Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology

The material in this volume provides the basic theory necessary to understand the principles behind imaging the subsurface of the Earth using reflection and refraction seismology.

Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology

The material in this volume provides the basic theory necessary to understand the principles behind imaging the subsurface of the Earth using reflection and refraction seismology. For reflection seismology, the end product is a "record section" from a collection of "wiggly traces" that are recorded in the field from which information about the properties of subsurface structure and rock can be derived. For the most part, the principles of imaging are the same regardless of the depth to the target; the same mathematical background is necessary for targeting a shallow water table as for investigating the base of the earth's continental "crust" at a depth of 30-50 km.

Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology

The material in this volume provides the basic theory necessary to understand the principles behind imaging the subsurface of the Earth using reflection and refraction seismology.

Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology

The material in this volume provides the basic theory necessary to understand the principles behind imaging the subsurface of the Earth using reflection and refraction seismology. For reflection seismology, the end product is a "record section" from a collection of "wiggly traces" that are recorded in the field from which information about the properties of subsurface structure and rock can be derived. For the most part, the principles of imaging are the same regardless of the depth to the target; the same mathematical background is necessary for targeting a shallow water table as for investigating the base of the earth's continental "crust" at a depth of 30-50 km.

Reflection Seismology

This book is a one-stop source of reflection seismology theory, helping scientists navigates through the wealth of new data processing techniques that have emerged in recent years.

Reflection Seismology

Authored by a geophysicist with more than 50 years of experience in research and instruction, Reflection Seismology: Theory, Data Processing and Interpretation provides a single source of foundational knowledge in reflection seismology principles and theory. Reflection seismology has a broad range of applications and is used primarily by the oil and gas industry to provide high-resolution maps and build a coherent geological story from maps of processed seismic reflections. Combined with seismic attribute analysis and other exploration geophysics tools, it aids geologists and geo-engineers in creating geological models of areas of exploration and extraction interest. Yet as important as reflection seismology is to the hydrocarbon industry, it’s difficult to find a single source that synthesizes the topic without having to wade through numerous journal articles from a range of different publishers. This book is a one-stop source of reflection seismology theory, helping scientists navigates through the wealth of new data processing techniques that have emerged in recent years. Provides geoscientists and geo-engineers with a theoretical framework for navigating the rapid emergence of new data processing techniques Presents a single source of reflection seismology content instead of a scattering of disparate journal articles Features more than 100 figures, illustrations, and working examples to aid the reader in retaining key concepts Arms geophysicists and geo-engineers with a solid foundation in seismic wave equation analysis and interpretation

Seismic Signatures and Analysis of Reflection Data in Anisotropic Media

SEISMIC EXPLORATION Editors : Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel Volume 1. Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology 2. Seismic Instrumentation , 2nd Edition 3. Seismic Field Techniques ? 4A . Seismic Inversion and Deconvolution : Classical ...

Seismic Signatures and Analysis of Reflection Data in Anisotropic Media

Following the breakthrough in the last decade in identifying the key parameters for time and depth imaging in anisotropic media and developing practical methodologies for estimating them from seismic data, Seismic Signatures and Analysis of Reflection Data in Anisotropic Media primarily focuses on the far reaching exploration benefits of anisotropic processing. This volume provides the first comprehensive description of reflection seismic signatures and processing methods in anisotropic media. It identifies the key parameters for time and depth imaging in transversely isotropic media and describes practical methodologies for estimating them from seismic data. Also, it contains a thorough discussion of the important issues of uniqueness and stability of seismic velocity analysis in the presence of anisotropy. The book contains a complete description of anisotropic imaging methods, from the theoretical background to algorithms to implementation issues. Numerous applications to synthetic and field data illustrate the improvements achieved by the anisotropic processing and the possibility of using the estimated anisotropic parameters in lithology discrimination. Focuses on the far reaching exploration benefits of anisotropic processing First comprehensive description of reflection seismic signatures and processing methods in anisotropic media

Processing of Seismic Reflection Data Using MATLAB

This short book is for students, professors and professionals interested in signal processing of seismic data using MATLAB(tm).

Processing of Seismic Reflection Data Using MATLAB

This short book is for students, professors and professionals interested in signal processing of seismic data using MATLAB . The step-by-step demo of the full reflection seismic data processing workflow using a complete real seismic data set places itself as a very useful feature of the book. This is especially true when students are performing their projects, and when professors and researchers are testing their new developed algorithms in MATLAB for processing seismic data. The book provides the basic seismic and signal processing theory required for each chapter and shows how to process the data from raw field records to a final image of the subsurface all using MATLAB . Table of Contents: Seismic Data Processing: A Quick Overview / Examination of A Real Seismic Data Set / Quality Control of Real Seismic Data / Seismic Noise Attenuation / Seismic Deconvolution / Carrying the Processing Forward / Static Corrections / Seismic Migration / Concluding Remarks"

Seismic Stratigraphy Basin Analysis and Reservoir Characterisation

EXPLORATION. SEISMIC. EXPLORATION. Editors: Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel Volume 4B. 15A. 15B. 16A. 16B. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 1. Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology 2.

Seismic Stratigraphy  Basin Analysis and Reservoir Characterisation

The interest in seismic stratigraphic techniques to interpret reflection datasets is well established. The advent of sophisticated subsurface reservoir studies and 4D monitoring, for optimising the hydrocarbon production in existing fields, does demonstrate the importance of the 3D seismic methodology. The added value of reflection seismics to the petroleum industry has clearly been proven over the last decades. Seismic profiles and 3D cubes form a vast and robust data source to unravel the structure of the subsurface. It gets nowadays exploited in ever greater detail. Larger offsets and velocity anisotropy effects give for instance access to more details on reservoir flow properties like fracture density, porosity and permeability distribution, Elastic inversion and modelling may tell something about the change in petrophysical parameters. Seismic investigations provide a vital tool for the delineation of subtle hydrocarbon traps. They are the basis for understanding the regional basin framework and the stratigraphic subdivision. Seismic stratigraphy combines two very different scales of observation: the seismic and well-control. The systematic approach applied in seismic stratigraphy explains why many workers are using the principles to evaluate their seismic observations. The here presented modern geophysical techniques allow more accurate prediction of the changes in subsurface geology. Dynamics of sedimentary environments are discussed with its relation to global controling factors and a link is made to high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. ‘Seismic Stratigraphy Basin Analysis and Reservoir Characterisation’ summarizes basic seismic interpretation techniques and demonstrates the benefits of intergrated reservoir studies for hydrocarbon exploration. Topics are presented from a practical point of view and are supported by well-illustrated case histories. The reader (student as well as professional geophysicists, geologists and reservoir engineers) is taken from a basic level to more advanced study techniques. * Overview reflection seismic methods and its limitations. * Link between basic seismic stratigraphic principles and high resolution sequence stratigraphy. * Description of various techniques for seismic reservoir characterization and synthetic modelling. * Overview nversion techniques, AVO and seismic attributes analysis.

Wave Fields in Real Media

SEISMIC. EXPLORATION. Editors: Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel Volume 1. 2. 3. 4A. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15A. 15B. 16A. ... Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology Seismic Instrumentation, 2nd Edition Seismic Field Techniques Seismic Inversion ...

Wave Fields in Real Media

This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may also find this text useful. * Presents the fundamentals of wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porus media * Contains a new chapter on the analogy between acoustic and electromagnetic waves, incorporating the subject of electromagnetic waves * Emphasizes geophysics, particularly, seismic exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs, which is essential for exploration and production of oil

Information Based Inversion and Processing with Applications

SEISMIC EXPLORATION Editors: Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel Volume 1. 2. 3. 4A. 4B. : 9. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15A. 15B. 16A. 16B. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology Seismic ...

Information Based Inversion and Processing with Applications

Information-Based Inversion and Processing with Applications examines different classical and modern aspects of geophysical data processing and inversion with emphasis on the processing of seismic records in applied seismology. Chapter 1 introduces basic concepts including: probability theory (expectation operator and ensemble statistics), elementary principles of parameter estimation, Fourier and z-transform essentials, and issues of orthogonality. In Chapter 2, the linear treatment of time series is provided. Particular attention is paid to Wold decomposition theorem and time series models (AR, MA, and ARMA) and their connection to seismic data analysis problems. Chapter 3 introduces concepts of Information theory and contains a synopsis of those topics that are used throughout the book. Examples are entropy, conditional entropy, Burg's maximum entropy spectral estimator, and mutual information. Chapter 4 provides a description of inverse problems first from a deterministic point of view, then from a probabilistic one. Chapter 5 deals with methods to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of seismic records. Concepts from previous chapters are put in practice for designing prediction error filters for noise attenuation and high-resolution Radon operators. Chapter 6 deals with the topic of deconvolution and the inversion of acoustic impedance. The first part discusses band-limited extrapolation assuming a known wavelet and considers the issue of wavelet estimation. The second part deals with sparse deconvolution using various 'entropy' type norms. Finally, Chapter 7 introduces recent topics of interest to the authors. The emphasis of this book is on applied seismology but researchers in the area of global seismology, and geophysical signal processing and inversion will find material that is relevant to the ubiquitous problem of estimating complex models from a limited number of noisy observations. Non-conventional approaches to data processing and inversion are presented Important problems in the area of seismic resolution enhancement are discussed Contains research material that could inspire graduate students and their supervisors to undertake new research directions in applied seismology and geophysical signal processing

Computational Neural Networks for Geophysical Data Processing

SEISMIC EXPLORATION Editors: Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel Volume 1. Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology' 2. Seismic Instrumentation, 2nd Edition' 3. Seismic Field Techniques' 4A. Seismic Inversion and Deconvolution: Classical Methods ...

Computational Neural Networks for Geophysical Data Processing

This book was primarily written for an audience that has heard about neural networks or has had some experience with the algorithms, but would like to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental material. For those that already have a solid grasp of how to create a neural network application, this work can provide a wide range of examples of nuances in network design, data set design, testing strategy, and error analysis. Computational, rather than artificial, modifiers are used for neural networks in this book to make a distinction between networks that are implemented in hardware and those that are implemented in software. The term artificial neural network covers any implementation that is inorganic and is the most general term. Computational neural networks are only implemented in software but represent the vast majority of applications. While this book cannot provide a blue print for every conceivable geophysics application, it does outline a basic approach that has been used successfully.

Seismic Coal Exploration

GEOTHERMAL SECTION I. SEISMIC EXPLORATION Editors: Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel SEISMIC EXPLORATION Volume 16B SEISMIC COAL EXPLORATION PART B: IN–SEAM. Volume 1. Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology* Seismic Instrumentation 3.

Seismic Coal Exploration

The efficient mining of hard coal in deep coal mines using highly mechanized longwall techniques requires information on the geological structure ahead of the operating face. Even minor tectonic faults with throws of only a few metres mean a loss in productivity, as they present severe working problems for underground mining equipment. Because investment costs to install a mechanized face are high, "insurance" in the form of spare capacity by both machine shifts or spare faces is uneconomic. Thus, to reduce mining costs it is essential to delineate the geology prior to mining. Today, the only effective geophysical tool to detect and to map minor faults in front of the coal cutter is in-seam seismics using channel, or so called seam waves. The techniques are well established and successfully applied for more than two decades. In-Seam Seismics covers the entire range of elementary and advanced topics in mathematics, physics and data processing of dispersive channel waves. The results of analogue and numerical modelling provide a thorough understanding of transmission, reflection, recording and interpretation of seam waves and coal seam disturbances. Fire damp proof instrumentation, target orientated underground layouts, processing and interpretation of real data impart the state-of-the-art of in-seam seismics. Selected and well-rounded case histories complete the presentation of in-seam seismics. They can help the mining engineer to come to a decision to plan and to apply in-seam seismics in case of underground mining problems. A clear text, only formulae which are necessary, many carefully designed figures, an extended list of references and a lucid index make it easy for the reader to get acquainted with seam waves or to promote the technique of in-seam seismics.

Fractal Models in Exploration Geophysics

SECTION I. SEISMIC EXPLORATION Editors: Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel Volume 1. 2. 3. 4A. 4B. Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology Seismic Instrumentation, 2nd Edition Seismic Field Techniques Seismic Inversion and Deconvolution: ...

Fractal Models in Exploration Geophysics

Researchers in the field of exploration geophysics have developed new methods for the acquisition, processing and interpretation of gravity and magnetic data, based on detailed investigations of bore wells around the globe. Fractal Models in Exploration Geophysics describes fractal-based models for characterizing these complex subsurface geological structures. The authors introduce the inverse problem using a fractal approach which they then develop with the implementation of a global optimization algorithm for seismic data: very fast simulated annealing (VFSA). This approach provides high-resolution inverse modeling results--particularly useful for reservoir characterization. Serves as a valuable resource for researchers studying the application of fractals in exploration, and for practitioners directly applying field data for geo-modeling Discusses the basic principles and practical applications of time-lapse seismic reservoir monitoring technology - application rapidly advancing topic Provides the fundamentals for those interested in reservoir geophysics and reservoir simulation study Demonstrates an example of reservoir simulation for enhanced oil recovery using CO2 injection

Coding and Decoding Seismic Data

HANDBOOK OF GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION SECTION I. SEISMIC EXPLORATION Editors: Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel Volume 1. Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology 2. SeismicInstrumentation,2ndEdition 3. SeismicFieldTechniques 4A.

Coding and Decoding  Seismic Data

Currently, the acquisition of seismic surveys is performed as a sequential operation in which shots are computed separately, one after the other. This approach is similar to that of multiple-access technology, which is widely used in cellular communications to allow several subscribers to share the same telephone line. The cost of performing various shots simultaneously is almost identical to that of one shot; thus, the savings in time and money expected from using the multishooting approach for computing seismic surveys compared to the current approach are enormous. By using this approach, the long-standing problem of simulating a three-dimensional seismic survey can be reduced to a matter of weeks and not years, as is currently the case. Investigates how to collect, stimulate, and process multishooting data Addresses the improvements in seismic characterization and resolution one can expect from multishooting data Aims to educate the oil and gas exploration and production business of the benefits of multishooting data, and to influence their day-to-day surveying techniques

Theory of Seismic Imaging

This book presents the physical and mathematical basis of imaging algorithms in the context of controlled-source reflection seismology. The approach taken is motivated by physical optics and theoretical seismology.

Theory of Seismic Imaging

Seismic imaging methods are currently used to produce images of the Earth's subsurface properties at diverse length scales, from high-resolution, near-surface environmental studies for oil and gas exploration to long-period images of the entire planet. This book presents the physical and mathematical basis of imaging algorithms in the context of controlled-source reflection seismology. The approach taken is motivated by physical optics and theoretical seismology. The theory is constantly put into practice via a graded sequence of computer exercises using the widely available SU (Seismic Unix) software package.

Seismic Signatures and Analysis of Reflection Data in Anisotropic Media

This volume provides the first comprehensive description of reflection seismic signatures and processing methods in anisotropic media.

Seismic Signatures and Analysis of Reflection Data in Anisotropic Media

Following the breakthrough in the last decade in identifying the key parameters for time and depth imaging in anisotropic media and developing practical methodologies for estimating them from seismic data, this title primarily focuses on the far reaching exploration benefits of anisotropic processing. This volume provides the first comprehensive description of reflection seismic signatures and processing methods in anisotropic media. It identifies the key parameters for time and depth imaging in transversely isotropic media and describes practical methodologies for estimating them from seismic data. Also, it contains a thorough discussion of the important issues of uniqueness and stability of seismic velocity analysis in the presence of anisotropy. The book contains a complete description of anisotropic imaging methods, from the theoretical background to algorithms to implementation issues. Numerous applications to synthetic and field data illustrate the improvements achieved by the anisotropic processing and the possibility of using the estimated anisotropic parameters in lithology discrimination.

Foundations of Anisotropy for Exploration Seismics

GEOTHERMAL SECTION I. SEISMIC EXPLORATION Editors: Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel 1 Volume Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology* Seismic Instrumentation SEISMIC EXPLORATION Volume 22 FOUNDATIONS OF ANISOTROPY FOR EXPLORATION SEISMICS.

Foundations of Anisotropy for Exploration Seismics

Over the last few years, anisotropy has become a "hot topic" in seismic exploration and seismology. It is now recognised that geological media deviate more or less from isotropy. This has consequences for acquisition, processing and interpretation of seismic data and also helps determine the cause of anisotropy and adds to our knowledge concerning the structure of the medium at scales beyond the resolution of the seismic method. This volume addresses the theoretical foundations of wave propagation in anisotropic media at an easily accessible level. The treatment is not restricted to exploration seismology. The book commences with fundamental material and covers the description of wave propagation in anisotropic conditions by means of slowness and wave surfaces. It continues to explore the theory of elasticity, the interaction of elasticity and material symmetry and conditions imposed by the stability of the medium. Wave propagation in general anisotropic solids are discussed referring in particular to singular and longitudinal directions. Slowness and wave surfaces in transversely isotropic media and in the planes of symmetry of orthorhombic media is presented and then moves on to wave propagation in orthorhombic media by means of "squared slowness surfaces". The latter part of the book deals with layer-induced anisotropy showing how a particular internal structure of a medium leads to anisotropy and how much of this structure can be recovered by "inversion" of the modelling algorithm. A few fundamental aspects of exploration seismology are also discussed. The final chapter discusses how concepts which were developed by Kelvin, but only recently understood, can be utilised to determine the symmetry class and orientation of an elastic medium.

Reflection Seismology

This latest edition of an established work provides an authoritative account of the art and science of reflection seismology.

Reflection Seismology

This latest edition of an established work provides an authoritative account of the art and science of reflection seismology. It offers a clear explanation of the methods by which artificially created seismic waves are employed in the economical discovery of oil and gas, as well as their growing use in the exploitation of coal reserves and other energy resources. In this 3rd Edition more information is provided about peripheral methods such as velocity logging, vertical seismic profiling, and the use of shear waves in reflection work. Includes discussion of the advances that have been made in the past five years--for example, the ability to deal with two-dimensional data reception and the transmutation of such tremendous data arrays into 3-D information on the Earth's internal structure. Covers all important phases of theory, instrumentation, digital data processing, and scientific modelling, and discusses the fine art of interpreting the results.

Velocities in Reflection Seismology

We shall restrict ourselves to recalling the principle of migration of point diffraction , to indicate how the ... that is : simple structural forms , - seismic profiles parallel to the lines of greatest slope of the reflecting surfaces ...

Velocities in Reflection Seismology

Although considera bIe efforts are now being made to find new sources of energy, alI the experts are agreed that hydrocarbons will have to provide the greater part of our energy needs for a generation ahead. Exploration for and production of hydrocarbons therefore pose a serious problem for our future, as much for the quantitative satisfaction of our requirements as for our search for self-sufficiency in energy. As a direct result of improvements in technology throughout the world, geophysics has progressively enlarged its field of influence in the realms of exploration and production. But amongst the various geophysical methods available, seismic reflection has gradually become accepted as the basic tool of the oiI prospector. Reflection seismology has reached and consolidated this position because it has shown itself to be capable of adapting to the increasing complexity of the requirements of exploration. Initially directed towards geometric mapping of the sub-surface, it became the means of detection of structural traps in geotectonically quiescent regions, and thereafter in increasingly complex surroundings. It has enabled us to clothe the structural framework with a lithology, initially approximate, but becoming more and more precise, assisting the explorer to locate stratigraphic traps. Further developments enable us under favourable circumstances to estimate the quality of the deposits and to detect the presence of fluids and of their interfaces; it then becomes an unrivalled tool for the producer, both in the development of deposits and in the application of enhanced recovery methods.

Active Geophysical Monitoring

HANDBOOK OF GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION SECTION I. SEISMIC EXPLORATION Editors: Klaus Helbig and Sven Treitel Volume 1. Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology 2. SeismicInstrumentation,2ndEdition 3. SeismicFieldTechniques 4A.

Active Geophysical Monitoring

Active geophysical monitoring is an important new method for studying time-evolving structures and states in the tectonically active Earth's lithosphere. It is based on repeated time-lapse observations and interpretation of rock-induced changes in geophysical fields periodically excited by controlled sources. In this book, the results of strategic systematic development and the application of new technologies for active geophysical monitoring are presented. The authors demonstrate that active monitoring may drastically change solid Earth geophysics, through the acquisition of substantially new information, based on high accuracy and real-time observations. Active monitoring also provides new means for disaster mitigation, in conjunction with substantial international and interdisciplinary cooperation. Introduction of a new concept Most experienced authors in the field Comprehensiveness

Identification And Suppression of Multiple Reflections in Seismic Prospecting

The basics of kinematic theory of multiple reflections were formulated in the late - 1940s and 1950s , when the seismic industry rebounded from the War years rapidly with a broad range of new , important developments .

Identification And Suppression of Multiple Reflections in Seismic Prospecting

This monograph is concerned with the three main aspects of dealing with multiple reflections in seismic prospecting and aims to substantiate a set of new techniques for their more effective suppression. To increase the accuracy of the Earth's physical parameter estimates (1-D, 2-D and 3-D cases) earlier time intervals for seismic records are used in combination with the subtraction of predicted materials from target intervals in the course of seismic data inversion. The automated identification of multiple events on seismic records in the course of data interpretation is discussed with the aim of improving the reliability with which structural and stratigraphic traps can be located. In order to increase the signal to noise ratio modern techniques for the suppression of multiples (on either 2-D or 3-D records) based on the difference between propagation velocities of multiple and primary waves in the course of data processing are considered. The book provides a description of general concepts then focuses on the methodology of data processing and interpretation; including theory, computational algorithms, stability and noise-immunity considerations. Special attention is given to the practical implementation of the techniques proposed. Finally, using a large amount of both model and real data examples, the book illustrates how to improve the resultant seismic data by the use of developed multiple identification and suppression techniques in various geologic environments.