Ba Gua Nei Gong Vol 2

This is followed by a unique discussion of Daoist symbolism and imagery and its relationship to meditation and internal alchemy.

Ba Gua Nei Gong Vol  2

At its heart, Daoist meditation is a simple and practical method of establishing unity between our internal environment and the external world so that we can engage with life in a clear and present way. Decoding the Dao: Nine Lessons in Daoist Meditation, by Tom Bisio, is a complete and comprehensive guide to Daoist meditation. In Decoding the Dao: Nine Lessons in Daoist Meditation, author Tom Bisio introduces the reader to the poetry and pragmatism of Daoist meditation and the practice of Internal Alchemy. The first half this unique book consists of nine progressive lessons that guide the reader step by step through the practice of Daoist meditation, ending with an introduction to Daoist Internal Alchemy. The nine lessons teach the reader how to observe and transform their own internal landscape, in order to rejuvenate and replenish the body's innate energies, thereby promoting health and nourishing life and spirit. The lessons can be practiced in sequence or individually, providing the reader with a veritable toolbox of meditative practices that can be used flexibly to address different situations and circumstances. Each lesson contains both practice exercises and discussions of relevant topics to flesh out the reasoning behind the various methods of meditation and help the reader more deeply understand the principles and theories that underlie the practice. Beyond the nine lessons, additional chapters introduce advanced practices like the Greater Heavenly Orbit Meditation and other traditional Daoist methods of promoting health and longevity. This is followed by a unique discussion of Daoist symbolism and imagery and its relationship to meditation and internal alchemy. Daoist symbols and images act as a kind of code that, when decoded and understood, aid the meditator, giving him or her an alternative and imagery-rich language which bypasses habitual mental constructs and perceptual habits, facilitating the perception of subtle movements and changes within the

Liu Bin s Zhuang Gong Bagua Zhang Volume One

The Yin chi and the Yang chi follow your hands and go down through the Bai Hui point , down the central channel , and to the Dan Tian . Let it stay there . ... Standing Chi Gong Preparation ... 2 3 66 - Liu Bin's Zhuang Gong Bagua Zhang.

Liu Bin s Zhuang Gong Bagua Zhang  Volume One

One of the three major orthodox internal styles of Chinese martial arts (along with Xing Yi Quan and Tai Ji Quan), Bagua Zhang (or Ba Gua Zhang) is also one of the most ancient and revered. The first volume in a series of two on the form, Liu Bin’s Zhuang Gong Bagua Zhang, Volume One, is written from the perspective of a wise master who gives equal attention to Bagua’s historical evolution and to the art and practice itself. A disciple of famous master Liu Xing Han and one who honed his skills for over 20 years under the same trees in Temple of Heaven Park as the originators of Bagua, Professor Zhang Jie is ideally suited for the task. He presents the fundamental theories of Bagua simply and clearly, in such a way that they comprise both a martial arts manual and a guide for everyday living. The idea of balance in all things is stressed throughout, as is the ancient Chinese philosophy that underlies Bagua. In addition to illustrations of the Bagua movements, the book contains previously unpublished historical photographs. Equally useful for novice and seasoned practitioners, as well as students of Chinese culture and history, Liu Bin’s Zhuang Gong Bagua Zhang immerses readers in all aspects of this important martial art.

Bagua and Xingyi An Intersection of the Straight and Curved

Xing Yi nei gong: Xing Yi health maintenance and internal strength development. Pacific Grove, CA: High View Publications. Needham, J. (1956). Science and civilisation in China, volume 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Olson, ...

Bagua and Xingyi  An Intersection of the Straight and Curved

Baguaquan and xingyiquan are two styles that complement each other as yin does yang. Bagua is known for its circular movements and its practice of circle walking. Xingyi embodies characteristic linear movements said to be derived form the logical strategies for using spear and staff. How fortunate we are to include writings in this anthology by leading authorities on these styles. Separated into three sections, the first features bagua. Allen Pittman presents five variations of the single palm change, followed by an overview of the Yin Fun bagua lineage and an interview with He Jinbao focusing on training, fighting skills, teaching and learning. Travis Joern examines how a martial artist can apply the theoretical aspects of the Book of Changes to bagua training. Hong Dzehan (son of Hong Yixiang, stellar master of the three internal systems) then shares some of his personal experiences and favorite bagua techniques. Section two contains chapters on xingyi. The interview with Luo Dexiu questions the proper way to study xingyi from the beginning to the advanced levels. Robert Yu compares American boxing with xingyi's pragmatic fighting techniques and in the following chapter he recounts in detail how it was to study under Hong Yixiang in Taiwan nearly forty years ago. Stanley Henning gives a travelogue of a trip to Shanxi Province (the home of xingyi) and then discusses Che Style xingyi training methods as thought by Dr. Wu Chaoxiang, including the five element theory, twelve animal forms, two-person routines, and spear training. The third section presents some commonalities in what many refer to as the internal arts: bagua, xingyi, and taiji. The chapter on Fu family style beautifully details how they incorporated the essential elements of taiji, xingyi, and bagua into their majestic sixiangquan (four image boxing). Marcus Brinkman relates many of the unique insights and experiences he had during his extensive study with Lo Dexiu and Hong Yixiang, including internal development and fighting applications. Tim Cartmell provides the final chapter which explains the key concepts of “sticking and following” as they apply to the throwing methods of the Chinese internal martial arts. The rich content in this anthology comes from the rare academic and hands-on experience of those presented in chapters here. Readers will no doubt benefit from the practical practice tips as well as the other cultural details these wonderful authors share.

The Way of Qigong

Chinese Internal Martial Art: Baguazhang ... 2(ing Yi Nei Gong: Xing Yi Health Maintenance and Internal Strength Development. ... Chen Kung Series, vol. 2. St. Paul, MN: Dragon Door Publications, 1995. Pang, T. Y. On Tai Chi Chuan.

The Way of Qigong

Qigong is an integrated mind-body healing method that has been practiced with remarkable results in China for thousands of years. The Chinese have long treasured qigong for its effectiveness both in healing and in preventing disease, and more recently they have used it in conjunction with modern medicine to cure cancer, immune system disorders, and other life-threatening conditions. Now in this fascinating, comprehensive volume, renowned qigong master and China scholar Kenneth S. Cohen explains how you too can integrate qigong into your life--and harness the healing power that will help your mind and body achieve the harmony of true health.

Hygienic Modernity

2, 38–39. 51. What Needham refers to as the “enchyomoma” in Science and Civilization in China, vol. ... sequencing according to the eight trigrams (bagua) in Science and Civilization in China, vol 5, part 2, 49–67. 52.

Hygienic Modernity

Placing meanings of health and disease at the center of modern Chinese consciousness, Ruth Rogaski reveals how hygiene became a crucial element in the formulation of Chinese modernity in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rogaski focuses on multiple manifestations across time of a single Chinese concept, weisheng—which has been rendered into English as "hygiene," "sanitary," "health," or "public health"—as it emerged in the complex treaty-port environment of Tianjin. Before the late nineteenth century, weisheng was associated with diverse regimens of diet, meditation, and self-medication. Hygienic Modernity reveals how meanings of weisheng, with the arrival of violent imperialism, shifted from Chinese cosmology to encompass such ideas as national sovereignty, laboratory knowledge, the cleanliness of bodies, and the fitness of races: categories in which the Chinese were often deemed lacking by foreign observers and Chinese elites alike.

Progress in Physical activity and Exercise and Affective and Anxiety Disorders Translational Studies Perspectives and Future Directions

Bisio T. Ba Gua Circle Walking Nei Gong. Parker, CO: Outskirts Press (2012). ... Hanna T. Somatics: Reawakening the Mind's Control of Movement, Flexibility, and Health. (Vol. xiv). ... JRSM Short Rep (2011) 2(2):7. doi:10.1258/shorts.

Progress in Physical activity and Exercise and Affective and Anxiety Disorders  Translational Studies  Perspectives and Future Directions

Physical activity and exercise were receiving a great attention as a strategy of prevention and treatment of affective and some anxiety disorders. Many studies have showed the efficacy of exercise in major depression and at depressed episode of bipolar patients, as well as, some authors shows the benefits of exercise in some anxiety disorders like Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic. Despite their efficacy, little is known concerning the main mechanisms related to the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of exercise. Several studies in an animal model using Neurotrophic Factors, Oxidative Stress, Immunologic response and other biological markers reveal promising results. However, few studies were conducted in clinical samples. Additional to the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, exercise appears improve QoL in major depressed, bipolar and anxiety patients. Theoretically, this increase may be associated with cognitive improvements, improvements at sleep quality, physical functioning, as well as other psychological issues as self-esteem, self-concept, and general well-being. The propose of this topic is to address the novelty and most recent research, related to antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of physical activity and exercise in patients with affective and anxiety disorders, as well as the issues associated with QoL improvement.The topic is looking for: – Clinical trials using exercise and physical activity as a treatment affective and anxiety disorders. – Studies investigating the optimal prescription factors (dose, volume, intensity, setting, frequency) associated with antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of physical activity and exercise for affective and anxiety disorder patients. – Original studies, comprehensive reviews, hypothesis and opinions concerning the mechanisms of antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of physical activity and exercise in affective and anxiety disorder patients. – Original studies, comprehensive reviews, hypothesis and opinions concerning other benefits of physical activity and exercise like : cognition, weight gain prevention and QoL in affective and anxiety disorder patients. – Translational research. – Studies of cost-efficacy analysis.

Black Belt

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Black Belt

The oldest and most respected martial arts title in the industry, this popular monthly magazine addresses the needs of martial artists of all levels by providing them with information about every style of self-defense in the world - including techniques and strategies. In addition, Black Belt produces and markets over 75 martial arts-oriented books and videos including many about the works of Bruce Lee, the best-known marital arts figure in the world.

World Century Compendium To Tcm Volume 7 Introduction To Tui Na

Clinical applications Kneading nèi láo gōng clears heat and resolves vexation, and can be used in conjunction with clearing xīn jīng and tiān hé shuĭ. nèibā guà (内八卦) Location The surface by taking 2/3 of the distance between the ...

World Century Compendium To Tcm   Volume 7  Introduction To Tui Na

Traditional Chinese tui na, one of the earliest medical treatment methods with a long history tracing back to ancient times, is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This book is compiled with the aim of popularizing tui na modality along with allowing readers to understand and master the fundamental theories, basic techniques, commonly used acupoints and parts, and diagnosis and treatment methods of diseases in a relatively short period of time. The book is a summary of clinical experiences of tui na with practical contents and detailed illustrations, which can be easily appreciated and serve both purposes of the popularization of tui na and advancement in this field.The book introduces 25 common maneuvers including manipulations in children, more than 70 common diseases with diagnostic, treatment, and preventive methods, and some 240 images illustrating acupoints, maneuvers, examination, and treatment methods in order to facilitate study and learning. The formal arrangement totals 14 weeks, with two days of extra content, adding up to one hundred days. Lastly, the book has appended four indices: Common Tui Na Acupoints and Areas, Common Tui Na Maneuvers, Common Examinations, and Common Applicable Diseases and Symptoms.After completion of the book, readers will be able to understand the main essence in the discipline of tui na and dispel the stereotypical view that tui na can only treat pains and movement disorders. The correct concept should be established so that it can be applied to a variety of diseases in internal medicine, external medicine, gynecology, and pediatrics in clinical practice. In addition, the readers will have built a solid foundation for a further and more in-depth grasp of the discipline.

Research of Martial Arts

Erle Montaigue, Tai Chi to the Max, Volume 1: The Old Yang Style "Hao Chuan"; 2002 re-mastered edition (Instructional Video). ... Zhang Yun, Sorting Out Taiji, Bagua and Xingyi, Internal Martial Arts Magazine (?), 8th issue (Article).

Research of Martial Arts

Jonathan Bluestein's Research of Martial Arts is a book about the true essence of martial arts. It includes neither instruction on deadly killing techniques, nor mystical tales of so called super-human masters. Rather, it is a vast compilation of seriously thought-out observations made on the subject by the author, as well as many other martial artists and scientists, with a slight touch of history and humour. The goal of this project had from the start been to surpass the current standard in the martial arts literary market, and offer readers worldwide something which they have never seen before. In essence, a book in which are found countless answers for martial arts practitioners which they cannot be read elsewhere, which address commonly discussed martially-related topics with breadth and depth unparalleled in other works to this day (in any language). It holds among its pages no less than 220,000 words, containing knowledge which would be coveted by many. The aim of this book is to present the reader a coherent, clear-cut, and in-depth view of some of the most perplexing and controversial subjects in the world of martial arts, as well as providing a healthy dose of philosophical outlook on these subjects (from various individuals). At its core is the author's aspiration to build a stronger theoretical foundation for the discussion of martial arts, while addressing matters in innovative ways, which I have come to believe, would help people to better grasp the nature of these arts. There are books by authors who will tell you that some aspects of the martial arts are too complex for concrete, coherent and defined explanations. Others have used ambiguous terminology to explain what they could not pronounce otherwise. This is no such book. This book was written to provide you with the solid, applicable answers and ideas that you could actually understand, and take away with you. This book is mainly comprised of three parts: | Part I: From the Inside Out – External and Internal Gong Fu | This is essentially mostly a very long & thorough discussion of martial arts theory and practice. Traditional and modern concepts and methods are discussed through the mediums of Physiology, Biology, Anatomy, Psychology, Philosophy (Western and Oriental alike), sports science, and the author's personal experiences. The Internal Martial Arts of China receive a special, lengthier treatment in this part of the book. | Part II: Contemplations on Controlled Violence | This one is of a Philosophical and Psychological nature, and contains the author's thoughts on the martial arts and their manifestation in our daily lives, with guest-articles by various martial arts teachers. | Part III: The Wisdom of Martial Spirits: Teachers, and the Things They Hold Dear | This part includes various interesting and comprehensive interviews with distinguished martial arts masters, spanning dozens of pages each. Every one of the interviewees is a person whose views and ideas are thought provoking and well-worth reading. The teachers interviewed in this book are: Master Chen Zhonghua (Chen Taiji Quan) Master Yang Hai (Xing Yi Quan, Bagua Zhang and Chen Taiji Quan) Shifu Strider Clark (Tongbei Quan, Wu style Taiji, Shuai Jiao and more) Shifu Neil Ripski (Traditional Drunken Fist and many others) Sifu James Cama (Buddha Hand Wing Chun and Southern Praying Mantis) Itzik Cohen Sensei (Shito-ryu Karate) No matter the age, rank, status or experience – this book was written for everyone who see themselves part of the martial arts community. It is my sincere hope that any person who reads this book will benefit from the time he or she had spent doing so. May this work encourage others to continue intelligent writing and research in the field, as I was pushed forth and built upon the knowledge others have shared before me. May you have a pleasant reading experience! =]

Baguazhang

Bagua Ba Xing Zhang ( Bagua Eight Shape Palms ) 69 2. / # Ba Xing Zhang ( Eight Shape Palms ) 16 3. TEPEE ) Long Xing Baguazhang ( Dragon Shape Baguazhang ) 61 4. TÉ Jiu Gong Sanpanzhang ( Nine Palace Three Coiling Palms ) 70 5.

Baguazhang

This comprehensive guide explains the principles and practices essential for Bagua training.

The International Who s Who in Popular Music 2002

Musical Education : Bachelor of Music , Major in 1996 ; Q Magazine , Best Producer , 1996 ; Brit Awards ... Publications : Isoar and Question interests : Qi Gong ... Current Management : Jan Mark published in Real Book Vol . III .

The International Who s Who in Popular Music 2002

TheInternational Who's Who in Popular Music 2002offers comprehensive biographical information covering the leading names on all aspects of popular music. It brings together the prominent names in pop music as well as the many emerging personalities in the industry, providing full biographical details on pop, rock, folk, jazz, dance, world and country artists. Over 5,000 biographical entries include major career details, concerts, recordings and compositions, honors and contact addresses. Wherever possible, information is obtained directly from the entrants to ensure accuracy and reliability. Appendices include details of record companies, management companies, agents and promoters. The reference also details publishers, festivals and events and other organizations involved with music.

Politics and Identity in Chinese Martial Arts

Lianxiu Qi, ed., Zhongguo minjian gushi shi (The history of Chinese folktales: Qing dynasty) (Taipei: Showwe Information Co., Ltd, ... 5 (2001): 1–2. Kongzhao Zhang, Quan jing quanfa beiyao (Hand-to-hand combat classics), vol. 2, ed.

Politics and Identity in Chinese Martial Arts

Chinese martial arts is considered by many to symbolise the strength of the Chinese and their pride in their history, and has long been regarded as an important element of Chinese culture and national identity. Politics and Identity in Chinese Martial Arts comprehensively examines the development of Chinese martial arts in the context of history and politics, and highlights its role in nation building and identity construction over the past two centuries. ? This book explores how the development of Chinese martial arts was influenced by the ruling regimes’ political and military policies, as well as the social and economic environment. It also discusses the transformation of Chinese martial arts into its modern form as a competitive sport, a sport for all and a performing art, considering the effect of the rapid transformation of Chinese society in the 20th century and the influence of Western sports. The text concludes by examining the current prominence of Chinese martial arts on a global scale and the bright future of the sport as a unique cultural icon and national symbol of China in an era of globalisation. Politics and Identity in Chinese Martial Arts is important reading for researchers, students and scholars working in the areas of Chinese studies, Chinese history, political science and sports studies. It is also a valuable read for anyone with a special interest in Chinese martial arts.

A Companion to Yi jing Numerology and Cosmology

... hexagrams and belongs to the 9th month, see GUA QI. This is a 'weft hexagram' (fifi), see JING GUA 545%], def. 2. ... souls' (Efifi) of JING FANG's arrangement of 'the hexagrams of the eight palaces' (A'Efi), see BA GONG GUA.

A Companion to Yi jing Numerology and Cosmology

Translations of the Yi jing into western languages have been biased towards the yili ('meaning and pattern') tradition, whereas studies of the xiangshu ('image and number') tradition - which takes as its point of departure the imagery and numerology associated with divination and its hexagrams, trigrams, lines, and related charts and diagrams - has remained relatively unexplored. This major new reference work is organised as a Chinese-English encyclopedia, arranged alphabetically according to the pinyin romanisation, with Chinese characters appended. A character index as well as an English index is included. The entries are of two kinds: technical terms and various other concepts related to the 'image and number' tradition, and bio-bibliographical information on Chinese Yi jing scholars. Each entry in the former category has a brief explanation that includes references to the origins of the term, cross-references, and a reference to an entry giving a more comprehensive treatment of the subject.

并列题名:Chinese-English chinese traditional medical word-ocean dictionary

Bulletin of the Indo Pacific Prehistory Association

Dong Pu Di Yi Lin yi zhi Yu Shan guo jia gong yuan zao qi ren lei ju luo shi de kao gu xue yan jiu ( The Dongpu ... Tai Zhong xian Da Du shan taidi ji Zhang Hua Nan Tou xian jing Ba Gua shan Tai di shi qian wen hua diao cha bao gao ...

Bulletin of the Indo Pacific Prehistory Association


The Cambridge History of China Volume 15 The People s Republic Part 2 Revolutions Within the Chinese Revolution 1966 1982

... ko kci ken keng kung kou ku kua kuai kuan kuang kuci kun kuo gen geng gong gou gu gua guai guan guang gui gun guo ... ch'ui chun ch'un chuo choo ci tz'u cong ts'ung cou ts'ou ts'u cuan ts'uan cui ts'ui cun cuo ts'o ba bai ban bang ...

The Cambridge History of China  Volume 15  The People s Republic  Part 2  Revolutions Within the Chinese Revolution  1966 1982

International scholars and sinologists discuss culture, economic growth, social change, political processes, and foreign influences in China since the earliest pre-dynastic period.

The Encyclopedia of Taoism

2-volume set Fabrizio Pregadio. kua k'ua kuai k'uai kuan k'uan kuang k'uang kuei k'uei kun k'un kung k'ung kuo k'uo la lai lan lang lao le lei leng li liang liao lieh lien lin ling liu lo lou lu lü luan lüan lüeh lun lung ku gua kua ...

The Encyclopedia of Taoism

The Encyclopedia of Taoism provides comprehensive coverage of Taoist religion, thought and history, reflecting the current state of Taoist scholarship. Taoist studies have progressed beyond any expectation in recent years. Researchers in a number of languages have investigated topics virtually unknown only a few years previously, while others have surveyed for the first time textual, doctrinal and ritual corpora. The Encyclopedia presents the full gamut of this new research. The work contains approximately 1,750 entries, which fall into the following broad categories: surveys of general topics; schools and traditions; persons; texts; terms; deities; immortals; temples and other sacred sites. Terms are given in their original characters, transliterated and translated. Entries are thoroughly cross-referenced and, in addition, 'see also' listings are given at the foot of many entries. Attached to each entry are references taking the reader to a master bibliography at the end of the work. There is chronology of Taoism and the whole is thoroughly indexed. There is no reference work comparable to the Encyclopedia of Taoism in scope and focus. Authored by an international body of experts, the Encyclopedia will be an essential addition to libraries serving students and scholars in the fields of religious studies, philosophy and religion, and Asian history and culture.

Shen Gua s Empiricism

Zeng Gongliang BA and Ding Du T. Wujing zongyao it . ... Zhang Bangji 張邦基, Mozhuang finainlau 墨莊漫錄, annotated by Kong Fanli 孔凡禮, Beijing : Zhonghua shuju , 2002 . Zhang , Ellen Cong . ... In Quan Song biji , series 2 , vol .

Shen Gua s Empiricism

"Shen Gua (1031–1095) is a household name in China, known as a distinguished renaissance man and the author of Brush Talks from Dream Brook, an old text whose remarkable “scientific” discoveries make it appear curiously ahead of its time. In this first book-length study of Shen in English, Ya Zuo reveals the connection between Shen’s life as an active statesman and his ideas, specifically the empirical stance manifested through his wide-ranging inquiries. She places Shen on the broad horizon of premodern Chinese thought, and presents his empiricism within an extensive narrative of Chinese epistemology.Relying on Shen as a searchlight, Zuo focuses in on how an individual thinker summoned conditions and concepts from the vast Chinese intellectual tradition to build a singular way of knowing. Moreover, her study of Shen provides insights into the complex dynamics in play at the dawn of the age of Neo-Confucianism and compels readers to achieve a deeper appreciation of the diversity in Chinese thinking."

Modality in English and Chinese

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Modality in English and Chinese

Modality is a grammatical, or semantic-grammatical, category. It is an important component of human languages. This is at least the case in most European languages. To what extent is it a near-universal? This thesis is to contribute to the question. It focuses on modal verbs in English and Chinese, two genetically and geographically unrelated languages, and analyzes what these two languages have in common and how they differ in their systems of modality. To achieve the aim, the thesis adopts the theoretical framework proposed by van der Auwera (1996, 1998 with Plungian, 2001) for the typological study of modality. Its language-specific descriptions involve the morphosyntactic features, notional functions, modal logic, and diachronic development. With these descriptions, it constructs a cross-linguistic database in a uniform, parallel structure. Then on the basis of this database, it deals with the cross-linguistic issues about modality in English and Chinese. Like many of the studies in this area, this research makes use of the well-sampled data in the relevant literature, thereby assuring the same degree of representativeness. When the data do not meet this need, it resorts to computer-based corpora. In the diachronic study of Chinese modality, quantitative analysis is adopted in proposing a development path for the senses of a modal. English translation is given particular attention in the description of Chinese modality and cross-linguistic analyses. One can only know one's own language only if one compares it with other languages. The present study is conducive to a better understanding of English and Chinese. It contributes not only to the investigation of language universals, but also to the study of human cognition and other linguistic or applied linguistic issues.

The Animal and the Daemon in Early China

Attributed to Jiao Gong £ 6 ( Eastern Han ) . Sibu beiyao ed . Yi tong gua yan uw in Gu weishu ; Weishu jicheng . Yiwen leiju Compiled by Ouyang Xun ... Transcribed by Chen Songchang BA and Liao Mingchun 2 in Chen Guying BEE ( ed . ) ...

The Animal and the Daemon in Early China

Exploring the cultural perception of animals in early Chinese thought, this careful reading of Warring States and Han dynasty writings analyzes how views of animals were linked to human self perception and investigates the role of the animal world in the conception of ideals of sagehood and socio-political authority. Roel Sterckx shows how perceptions of the animal world influenced early Chinese views of man's place among the living species and in the world at large. He argues that the classic Chinese perception of the world did not insist on clear categorical or ontological boundaries between animals, humans, and other creatures such as ghosts and spirits. Instead the animal realm was positioned as part of an organic whole and the mutual relationships among the living species - both as natural and cultural creatures - were characterized as contingent, continuous, and interdependent.