An Invitation to Cognitive Science

First , there are the " blindsighted " persons . Blindsighted persons charac- teristically have damage to the area of the cerebral cortex that is essen- tial to normal vision . They therefore claim not to be able to see objects . in ...

An Invitation to Cognitive Science


Consciousness and Qualia

A point not lost on Pollock—himself a HOR theorist—who based his problematic characterization of blindsight on this very insight: "The very fact of discrimination indicates that the [blindsighted] patient's perceptual sensors are still ...

Consciousness and Qualia

Consciousness and Qualia is a philosophical study of qualitative consciousness, characteristic examples of which are pains, experienced colors, sounds, etc. This study strives for phenomenological adequacy and thus the first-person point of view dominates throughout.

The Nature of Consciousness

Since the blindsighted person is conscious , in the blindfield but unconsciousp , it is his lack of phenomenal access that explains the problem . Actually , the situation is more complicated than this . Strictly speaking , I should say ...

The Nature of Consciousness

Intended for anyone attempting to find their way through the large and confusingly interwoven philosophical literature on consciousness, this reader brings together most of the principal texts in philosophy (and a small set of related key works in neuropsychology) on consciousness through 1997, and includes some forthcoming articles. Its extensive coverage strikes a balance between seminal works of the past few decades and the leading edge of philosophical research on consciousness.As no other anthology currently does, The Nature of Consciousness provides a substantial introduction to the field, and imposes structure on a vast and complicated literature, with sections covering stream of consciousness, theoretical issues, consciousness and representation, the function of consciousness, subjectivity and the explanatory gap, the knowledge argument, qualia, and monitoring conceptions of consciousness. Of the 49 contributions, 18 are either new or have been adapted from a previous publication.

EPISTEMIC ROLE OF CONSCIOUSNESS PHMS C

Here is the argument in outline: (1) Blindsighted subjects are not disposed to form beliefs noninferentially on the basis of unconscious visual information, but rather to withhold belief instead. (2) Blindsighted subjects are not ...

EPISTEMIC ROLE OF CONSCIOUSNESS PHMS C

What is the role of consciousness in our mental lives? Declan Smithies argues here that consciousness is essential to explaining how we can acquire knowledge and justified belief about ourselves and the world around us. On this view, unconscious beings cannot form justified beliefs and so they cannot know anything at all. Consciousness is the ultimate basis of all knowledge and epistemic justification. Smithies builds a sustained argument for the epistemic role of phenomenal consciousness which draws on a range of considerations in epistemology and the philosophy of mind. His position combines two key claims. The first is phenomenal mentalism, which says that epistemic justification is determined by the phenomenally individuated facts about your mental states. The second is accessibilism, which says that epistemic justification is luminously accessible in the sense that you're always in a position to know which beliefs you have epistemic justification to hold. Smithies integrates these two claims into a unified theory of epistemic justification, which he calls phenomenal accessibilism. The book is divided into two parts, which converge on this theory of epistemic justification from opposite directions. Part 1 argues from the bottom up by drawing on considerations in the philosophy of mind about the role of consciousness in mental representation, perception, cognition, and introspection. Part 2 argues from the top down by arguing from general principles in epistemology about the nature of epistemic justification. These mutually reinforcing arguments form the basis for a unified theory of the epistemic role of phenomenal consciousness, one that bridges the gap between epistemology and philosophy of mind.

Cognition Content and the a Priori

But it seems more than just implausible to hold that blindsighted people are nothing but naturally mechanized puppets or robots in the blind areas of their self-conscious or self-reflective visual fields, but otherwise really free ...

Cognition  Content  and the a Priori

Robert Hanna works out a unified contemporary Kantian theory of rational human cognition and knowledge, which develops new lines of thought in philosophy of perception. Along the way, he provides original accounts of intentionality, sense perception and perceptual knowledge, the analytic-synthetic distinction, the nature of logic, and the a priori.

Blockheads

In a companion piece to the article in this volume, Lee (2014) mentions Siewert's (2014) argument to the effect that consciousness is epistemically significant. Siewert's argument appeals to a blindsighted patient who can “guess” at ...

Blockheads

New essays on the philosophy of Ned Block, with substantive and wide-ranging responses by Block. Perhaps more than any other philosopher of mind, Ned Block synthesizes philosophical and scientific approaches to the mind; he is unique in moving back and forth across this divide, doing so with creativity and intensity. Over the course of his career, Block has made groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of intelligence, representation, and consciousness. Blockheads! (the title refers to Block's imaginary counterexample to the Turing test—and to the Block-enthusiast contributors) offers eighteen new essays on Block's work along with substantive and wide-ranging replies by Block. The essays and responses not only address Block's past contributions but are rich with new ideas and argument. They importantly clarify many key elements of Block's work, including his pessimism concerning such thought experiments as Commander Data and the Nation of China; his more general pessimism about intuitions and introspection in the philosophy of mind; the empirical case for an antifunctionalist, biological theory of phenomenal consciousness; the fading qualia problem for a biological theory; the link between phenomenal consciousness and representation (especially spatial representation); and the reducibility of phenomenal representation. Many of the contributors to Blockheads! are prominent philosophers themselves, including Tyler Burge, David Chalmers, Frank Jackson, and Hilary Putnam. Contributors Ned Block, Bill Brewer, Richard Brown, Tyler Burge, Marisa Carrasco, David Chalmers, Frank Jackson, Hakwan Lau, Geoffrey Lee, Janet Levin, Joseph Levine, William G. Lycan, Brian P. McLaughlin, Adam Pautz, Hilary Putnam, Sydney Shoemaker, Susanna Siegel, Nicholas Silins, Daniel Stoljar, Michael Tye, Sebastian Watzl

Can Animals Be Moral

Just like our super-blindsighted visual subject, Myshkin has no idea why he feels the way he does, or why he should do the things he does. But, also just like our super-blindsighted visual subject, Myshkin keeps getting things right, ...

Can Animals Be Moral

From eye-witness accounts of elephants apparently mourning the death of family members to an experiment that showed that hungry rhesus monkeys would not take food if doing so gave another monkey an electric shock, there is much evidence of animals displaying what seem to be moral feelings. But despite such suggestive evidence, philosophers steadfastly deny that animals can act morally, and for reasons that virtually everyone has found convincing. In Can Animals be Moral?, philosopher Mark Rowlands examines the reasoning of philosophers and scientists on this question--ranging from Aristotle and Kant to Hume and Darwin--and reveals that their arguments fall far short of compelling. The basic argument against moral behavior in animals is that humans have capabilities that animals lack. We can reflect on our motivations, formulate abstract principles that allow that allow us to judge right from wrong. For an actor to be moral, he or she must be able scrutinize their motivations and actions. No animal can do these things--no animal is moral. Rowland naturally agrees that humans possess a moral consciousness that no animal can rival, but he argues that it is not necessary for an individual to have the ability to reflect on his or her motives to be moral. Animals can't do all that we can do, but they can act on the basis of some moral reasons--basic moral reasons involving concern for others. And when they do this, they are doing just what we do when we act on the basis of these reasons: They are acting morally.

The Puzzle of Perceptual Justification

A blindsighted subject has no sensations (“visual imagery”) in a certain region of his visual field. 2. A blindsighted subject has seemings about that part of the environment which is located in his blind field. Although the first claim ...

The Puzzle of Perceptual Justification

This book provides an accessible and up-to-date discussion of contemporary theories of perceptual justification that each highlight different factors related to perception, i.e., conscious experience, higher-order beliefs, and reliable processes. The book’s discussion starts from the viewpoint that perception is not only one of our fundamental sources of knowledge and justification, but also plays this role for many less sophisticated animals. It proposes a scientifically informed reliabilist theory which can accommodate this fact without denying that some of our epistemic abilities as human perceivers are special. This allows it to combine many of our intuitions about the importance of conscious experience and higher-order belief with the controversial thesis that perceptual justification is fundamentally non-evidential in character.

Philosophical Psychopathology

Thus we should regard the causal powers in the blindsighted subjects as also derived from visual experiences (or at least a residual component of visual experiences). 4. Thus the residual visual processes in blindsighted patients ...

Philosophical Psychopathology

A benchmark volume for an emerging field where mental disorders serve as the springboard for philosophical insights.

The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics

It would be wrong to think of blindsighted subjects as functionally equivalent to those with normal vision. They are not, and will often have great difficulty navigating their way around the environment, at least under normal conditions ...

The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics

Humans encounter and use animals in a stunning number of ways. The nature of these animals and the justifiability or unjustifiabilitly of human uses of them are the subject matter of this volume. Philosophers have long been intrigued by animal minds and vegetarianism, but only around the last quarter of the twentieth century did a significant philosophical literature begin to be developed on both the scientific study of animals and the ethics of human uses of animals. This literature had a primary focus on discussion of animal psychology, the moral status of animals, the nature and significance of species, and a number of practical problems. This Oxford Handbook is designed to capture the nature of the questions as they stand today and to propose solutions to many of the major problems. Several chapters in this volume explore matters that have never previously been examined by philosophers. The authors of the thirty-five chapters come from a diverse set of philosophical interests in the History of Philosophy, the Philosophy of Mind, the Philosophy of Biology, the Philosophy of Cognitive Science, the Philosophy of Language, Ethical Theory, and Practical Ethics. They explore many theoretical issues about animal minds and an array of practical concerns about animal products, farm animals, hunting, circuses, zoos, the entertainment industry, safety-testing on animals, the status and moral significance of species, environmental ethics, the nature and significance of the minds of animals, and so on. They also investigate what the future may be expected to bring in the way of new scientific developments and new moral problems. This book of original essays is the most comprehensive single volume ever published on animal minds and the ethics of our use of animals.

Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science

The paradigmatic phenomenon in this category is no doubt blindsight. Blindsight is a condition caused by lesion to the higher brain. When a blindsighted patient is asked to report what she perceives, she reports that she perceives ...

Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science

Psychology is the study of thinking, and cognitive science is the interdisciplinary investigation of mind and intelligence that also includes philosophy, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. In these investigations, many philosophical issues arise concerning methods and central concepts. The Handbook of Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science contains 16 essays by leading philosophers of science that illuminate the nature of the theories and explanations used in the investigation of minds. Topics discussed include representation, mechanisms, reduction, perception, consciousness, language, emotions, neuroscience, and evolutionary psychology. Comprehensive coverage of philosophy of psychology and cognitive science Distinguished contributors: leading philosophers in this area Contributions closely tied to relevant scientific research

Faithless

'With Blindsighted, Karin Slaughter left a great many mystery writers looking anxiously over their shoulders. With Kisscut, she leaves most of them behind' JOHN CONNOLLY 'A fast-paced and unsettling story ... A compelling and fluid ...

Faithless

‘One of the boldest thriller writers working today’ TESS GERRITSEN ‘Her characters, plot, and pacing are unrivalled’ MICHAEL CONNELLY The fifth book in Karin Slaughter's #1 bestselling GRANT COUNTY series. _________________________________________ A walk in the woods takes a sinister turn for police chief Jeffrey Tolliver and medical examiner Sara Linton when they stumble across the body of a young girl. Incarcerated in the ground, all the initial evidence indicates that she has, quite literally, been scared to death. But as Sara embarks on the autopsy, something even more horrifying comes to light. Something which shocks even Sara. Detective Lena Adams, talented but increasingly troubled, is called in from vacation to help with the investigation - and the trail soon leads to the neighbouring county, an isolated community, and a terrible secret ... _________________________________________ Crime and thriller masters know there’s nothing better than a little Slaughter: ‘I’d follow her anywhere’ GILLIAN FLYNN ‘Passion, intensity, and humanity’ LEE CHILD ‘A writer of extraordinary talents’ KATHY REICHS ‘Fiction doesn't get any better than this’ JEFFERY DEAVER ‘A great writer at the peak of her powers’ PETER JAMES ‘Raw, powerful and utterly gripping’ KATHRYN STOCKETT ‘With heart and skill Karin Slaughter keeps you hooked from the first page until the last’ CAMILLA LACKBERG ‘Amongst the world‘s greatest and finest crime writers’ YRSA SIGURÐARDÓTTIR

Indelible

'With Blindsighted, Karin Slaughter left a great many mystery writers looking anxiously over their shoulders. With Kisscut, she leaves most of them behind' JOHN CONNOLLY 'A fast-paced and unsettling story . . . A compelling and fluid ...

Indelible

‘One of the boldest thriller writers working today’ TESS GERRITSEN ‘Her characters, plot, and pacing are unrivalled’ MICHAEL CONNELLY The fourth book in Karin Slaughter's #1 bestselling GRANT COUNTY series. _________________________________________ When medical examiner Sara Linton and police chief Jeffrey Tolliver take a trip away from the small town of Heartsdale, it should be a straightforward weekend at the beach. But they decide to take a detour via Jeffrey's hometown and things go violently wrong when Jeffrey's best friend Robert shoots dead an intruder who breaks into his home. Jeffrey and Sara are first on the scene and Jeffrey's keen to clear his friend's name, but for Sara things aren't so simple. And when Jeffrey appears to change the crime scene, Sara no longer knows who to trust. Twelve years later, Sara and Jeffrey are caught up in a shockingly brutal attack which threatens to destroy both their lives. But they're not random victims. They've been targeted. And it seems the past is catching up with both of them ... _________________________________________ Crime and thriller masters know there’s nothing better than a little Slaughter: ‘I’d follow her anywhere’ GILLIAN FLYNN ‘Passion, intensity, and humanity’ LEE CHILD ‘A writer of extraordinary talents’ KATHY REICHS ‘Fiction doesn't get any better than this’ JEFFERY DEAVER ‘A great writer at the peak of her powers’ PETER JAMES ‘Raw, powerful and utterly gripping’ KATHRYN STOCKETT ‘With heart and skill Karin Slaughter keeps you hooked from the first page until the last’ CAMILLA LACKBERG ‘Amongst the world‘s greatest and finest crime writers’ YRSA SIGURÐARDÓTTIR

Seeing Doing and Knowing

For instance, Weiskrantz recounts an experiment conducted by John Marshall and Peter Halligan, in which a blindsighted patient was shown two pictures of identical houses, one of which was on fire, but with the flames occurring wholly in ...

Seeing  Doing  and Knowing

Seeing, Doing, and Knowing is an original and comprehensive philosophical treatment of sense perception as it is currently investigated by cognitive neuroscientists. Its central theme is the task-oriented specialization of sensory systems across the biological domain. Sensory systems are automatic sorting machines; they engage in a process of classification. Human vision sorts and orders external objects in terms of a specialized, proprietary scheme of categories - colours, shapes, speeds and directions of movement, etc. This 'Sensory Classification Thesis' implies that sensation is not a naturally caused image from which an organism must infer the state of the world beyond; it is more like an internal communication, a signal concerning the state of the world issued by a sensory system, in accordance with internal conventions, for the use of an organism's other systems. This is why sensory states are both easily understood and persuasive. Sensory classification schemes are purpose-built to serve the knowledge-gathering and pragmatic needs of particular types of organisms. They are specialized: a bee or a bird does not see exactly what a human does. The Sensory Classification Thesis helps clarify this specialization in perceptual content and supports a new form of realism about the deliverances of sensation: 'Pluralistic Realism' is based on the idea that sensory systems coevolve with an organism's other systems; they are not simply moulded to the external world. The last part of the book deals with reference in vision. Cognitive scientists now believe that vision guides the limbs by means of a subsystem that links up with the objects of physical manipulation in ways that bypass sensory categories. In a novel extension of this theory, Matthen argues that 'motion-guiding vision' is integrated with sensory classification in conscious vision. This accounts for the quasi-demonstrative form of visual states: 'This particular object is red', and so on. He uses this idea to cast new light on the nature of perceptual objects, pictorial representation, and the visual representation of space.

Perspectival Thought

Still, there is a relevant difference between a normal episode of hearing trumpets and the rather abnormal situation of the blindsighted neuroscientist who judges from the sounds he hears that he is seeing a canary. In the former case, ...

Perspectival Thought

Recanati examines the nature of thought and understanding, and defends the idea that truth is relative to context. The book will be of interest to those working in philosophy of language and linguistics, as well as philosophers of mind epistemologists, and psychologists and cognitive scientists.

Phenomenal Consciousness

For , like Dretske ( 1995 ) , they use evidence of the residual capacities of blindsighted monkeys when speculating about the function that phenomenal consciousness may have . They assume that blindsighted monkeys must have lost ...

Phenomenal Consciousness

How can phenomenal consciousness exist as an integral part of a physical universe? How can the technicolour phenomenology of our inner lives be created out of the complex neural activities of our brains? Many have despaired of finding answers to these questions; and many have claimed that human consciousness is inherently mysterious. Peter Carruthers argues, on the contrary, that the subjective feel of our experience is fully explicable in naturalistic (scientifically acceptable) terms. Drawing on a variety of interdisciplinary resources, he develops and defends a novel account in terms of higher-order thought. He shows that this can explain away some of the more extravagant claims made about phenomenal consciousness, while substantively explaining the key subjectivity of our experience. Written with characteristic clarity and directness, and surveying a wide range of extant theories, this book is essential reading for all those within philosophy and psychology interested in the problem of consciousness.

The Natural Problem of Consciousness

If we flash a stimulus in a blind area of blindsighted subjects and ask them what they saw, they reply that they did not consciously see anything. This is usually interpreted as suggesting that in those cases consciousness is missing145 ...

The Natural Problem of Consciousness

The “Natural Problem of Consciousness” is the problem of understanding why there are presently conscious beings at all. Given a non-reductive naturalist framework taking consciousness as an ontologically subjective biological phenomenon, how can we rationally explain the fact that the actual world has turned out to be one where there are presently living beings that can feel, rather than having developed as a zombie-world in which there would be no conscious experiences of any kind? This book introduces the Natural Problem by relating it to central problems in the philosophy of mind (metaphysical mind-body problem, Hard Problem of consciousness) and emphasizing the distinctive interest of its diachronic dimension. Ranging from philosophy to biology and neuroscience, it offers a thorough analysis aimed at better understanding what could explain why phenomenal consciousness has been preserved throughout evolution by natural selection. This is an original, engaging, and thought provoking philosophical study of a neglected but fundamental question regarding the nature and origin of consciousness.

Can Animals Be Persons

Blindsighted patients behave very differently from those with unimpaired visual consciousness. Crucially, as Jamieson and Bekoff have pointed out, blindsighted patients do not spontaneously respond to things presented to their scotomas ...

Can Animals Be Persons

Can animals be persons? To this question, scientific and philosophical consensus has taken the form of a resounding, 'No!' In this book, Mark Rowlands disagrees. Not only can animals be persons, many of them probably are. Taking, as his starting point, John Locke's classic definition of a person, as "a thinking intelligent being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself the same thinking thing, in different times and places," Rowlands argues that many animals can satisfy all of these conditions. A person is an individual in which four features coalesce: consciousness, rationality, self-awareness and other-awareness, and many animals are such individuals. Consciousness--something that is like to have an experience--is widely distributed through the animal kingdom. Many animals are capable of both causal and logical reasoning. Many animals are also self-aware, since a form of self-awareness is essentially built into the possession of conscious experience. And some animals are capable of a kind of awareness of the minds of others, quite independently of whether they possess a theory of mind. This is not just a book about animals, however. As well as being fascinating in their own right, animals, as Claude Levi-Strauss once put it, are "good to think." In this seamless interweaving of the empirical study of animal minds with philosophy and its history, this book makes a powerful case for the idea that reflection on animals allows us to better understand each of these four pillars of personhood, and so illuminates what means for any individual--animal or human--to be conscious, rational, self- and other-aware.

A Grant County Collection

Kisscut will cement her reputation as one of the boldest thriller writers working today' TESS GERRITSEN 'Blindsighted made Karin Slaughter one of the hottest names in thriller writing, and Kisscut will only strengthen her reputation' OK ...

A Grant County Collection

From the bestselling author Karin Slaughter, a triple bill of Grant County novels: Indelible, Faithless and Skin Privilege, all in one thrilling ebook file. Indelible When medical examiner Sara Linton and police chief Jeffrey Tolliver take a trip away from the small town of Heartsdale - an escape from all the pressures on their relationship - it should be a straightforward holiday. But they decide to take a detour via Jeffrey's hometown and things go violently wrong when Jeffrey's best friend Robert shoots dead an intruder who breaks into his house. Twelve years later, Sara and Jeffrey are caught up in a shockingly brutal attack which threatens to destroy both their lives. But they're not random victims. They've been targeted. And it seems the past is catching up with both of them... Faithless A walk in the woods takes a sinister turn for police chief Jeffrey Tolliver and medical examiner Sara Linton when they stumble across the body of a young girl. Incarcerated in the ground, all the initial evidence indicates that she has, quite literally, been scared to death. But as Sara embarks on the autopsy, something even more horrifying comes to light. Detective Lena Adams is called in from vacation to help with the investigation - and the trail soon leads to the neighbouring county, an isolated community, and a terrible secret... Skin Privilege Lena Adams has spent her life struggling to escape Reece, the small town which nearly destroyed her. She's made a new life for herself as a police detective in Heartsdale, a hundred miles away - but nothing could prepare her for the violence which explodes when she is forced to return. A vicious murder leaves a young woman incinerated beyond recognition. And Lena is the only suspect. Heartsdale police chief Jeffrey Tolliver, Lena's boss, has no choice but to go to Lena's aid - taking with him his wife, medical examiner Sara Linton. But soon after their arrival, a second victim is found. The town closes ranks. And both Jeffrey and Sara find themselves entangled in a horrifying underground world of bigotry and rage. But can they discover the truth before the killer strikes again?

Consciousness essays P

They assume that blindsighted monkeys must have lost whatever blindsighted humans have lost, and therefore that normally sighted monkeys must be phenomenally conscious, given that blindsighted humans have lost their capacity for ...

Consciousness essays P