interest psychologists, linguists, computer scientists, and philosophers.

Designing Speech for a Recipient

Pragmatic directions about language use: Offers of words and relations. Language in Society 31, 181–212. Clark, H. (1999). ... In H. H. Clark (Ed.), Arenas of Language Use. Chicago: University of Chicago Press and Stanford: CSLI.

Designing Speech for a Recipient

This study asks how speakers adjust their speech to their addressees, focusing on the potential roles of cognitive representations such as partner models, automatic processes such as interactive alignment, and social processes such as interactional negotiation. The nature of addressee orientation is investigated on three candidates for so-called ‘simplified registers’: speech to children (also called motherese or baby talk), speech to foreigners (also called foreigner talk) and speech to robots. The volume integrates research from various disciplines, such as psychology, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics and conversation analysis, and offers both overviews of child-directed, foreigner-directed and robot-directed speech and in-depth analyses of the processes involved in adjusting to a communication partner.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Natural Language Use

Arenas of Language Use. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Clark, H. H. (1996). Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clark, H. H. (1997). Dogmas of understanding. Discourse Processes, 23, 567–598.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Natural Language Use

Contributors to this book argue that we should study the brain basis of language as used in our daily lives.

Using Language

Arenas of language use Language settings are of interest only as arenas of language use - as places where people do things with language . At the center of these arenas are the roles of speaker and addressee .

Using Language

Herbert Clark argues that language use is more than the sum of a speaker speaking and a listener listening. It is the joint action that emerges when speakers and listeners, writers and readers perform their individual actions in coordination, as ensembles. In contrast to work within the cognitive sciences, which has seen language use as an individual process, and to work within the social sciences, which has seen it as a social process, the author argues strongly that language use embodies both individual and social processes.

Language in Action

Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ... A developmental-functionalist approach to child language. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. ... In H. H. Clark (Ed.), Arenas of language use (pp. 248–297).

Language in Action

Face-to-face conversation is the site of sociality in all cultures and its child to adult mode facilitates social and cognitive development. These essays provide a psychological model of conversation that aids an understanding of key issues in social and developmental psychology.

What is English

Clark's metaphor for the location where speakers negotiate common ground and produce meaningful utterances is an arena of language use. It's a wonderfully apt metaphor, emphasizing as it does both language as a process ('use') and the ...

What is English

What is English? Can we be as certain as we usually are when we say something is not English? To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them. Finding an account that fits the constantly changing varieties of English is, Tim Machan finds, anything but simple. But he rises to the challenge, grappling with its elusive essence through episodes in its history. He looks at the ambitions of Caxton, the preoccupations of Johnson, and the eloquence of Churchill, tussles with the jargons of contemporary business, and pursues his object from rural America to James Cook's Australia. He examines creoles, pidgins, and dialects, and takes apart competing histories showing their assumptions and prejudices. Finally he reveals the stable category English, resting paradoxically within its constantly mutating forms and varieties. This is a book for everyone interested in English and the role of language in society and culture.

Language And Communicative Practices

And we have used such terms as a framework within which progressively to expand the unit of speech production beyond the ... No single metalanguage for participant roles will be adequate at all levels . ... In Arenas of Language Use .

Language And Communicative Practices

This book focuses on major theories of language from several disciplines and aims to develop an approach to communicative practice that combines the formal properties of linguistic systems with the dynamics of speech as social activity.

The Language Phenomenon

increase our understanding of the role that language use plays in language change, and its relation to other ... Bloomington (1977) Chafe, W. (ed): The Pear Stories Ablex, New York (1980) Clark, H.H.: Arenas of Language Use.

The Language Phenomenon

This volume contains a contemporary, integrated description of the processes of language. These range from fast scales (fractions of a second) to slow ones (over a million years). The contributors, all experts in their fields, address language in the brain, production of sentences and dialogues, language learning, transmission and evolutionary processes that happen over centuries or millenia, the relation between language and genes, the origins of language, self-organization, and language competition and death. The book as a whole will help to show how processes at different scales affect each other, thus presenting language as a dynamic, complex and profoundly human phenomenon.

The Intellective Space

Herbert Clark, Semantics and Comprehension; Arenas of Language Use; Using Language. Bruno Galantucci, ed., Experimental Semiotics: Studies on the Emergence and Evolution of Human Communication. 32. Categories in verbal and nonverbal ...

The Intellective Space

The Intellective Space explores the nature and limits of thought. It celebrates the poetic virtues of language and the creative imperfections of our animal minds while pleading for a renewal of the humanities that is grounded in a study of the sciences. According to Laurent Dubreuil, we humans both say more than we think and think more than we say. Dubreuil’s particular interest is the intellective space, a space where thought and knowledge are performed and shared. For Dubreuil, the term “cognition” refers to the minimal level of our mental operations. But he suggests that for humans there is an excess of cognition due to our extensive processing necessary for verbal language, brain dynamics, and social contexts. In articulating the intellective, Dubreuil includes “the productive undoing of cognition.” Dubreuil grants that cognitive operations take place and that protocols of experimental psychology, new techniques of neuroimagery, and mathematical or computerized models provide access to a certain understanding of thought. But he argues that there is something in thinking that bypasses cognitive structures. Seeking to theorize with the sciences, the book’s first section develops the “intellective hypothesis” and points toward the potential journey of ideas going beyond cognition, after and before computation. The second part, “Animal Meditations,” pursues some of the consequences of this hypothesis with regard to the disparaged but enduring project of metaphysics, with its emphasis on categories such as reality, humanness, and the soul.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

A7 UF Arekuna Indians Jarecoune Indians Jaricuna Indians Taulipang Indians Taurepan Indians BT Indians of South America — Venezuela Pemón Indians Arecuna language USE Arecuna dialect Arekaina Indians USE Arekena Indians Arekena Indians ...

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Library of Congress Subject Headings

K47 UF Kewapi language BT Papuan languages Kewa women USE Women , Kewa Kewabe ( Papua New Guinea people ) USE Kewa ( Papua ... USE Marketing - Key accounts Key accounts in selling USE Selling - Key accounts Key Arena ( Seattle , Wash . ) ...

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Nondescriptive Meaning and Reference

Clark, H. H. (1993), Arenas of Language Use. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cocchiarella, N. B. (1984), 'Philosophical Perspectives on Quantification in Tense and Modal Logic', in D. Gabbay and F. Guenthner (eds.) ...

Nondescriptive Meaning and Reference

Nondescriptive Meaning and Reference extends Wayne Davis's groundbreaking work on the foundations of semantics. Davis revives the classical doctrine that meaning consists in the expression of ideas, and advances the expression theory by showing how it can account for standard proper names, and the distinctive way their meaning determines their reference. He also shows how the theory can handle interjections, syncategorematic terms, conventional implicatures, and other cases long seen as difficult for both ideational and referential theories. The expression theory is founded on the fact that thoughts are event types with a constituent structure, and that thinking is a fundamental propositional attitude, distinct from belief and desire. Thought parts ('ideas' or 'concepts') are distinguished from both sensory images and conceptions. Word meaning is defined recursively: sentences and other complex expressions mean what they do in virtue of what thought parts their component words express and what thought structure the linguistic structure expresses; and unstructured words mean what they do in living languages in virtue of evolving conventions to use them to express ideas. The difficulties of descriptivism show that the ideas expressed by names are atomic or basic. The reference of a name is the extension of the idea it expresses, which is determined not by causal relations, but by its identity or content together with the nature of objects in the world. Hence a name's reference is dependent on, but not identical to, its meaning. A name is directly and rigidly referential because the extension of the idea it expresses is not determined by the extensions of component ideas. The expression theory thus has the strength of Fregeanism without its descriptivist bias, and of Millianism without its referentialist or causalist shortcomings. The referential properties of ideas can be set out recursively by providing a generative theory of ideas, assigning extensions to atomic ideas, and formulating rules whereby the semantic value of a complex idea is determined by the semantic values of its components. Davis also shows how referential properties can be treated using situation semantics and possible worlds semantics. The key is to drop the assumption that the values of intension functions are the referents of the words whose meaning they represent, and to abandon the necessity of identity for logical modalities. Many other pillars of contemporary philosophical semantics, such as the twin earth arguments, are shown to be unfounded.

The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism

The consequences of ideological stances about language can be seen in many different arenas. ... Policies and their underlying ideologies also influence how we all use language, including the individual choices we make and the resulting ...

The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism

The ability to speak two or more languages is a common human experience, whether for children born into bilingual families, young people enrolled in foreign language classes, or mature and older adults learning and using more than one language to meet life's needs and desires. This Handbook offers a developmentally oriented and socially contextualized survey of research into individual bilingualism, comprising the learning, use and, as the case may be, unlearning of two or more spoken and signed languages and language varieties. A wide range of topics is covered, from ideologies, policy, the law, and economics, to exposure and input, language education, measurement of bilingual abilities, attrition and forgetting, and giftedness in bilinguals. Also explored are cross- and intra-disciplinary connections with psychology, clinical linguistics, second language acquisition, education, cognitive science, neurolinguistics, contact linguistics, and sign language research.

Contemporary Issues in Social Media Marketing

'Arenas of language use', Arenas of Language Use, 18:6, p. xviii, 419. Coleman, J. S. 1988. 'Social capital in the creation of human capital', American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95–S120. Dieberger, A., P. Dourish, K. Höök, ...

Contemporary Issues in Social Media Marketing

In a short time span, social media has transformed communication, as well as the way consumers buy, live and utilize products and services. Understanding the perspectives of both consumers and marketers can help organizations to design, develop and implement better social media marketing strategies. However, academic research on social media marketing has not kept pace with the practical applications and this has led to a critical void in social media literature. This new text expertly bridges that void. Contemporary Issues in Social Media provides the most cutting edge findings in social media marketing, through original chapters from a range of the world’s leading specialists in the area. Topics include: • The consumer journey in a social media world • Social media and customer relationship management (CRM) • Social media marketing goals and objectives • Social media and recruitment • Microblogging strategy And many more. The book is ideal for students of social media marketing, social media marketing professionals, researchers and academicians who are interested in knowing more about social media marketing. The book will also become a reference resource for those organizations which want to use social media marketing for their brands.

40th Clinical Aphasiology Conference

Language andCognitive Processes, 23(4), 495–527. Bates, E., Friederici,A., &Wulfeck, B. (1987). Grammatical morphologyinaphasia: Evidence from three languages. Cortex, 23, 545–574. Clark, H. (1992).Arenasof language use.

40th Clinical Aphasiology Conference

First published in 2011. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Language in Hong Kong at Century s End

The latter work, in conjunction with the present findings, suggests two different arenas of dual language use, one tied to academic contexts and the other to the community at large. The first arena, in which the leaders are teachers, ...

Language in Hong Kong at Century s End

This volume offers a view of the linguistic situation in Hong Kong in the final years of the twentieth century, as it enters the post-colonial era. In the chapters of this book, scholars from Hong Kong and around the world present a contemporary profile of Chinese, English, and other languages in dynamic interaction in this major international economic centre. Authors survey usage of different languages and attitudes towards them among students, teachers, and the general population based on census data, newpapers, language diaries, interviews, and questionnaires. They address issues of code-mixing, the shift from English-medium to Chinese-medium education, the place of Putonghua in the local language mix, and the language of minority groups such as Hong Kong Indians.This wide-ranging group of original studies provides a social and historical perspective from which to consider developments in language among the past, present, and future populations of Hong Kong.

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Area technical - vocational centers USE Area vocational - technical centers Area vocational - technical centers ( May ... Solomon Islanders Areare language ( PL6219 UF Are are language BT Melanesian languages Areas , Health service USE ...

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A New Architecture for Functional Grammar

Nevertheless, we are aware that psychologists, too, have been moving away from the examination of individual utterances towards considering 'arenas of language use', as Clark (1992) has it, and the entire range of activities that occur ...

A New Architecture for Functional Grammar

This volume, which represents a major advance on Simon Dik's final statement of the theory (1997), lays the foundation for the future evolution of FG towards a Functional Discourse Grammar. It rises to the double challenge of specifying the interface between discourse and grammar and of detailing the expression rules that link semantic representation and morphosyntactic form. The opening chapter, by Kees Hengeveld, sets out in programmatic form a new architecture for FG which both preserves the best of the traditional model and offers a place for numerous recent insights. The remaining chapters are devoted to refining and developing the programme laid down by Hengeveld, bringing in data from a range of languages as well as theoretical insights inspired by adjoining frameworks. Of special interest are an account by Matthew Anstey of how current proposals arise from the history of FG and various chapters in which the model is brought much closer to an account of real-time language production, notably including the first ever detailed account of the workings of expression rules, by Dik Bakker and Anna Siewierska. The final chapter, also by Hengeveld, draws together the findings of the various chapters, culminating in an elaborated model that represents the most sophisticated statement of Functional Grammar currently available. The volume thus gives a coherent account of FG as a theory which combines formal explicitness with a broad account of language functions.

Language of Inequality

There are two arenas in which language use is particularly problematic and important, because interethnic contact there is frequent and the outcome of interaction therein has a large impact on people's lives. The first arena is that of ...

Language of Inequality

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE brings to students, researchers and practitioners in all of the social and language-related sciences carefully selected book-length publications dealing with sociolinguistic theory, methods, findings and applications. It approaches the study of language in society in its broadest sense, as a truly international and interdisciplinary field in which various approaches, theoretical and empirical, supplement and complement each other. The series invites the attention of linguists, language teachers of all interests, sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, historians etc. to the development of the sociology of language.

Models of Reference

Preschool children's use of definite and indefinite articles. Child Dev. ... The effect of perceptual availability and prior discourse on young children's use of referring expressions. Appl. Psycholinguist. ... Arenas of Language Use.

Models of Reference

To communicate, speakers need to make it clear what they are talking about. Referring expressions play a crucial part in achieving this, by anchoring utterances to things. Examples of referring expressions include noun phrases such as “this phenomenon”, “it” and “the phenomenon to which this Topic is devoted”. Reference is studied throughout the Cognitive Sciences (from philosophy and logic to neuro-psychology, computer science and linguistics), because it is thought to lie at the core of all of communication. Recent years have seen a new wave of work on models of referring, as witnessed by a number of recent research projects, books, and journal Special Issues. The Research Topic “Models of Reference” in Frontiers in Psychology is a new milestone, focusing on contributions from Psycholinguistics and Computational Linguistics. The articles in it are concerned with such issues as audience design, overspecification, visual perception, and variation between speakers.