Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

This important volume offers the first comprehensive overview and critical analysis of the wartime destruction and post-conflict reconstruction of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s cultural heritage and its far-reaching impact.

Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

The massive intentional destruction of cultural property during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War was a seminal marker in cultural heritage. This important volume offers the first comprehensive overview and critical analysis of the wartime destruction and post-conflict reconstruction of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s cultural heritage and its far-reaching impact. Scrutinizing the responses of the international community (including UNESCO), and examining the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and implementation of Annex 8 of the Dayton Agreement, it considers questions which have moved to the foreground with the inclusion of cultural heritage preservation in human rights discourse and in post-conflict and development aid.

Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

This wide-ranging book provides the first comprehensive overview and critical analysis of the destruction of Bosnia-Herzegovina's cultural heritage and its far-reaching impact.

Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

This wide-ranging book provides the first comprehensive overview and critical analysis of the destruction of Bosnia-Herzegovina's cultural heritage and its far-reaching impact. Scrutinizing the responses of the international community during the war (including bodies like UNESCO and the Council of Europe).With numerous case studies and plentiful illustrations, this important volume considers questions which have moved to the foreground with the inclusion of cultural heritage preservation in discussions of the right to culture in human rights discourse and as a vital element of post-conflict and development aid.

Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

the massive intentional destruction of cultural heritage during the 1992–1995 Bosnian Wartargeting a historically diverse identity provoked global condemnation and became a seminal marker in the discourse on cultural heritage. it ...

Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

The massive intentional destruction of cultural heritage during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War targeting a historically diverse identity provoked global condemnation and became a seminal marker in the discourse on cultural heritage. It prompted an urgent reassessment of how cultural property could be protected in times of conflict and led to a more definitive recognition in international humanitarian law that destruction of a people's cultural heritage is an aspect of genocide. Yet surprisingly little has been published on the subject. This wide-ranging book provides the first comprehensive overview and critical analysis of the destruction of Bosnia-Herzegovina's cultural heritage and its far-reaching impact. Scrutinizing the responses of the international community during the war (including bodies like UNESCO and the Council of Europe), the volume also analyses how, after the conflict ended, external agendas impinged on heritage reconstruction to the detriment of the broader peace process and refugee return. It assesses implementation of Annex 8 of the Dayton Peace Agreement, a unique attempt to address the devastation to Bosnia's cultural heritage, and examines the treatment of war crimes involving cultural property at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). With numerous case studies and plentiful illustrations, this important volume considers questions which have moved to the foreground with the inclusion of cultural heritage preservation in discussions of the right to culture in human rights discourse and as a vital element of post-conflict and development aid.

Transforming Heritage in the Former Yugoslavia

Todorova, M. N. (1997). Sarajevo: The city and the symbol. In Cities in 19th–20th century Europe. University of California. Walasek, H. (Ed.). (2015). Heritage, culture and identity: Bosnia and the destruction of cultural heritage.

Transforming Heritage in the Former Yugoslavia

Heritage became a target during the Yugoslav Wars as part of ethnic cleansing and urbicide. Out of the ashes of war, pasts were remodelled, places took on new layers of meaning, and a wave of new memorialization took hold. Three decades since the fall of Vukovar and the end of the siege of Sarajevo, and more than a decade since Kosovo’s Declaration of Independence, conflict has shifted from armed confrontations to battles about the past. The former Yugoslavia has been described on the one hand as a bastion of plurality and multiculturalism, and on the other, as a territory of antagonism and radical nationalisms, echoing imaginaries and narratives relevant to Europe as a whole. With Croatia having entered the EU in 2013 and the continuous political contestation in the region, wounds in the memory fabric of the former Yugoslavia have once more come to the world’s attention. Thus, there is the question what will happen when the former republics are ‘reunited’ once more under the EU umbrella, itself beset by increasing populisms, nationalisms, and the looming prospects of territorial fragmentation. This collection scrutinizes the role of heritage in ‘conflict-time’, inquires what role the past might have in creating new identities at the local, regional, national, and supra-national levels, and investigates the dynamics of heritage as a process.

The Protection of Cultural Heritage During Armed Conflict

3 See Helen Walasek et al., Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage (Routledge 2016). See also Hirad Abtathi, ... 4 See Irina Bokova, 'Culture on the Front Line of New Wars' (2015) 22 Brown Journal of World Affairs 289, 289.

The Protection of Cultural Heritage During Armed Conflict

This book analyses the current legal framework seeking to protect cultural heritage during armed conflict and discusses proposed and emerging paradigms for its better protection. Cultural heritage has always been a victim of conflict, with monuments and artefacts frequently destroyed as collateral damage in wars throughout history. In addition, works of art have been viewed as booty by victors and stolen in the aftermath of conflict. However, deliberate destruction of cultural sites and items has also occurred, and the Intentional destruction of cultural heritage has been a hallmark of recent conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa, where we have witnessed unprecedented, systematic attacks on culture as a weapon of war. In Iraq, Syria, Libya, Yemen, and Mali, extremist groups such as ISIS and Ansar Dine have committed numerous acts of iconoclasm, deliberately destroying heritage sites, and looting valuable artefacts symbolic of minority cultures. This study explores how the international law framework can be fully utilised in order to tackle the destruction of cultural heritage, and analyses various paradigms which have recently been suggested for its better protection, including the Responsibility to Protect paradigm and the peace and security paradigm. This volume will be an essential resource for scholars and practitioners in the areas of public international law, especially international humanitarian law and cultural heritage law.

Building Democracy in the Yugoslav Successor States

Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage, Culture and Identity (London: Routledge, 2015) Serbia Anzulović, Branimir. Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide (Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press, 1999) Bieber, ...

Building Democracy in the Yugoslav Successor States

Building democracy in societies that have known only authoritarian rule for half a century is complicated. Taking the post-Yugoslav region as its case study, this volume shows how success with democratisation depends on various factors, including establishing the rule of law, the consolidation of free media, and society's acceptance of ethnic, religious and sexual minorities. Surveying the seven successor states, the authors argue that Slovenia is in a class by itself as the most successful, with Croatia and Serbia not far behind. The other states - Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Kosovo - are all struggling with problems of corruption, poverty, and unemployment. The authors treat the issue of values as a policy problem in its own right, debating the extent to which values have been transformed by changes in education and the media, how churches and women's organisations have entered into the policy debate, and whether governments have embraced a programme designed to effect changes in values.

World Heritage Tourism and Identity

Heritage,. Culture. and. identity. Series Editor: Brian graham, school of environmental sciences, university of ulster, uK Other titles in this series Bosnia and the destruction of Cultural Heritage Helen Walasek with contributions by ...

World Heritage  Tourism and Identity

The remarkable success of the 1972 UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage is borne out by the fact that nearly 1,000 properties have now been designated as possessing Outstanding Universal Value and recognition given to the imperative for their protection. However, the remarkable success of the Convention is not without its challenges and a key issue for many Sites relates to the touristic legacies of inscription. For many sites inscription on the World Heritage List acts as a promotional device and the management challenge is one of protection, conservation and dealing with increased numbers of tourists. For other sites, designation has not brought anticipated expansion in tourist numbers and associated investments. What is clear is that tourism is now a central concern to the wide array of stakeholders involved with World Heritage Sites.

The Preservation of Art and Culture in Times of War

P486) (International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 2002); András Riedlmayer, Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Bosnia- Herzegovina, 1992–1996: A Post- War Survey of Selected Municipalities. The Case of Prosecutor v.

The Preservation of Art and Culture in Times of War

Cultural heritage has become increasingly "conflict prone." Today, systematic exploitation, manipulation, attacks, and destruction of cultural heritage by states and non-state actors form part of the most violent conflicts across the world. Such acts are often intentional and based onwell-planned strategies for inflicting harm on groups of people and communities. We have therefore progressed from seeing conflict-related destruction of cultural heritage just as a "cultural tragedy" to understanding it also as a "security issue." It is a shift from protecting cultural propertyfrom the harms of war for the sake of cultural property itself to viewing it as intricately connected to the broader peace and security agenda. Concerns about cultural heritage have migrated beyond the cultural sphere to sectors dealing with peace and security and dovetails with issues such as theprotection of civilians, the financing of terrorism, societal resilience, post-conflict reconciliation, hybrid warfare, and the geopolitics of territorial conflicts.This volume seeks to deepen our understanding of this evolving nexus between cultural heritage and security in the twenty-first century. It offers a collection of chapters that aims to open new horizons for thinking about the relationship between cultural heritage, security, and international law.Coming from a variety of disciplines and perspectives, the chapters examine a complicated set of relationships between, on the one hand, deliberate violence to cultural heritage in times of conflict, and, on the other, basic societal values, legal principles, protection, and securityconcerns.

A Future in Ruins

UNESCO, World Heritage, and the Dream of Peace Lynn Meskell ... “Targeting the Symbolic Dimension of Baathist Iraq: Cultural Destruction, Historical Memory, and National Identity,” Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication 4, no.

A Future in Ruins

Best known for its World Heritage program committed to "the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity," the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was founded in 1945 as an intergovernmental agency aimed at fostering peace, humanitarianism, and intercultural understanding. Its mission was inspired by leading European intellectuals such as Henri Bergson, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann, H. G. Wells, and Aldous and Julian Huxley. Often critiqued for its inherent Eurocentrism, UNESCO and its World Heritage program today remain embedded within modernist principles of "progress" and "development" and subscribe to the liberal principles of diplomacy and mutual tolerance. However, its mission to prevent conflict, destruction, and intolerance, while noble and much needed, increasingly falls short, as recent battles over the World Heritage sites of Preah Vihear, Chersonesos, Jerusalem, Palmyra, Aleppo, and Sana'a, among others, have underlined. A Future in Ruins is the story of UNESCO's efforts to save the world's heritage and, in doing so, forge an international community dedicated to peaceful co-existence and conservation. It traces how archaeology and internationalism were united in Western initiatives after the political upheavals of the First and Second World Wars. This formed the backdrop for the emergent hopes of a better world that were to captivate the "minds of men." UNESCO's leaders were also confronted with challenges and conflicts about their own mission. Would the organization aspire to intellectual pursuits that contributed to the dream of peace or instead be relegated to an advisory and technical agency? An eye-opening and long overdue account of a celebrated yet poorly understood agency, A Future in Ruins calls on us all to understand how and why the past comes to matter in the present, who shapes it, and who wins or loses as a consequence.

Sites of Pluralism

Benjamin Isakhan, “Creating the Iraq Cultural Property Destruction Database: Calculating a Heritage Destruction Index,” International Journal ... Helen Walasek, Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage, London: Routledge, 2015.

Sites of Pluralism

Scholars and policymakers, struggling to make sense of the ongoing chaos in the Middle East, have been focusing on the possible causes of the escalation in both inter-state and intra-state conflict. But the Arab Spring has shown the urgent need for new ways to frame difference, both practically and theoretically. Within some policy circles, at the heart of these conflicts lies a fundamental incompatibility between different ethno-linguistic and religious communities; it is held that these divisions impede any form of political resolution or social cohesion. Yet, despite this galvanized public focus on pluralism and 'minorities' within the turbulent Middle East, there has been limited scholarship exploring these tensions. Sites of Pluralism fills this significant gap, going beyond a narrow focus on minority politics to examine the larger canvas of community spheres in the Middle East. Through eight case studies from esteemed experts in law, education, history, architecture, anthropology and political science, this multi-disciplinary volume offers a critical view of the Middle East's diverse, pluralistic fabric: how it has evolved throughout history; how it influences current political, economic and social dynamics; and what possibilities it offers for the future.

Contested Memoryscapes

Heritage,. Culture. and. Identity. SeriesEditor: Brian Graham, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, ... Maria GravariBarbasandMike Robinson ISBN 978 1 4094 7058 8 Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage Helen ...

Contested Memoryscapes

This book sets itself apart from much of the burgeoning literature on war commemoration within human geography and the social sciences more generally by analysing how the Second World War (1941–45) is remembered within Singapore, unique for its potential to shed light on the manifold politics associated with the commemoration of wars not only within an Asian, but also a multiracial and multi-religious postcolonial context. By adopting a historical materialist approach, it traces the genealogy of war commemoration in Singapore, from the initial disavowal of the war by the postcolonial government since independence in 1965 to it being embraced as part of national historiography in the early 1990s apparent in the emergence since then of various memoryscapes dedicated to the event. Also, through a critical analysis of a wide selection of these memoryscapes, the book interrogates how memories of the war have been spatially and discursively appropriated today by state (and non-state) agencies as a means of achieving multiple objectives, including (but not limited to) commemoration, tourism, mourning and nation-building. And finally, the book examines the perspectives of those who engage with or use these memoryscapes in order to reveal their contested nature as fractured by social divisions of race, gender, ideology and nationality. The substantive book chapters will be based on archival and empirical data drawn from case studies in Singapore themed along different conceptual lenses including ethnicity; gender; postcoloniality, tourism and postmodernity; personal mourning; transnational remembrances and politics; and the preservation of original sites, stories and artefacts of war. Collectively, they speak to and work towards shedding insights to the one overarching question: 'How is the Second World War commemorated in postcolonial Singapore and what are some of the issues, politics and contestations which have accompanied these efforts to presence the war today, particularly as they are spatially and materially played out via different types of memoryscapes?' The book also distinguishes itself from previous works written on war commemoration in Singapore, mainly by social and military historians, particularly through its adoption of a geographical agenda that gives attention to issues of politics of space as it relates to remembrance and representations of memory.

Cultural Property Crime

In this context culture is identity.47 The cultural heritage in question can be quite common objects like ... see, e.g., Carthage, Sarajevo, and Beirut.49 These case examples show that destruction of cultural property in a wider ...

Cultural Property Crime

In "Cultural Property Crime," experts from a wide range of disciplines provide analytical insights into classical and contemporary criminal acts that affect our cultural heritage worldwide, both in peace and wartime.

Contemporary Issues in Cultural Heritage Tourism

and vandalize cultural heritage, as seen in the Arab Spring uprisings in Egypt. ... In the Bosnian conflict, the Sarajevo national library was burned, the Stari Most bridge in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina was destroyed in 1993 (Armaly ...

Contemporary Issues in Cultural Heritage Tourism

The perceived quality of a destination’s cultural offering has long been a significant factor in determining tourist choices of destination. More recently, the need to present touristic offerings that include cultural experiences and heritage has become widely recognised, that this aspect of the tourism experience is an important differentiator of destinations, as well as being amongst the most manageable. This has also led to an increase in the management of such experiences through special exhibitions, events and festivals, as well as through ensuring more routine and controlled access to heritage sites. Reflecting the increasing application of cultural heritage as a driver for tourism and development, this book provides for the first time a cohesive volume on the subject that is theoretically rich, practically applied and empirically grounded. Written by expert scholars and practitioners in the field, the book covers a broad range of theoretical perspectives of cultural heritage tourism; regeneration, policy, stakeholders, marketing, socio-economic development, impacts, sustainability, volunteering and ICT. It takes a broad view, integrating international examples of sites, monuments as well as intangible cultural heritage, motor vehicle heritage events and modern art museums. This significant book furthers knowledge of the theory and application of tourism within the context of cultural heritage and will be of interest to students, researchers and practitioners in a range of disciplines.

Urbicide

The Politics of Urban Destruction Martin Coward. example of cultural heritage became an icon of the savagery and tragedy of the 1992–95 Bosnian War. The footage of crumbling stone represented in a concise and vivid manner the failure of ...

Urbicide

The term ‘urbicide’ became popular during the 1992-95 Bosnian war as a way of referring to widespread and deliberate destruction of the urban environment. Coined by writers on urban development in America, urbicide captures the sense that the widespread and deliberate destruction of buildings is a distinct form of violence. Using Martin Heidegger’s notion of space and Jean-Luc Nancy’s idea of community, Martin Coward outlines a theoretical understanding of the urban condition at stake in such violence. He contends that buildings are targeted because they make possible a plural public space that is contrary to the political aims of ethnic-nationalist regimes. Illustrated with reference to several post-Cold War conflicts – including Bosnia, Chechnya and Israel/Palestine – this book is the first comprehensive analysis of organised violence against urban environments. It offers an original perspective to those seeking to better understand urbanity, political violence and the politics of exclusion.

The Material Culture Reader

The destruction of Cultural heritage, for example accompanying ethnic cleansing policies in Bosnia, reminds us of the passions and violence that can now surround the right to possess a culture (Layton, Thomas and Stone 2001).

The Material Culture Reader

Material culture has finally earned a central place within anthropology. Emerging from the pioneering work done at University College London, this reader brings together for the first time seminal articles that have helped shape the anthropological study of material culture. With topics ranging from the anthropology of art to architecture, landscape studies, archaeology, consumption studies and heritage management, this key text reflects the breadth of material culture studies today. The authors, who discuss field sites as distant as Vanuatu, New Ireland, Trinidad and Soviet Russia, show how material culture provides a new lens for viewing the world around us and effectively bridges the gap between theory and data. Providing the first-ever synthesis of these ground-breaking essays in an easily accessible volume, this book will serve as a comprehensive introduction to the subject and a valuable reference guide for anyone interested in material culture, anthropology, art and museum studies.

Contested Cultural Heritage

Challenges and dilemmas facing the reconstruction of war-damaged cultural heritage: The case study of Pocitelj, Bosnia-Herzegovina. In Destruction and conservation of cultural property, ed. Robert Layton, Peter G. Stone, ...

Contested Cultural Heritage

Cultural heritage is material – tangible and intangible – that signifies a culture’s history or legacy. It has become a venue for contestation, ranging in scale from protesting to violently claimed and destroyed. But who defines what is to be preserved and what is to be erased? As cultural heritage becomes increasingly significant across the world, the number of issues for critical analysis and, hopefully, mediation, arise. The issue stems from various groups: religious, ethnic, national, political, and others come together to claim, appropriate, use, exclude, or erase markers and manifestations of their own and others’ cultural heritage as a means for asserting, defending, or denying critical claims to power, land, and legitimacy. Can cultural heritage be well managed and promoted while at the same time kept within parameters so as to diminish contestation? The cases herein rage from Greece, Spain, Egypt, the UK, Syria, Zimbabwe, Italy, the Balkans, Bénin, and Central America.

Culture and International Law

Designed by one ethnic or religious group Destruction of cultural heritage is usually designed by the majority group in the ... Croatians were planning to execute destruction of cultural property in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of ...

Culture and International Law

In this era of globalization, International Law plays a significant role in facing rapid development of various legal issues. Cultural preservation has emerged as an important legal issue that should be considered by States. This book consists of academic papers presented and discussed during the 9th International Conference of the Centre of International Law Studies (9th CILS Conference) held in Malang, Indonesia, 2-3 October 2018. The title of the book represents the major theme of the conference: "Culture and International Law." It is argued that along with globalization, cultural preservation is slowly ignored by States. Various papers presented in the book cover five topics: cultural heritage; cultural rights; culture and economic activity; culture and armed conflict; and a general topic. The authors of the papers are outstanding academics from various countries, Lithuania, United States of America, Australia, Thailand and Indonesia. The conference was organized by Universitas Indonesia in collaboration with Brawijaya University. This book aims to give a useful contribution to the existing literature on International Law, specifically focussing on cultural issues from the perspective of cultural heritage and rights, economic as well as armed conflict.

Confronting the Past

identity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.112 The attacks against cultural heritage were widespread and systematic and constitute a major cultural catastrophe.113 A comprehensive overview of destruction of cultural heritage in Bosnia and ...

Confronting the Past


Culture in city reconstruction and recovery

Rebuilding the city's multicultural identity through the symbolic reconstruction of the Mostar Bridge in Bosnia ... a Cultural Heritage Task Force should be established to prevent the destruction of tangible heritage through demolition.

Culture in city reconstruction and recovery