Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

This important volume offers the first comprehensive overview and critical analysis of the wartime destruction and post-conflict reconstruction of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s cultural heritage and its far-reaching impact.

Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

The massive intentional destruction of cultural property during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War was a seminal marker in cultural heritage. This important volume offers the first comprehensive overview and critical analysis of the wartime destruction and post-conflict reconstruction of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s cultural heritage and its far-reaching impact. Scrutinizing the responses of the international community (including UNESCO), and examining the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and implementation of Annex 8 of the Dayton Agreement, it considers questions which have moved to the foreground with the inclusion of cultural heritage preservation in human rights discourse and in post-conflict and development aid.

Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

Killing Memory: The Targeting of Bosnia's Cultural Heritage, Testimony presented at a hearing of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, US Congress, 4 April 1995. ——2002a. Destruction of Cultural Heritage in ...

Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage

The massive intentional destruction of cultural heritage during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War targeting a historically diverse identity provoked global condemnation and became a seminal marker in the discourse on cultural heritage. It prompted an urgent reassessment of how cultural property could be protected in times of conflict and led to a more definitive recognition in international humanitarian law that destruction of a people's cultural heritage is an aspect of genocide. Yet surprisingly little has been published on the subject. This wide-ranging book provides the first comprehensive overview and critical analysis of the destruction of Bosnia-Herzegovina's cultural heritage and its far-reaching impact. Scrutinizing the responses of the international community during the war (including bodies like UNESCO and the Council of Europe), the volume also analyses how, after the conflict ended, external agendas impinged on heritage reconstruction to the detriment of the broader peace process and refugee return. It assesses implementation of Annex 8 of the Dayton Peace Agreement, a unique attempt to address the devastation to Bosnia's cultural heritage, and examines the treatment of war crimes involving cultural property at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). With numerous case studies and plentiful illustrations, this important volume considers questions which have moved to the foreground with the inclusion of cultural heritage preservation in discussions of the right to culture in human rights discourse and as a vital element of post-conflict and development aid.

Transforming Heritage in the Former Yugoslavia

This collection scrutinizes the role of heritage in ‘conflict-time’, inquires what role the past might have in creating new identities at the local, regional, national, and supra-national levels, and investigates the dynamics of ...

Transforming Heritage in the Former Yugoslavia

Heritage became a target during the Yugoslav Wars as part of ethnic cleansing and urbicide. Out of the ashes of war, pasts were remodelled, places took on new layers of meaning, and a wave of new memorialization took hold. Three decades since the fall of Vukovar and the end of the siege of Sarajevo, and more than a decade since Kosovo’s Declaration of Independence, conflict has shifted from armed confrontations to battles about the past. The former Yugoslavia has been described on the one hand as a bastion of plurality and multiculturalism, and on the other, as a territory of antagonism and radical nationalisms, echoing imaginaries and narratives relevant to Europe as a whole. With Croatia having entered the EU in 2013 and the continuous political contestation in the region, wounds in the memory fabric of the former Yugoslavia have once more come to the world’s attention. Thus, there is the question what will happen when the former republics are ‘reunited’ once more under the EU umbrella, itself beset by increasing populisms, nationalisms, and the looming prospects of territorial fragmentation. This collection scrutinizes the role of heritage in ‘conflict-time’, inquires what role the past might have in creating new identities at the local, regional, national, and supra-national levels, and investigates the dynamics of heritage as a process.

The Concept of Cultural Genocide

Through this journey, the book discusses the evolution of various branches of international law in relation to both cultural protection and cultural destruction in light of a number of legal cases in which either the concept of cultural ...

The Concept of Cultural Genocide

Cultural genocide is the systematic destruction of traditions, values, language, and other elements that make one group of people distinct from another.Cultural genocide remains a recurrent topic, appearing not only in the form of wide-ranging claims about the commission of cultural genocide in diverse contexts but also in the legal sphere, as exemplified by the discussions before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and also the drafting of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. These discussions have, however, displayed the lack of a uniform understanding of the concept of cultural genocide and thus of the role that international law is expected to fulfil in this regard. The Concept of Cultural Genocide: An International Law Perspective details how international law has approached the core idea underlying the concept of cultural genocide and how this framework can be strengthened and fostered. It traces developments from the early conceptualisation of cultural genocide to the contemporary question of its reparation. Through this journey, the book discusses the evolution of various branches of international law in relation to both cultural protection and cultural destruction in light of a number of legal cases in which either the concept of cultural genocide or the idea of cultural destruction has been discussed. Such cases include the destruction of cultural and religious heritage in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the forced removals of Aboriginal children in Australia and Canada, and the case law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in relation to Indigenous and tribal groups' cultural destruction.

Enforcing International Cultural Heritage Law

the object of the same research were seriously injured (30) or destroyed (13).17 In Mostar, '12 of 14 dzamija mosques ... 'Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1992–1996: A Post-War Survey of Selected Municipalities', ...

Enforcing International Cultural Heritage Law

The idea of cultural heritage as an 'international public good' can be traced back to the Preamble of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, according to which "damage to cultural property belonging to any people whatsoever means damage to the cultural heritage of all mankind". How this idea of cultural heritage as a global public good can be reconciled with the effective enforcement of protection norms is the subject of this study. Bringing together world experts in protecting cultural heritage, Enforcing International Cultural Heritage Law examines the different ways that cultural heritage property can be protected, including protection at the international level, enforcement in domestic courts, and the role of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. The book is divided into three sections. The first section assesses international law and analyses the interaction between international and domestic norms of public and private law. It discusses the different methods of international enforcement, the role of international and mixed criminal tribunals and courts, and the means for protecting cultural heritage in times of armed conflict. The second section addresses the role of national courts, discussing such topics as: barriers to domestic enforcement of international norms, the refusal to enforce foreign law, the difficulty of territorial boundaries in relation to underwater heritage, and the application of criminal sanctions by domestic courts. The final section of the book surveys alternatives to the legal enforcement of the norms protecting cultural heritage, including arbitration, soft law, and diplomacy.

Heritage Under Pressure Threats and Solution

The Bosnian War and the destruction of cultural heritage The war in Bosnia-Herzegovina began in earnest in March 1992 as separatist Bosnian Serbs, aided by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Serbian and Montenegrin paramilitaries ...

Heritage Under Pressure     Threats and Solution

Heritage under Pressure examines the relationship between the political perspective of the UK government on 'soft power' and the globalising effect of projects carried out by archaeologists and heritage professionals working in the historic environment. It exemplifies the nature of professional engagement and the role of the profession in working towards a theory of practice based on the integrity of data, the recovery and communication of information, and the application of data in real world situations. Individual papers raise complex and challenging issues, such as commemoration, identity, and political intervention. A further aim of the volume is to illustrate the role of professionals adhering to standards forged in the UK, in the context of world heritage under pressure. Papers also contribute to the emerging agenda developing as a result of the re-orientation of the UK following the Brexit vote, at once emphasising the global aspiration of the Uk’s professional archaeological body – the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists – in relation to the global reach of UK academic practice. By implication the volume also addresses the relationship between professional practice and academic endeavour. The volume as a whole contributes to the emerging debate on the authorised heritage discourse and provides an agenda for the future of the profession.

War and Cultural Heritage

This book explores the relationship between cultural heritage and conflict through the use of new empirical evidence and critical theory and by focusing on postconflict scenarios.

War and Cultural Heritage

This book explores the relationship between cultural heritage and conflict through the use of new empirical evidence and critical theory and by focusing on postconflict scenarios. It includes in-depth case studies and analytic reflections on the common threads and wider implications of the agency of cultural heritage in postconflict scenarios.

Architecture Urban Space and War

This book investigates architectural and urban dimensions of the ethnic-nationalist conflict in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, during and after the siege of 1992–1995.

Architecture  Urban Space and War

This book investigates architectural and urban dimensions of the ethnic-nationalist conflict in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, during and after the siege of 1992–1995. Focusing on the wartime destruction of a portion of the cityscape in central Sarajevo and its post-war reconstruction, re-inscription and memorialization, the book reveals how such spatial transformations become complicit in the struggle for reconfiguration of the city’s territory, boundaries and place identity. Drawing on original research, the study highlights the capacities of architecture and urban space to mediate terror, violence and resistance, and to deal with heritage of the war and act a catalyst for ethnic segregation or reconciliation. Based on a multi-disciplinary methodological approach grounded in architectural and urban theory, the spatial turn in critical social theory and assemblage thinking, as well as techniques of spatial analysis, in particular morphological mapping, the book provides an innovative spatial framework for analyzing the political role of contemporary cities.

Critical Perspectives on Cultural Memory and Heritage

Construction, Transformation and Destruction Veysel Apaydin i ... Furthermore, to those drafting Dayton, addressing the devastation to Bosnia's cultural heritage was considered so essential to the peace process that Annex 8 of the ...

Critical Perspectives on Cultural Memory and Heritage

Critical Perspectives on Cultural Memory and Heritage focuses on the importance of memory and heritage for individual and group identity, and for their sense of belonging. It aims to expose the motives and discourses related to the destruction of memory and heritage during times of war, terror, sectarian conflict and through capitalist policies. It is within these affected spheres of cultural heritage where groups and communities ascribe values, develop memories, and shape their collective identity.

International Law and the Protection of Cultural Heritage

... conflict in the Balkans in the early 1990s caused extensive damage and destruction to the region's cultural heritage. ... Croatian troops, for example, vandalised Serb churches in Kinin and other Krajina towns while Serbs of Bosnia ...

International Law and the Protection of Cultural Heritage

The world’s cultural heritage is under threat from war, illicit trafficking, social and economic upheaval, unregulated excavation and neglect. Over a period of almost fifty years, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation has adopted five international conventions that attempt to protect this cultural heritage. This book comprehensively and critically considers these five UNESCO cultural heritage conventions. The book looks at the conventions in the context of recent events that have exposed the dangers faced by cultural heritage, including the destruction of cultural heritage sites in Iraq and the looting of the Baghdad museum, the destruction the Buddhas of Bamiyan in Afghanistan, the salvage of artefacts from the RMS Titanic and the illicit excavation and trade in Chinese, Peruvian and Italian archaeological objects. As the only existing work to consider all five of the cultural heritage conventions adopted by UNESCO, the book acts as an introduction to this growing area of international law. However, the book does not merely describe the conventional principles and rules, but, critically evaluates the extent to which these international law principles and rules provide an effective and coherent international law framework for the protection of cultural heritage. It is suitable not only for those schooled in the law, but also for those who work with cultural heritage in all its manifestations seeking a broad but critical consideration of this important area of international law.

Landscapes of Difficult Heritage

This book studies how people negotiate difficult heritage within their everyday lives, focusing on memory, belonging, and identity.

Landscapes of Difficult Heritage

This book studies how people negotiate difficult heritage within their everyday lives, focusing on memory, belonging, and identity. The starting point for the examination is that temporalities lie at the core of understanding this negotiation and that the connection between temporalities and difficult heritage remains poorly understood and theorized in previous research. In order to fully explore the temporalities of difficult heritage, the book investigates places in which the incident of violence originated within different time periods. It examines one example of modern violence (Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina), one example of where the associated incident occurred during medieval times (the Gazimestan monument in Kosovo), and one example of prehistoric violence (Sandby borg in Sweden). The book presents new theoretical perspectives andprovides suggestions for developing sites of difficult heritage, and will thus be relevant for academic researchers, students, and heritage professionals.

Global Leadership Initiatives for Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding

Its destruction heavily impacted upon the people concerned.39 The second approach to cultural property by peacekeeping forces ... The wilful destruction of the Old Bridge of Mostar, also in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in November 1993, ...

Global Leadership Initiatives for Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding

One global leadership challenge is managing the complexity of the political and economic climate of a society. As the global environment changes, it is essential for global leaders to adapt and develop flexible strategies for resolving conflicts and achieving peace. Global Leadership Initiatives for Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding provides emerging research on a leader’s role in the international, national, and nongovernmental organization within post-conflict resolution and peaceful leadership. While highlighting topics, such as civil society organizations, leadership education, and social reconstruction, this book explores leadership theories and practice models to conceptualize the intersection of leadership within conflict management and resolution. This book is an important resource for leaders, scholar-practitioners, educators, and researchers seeking current research on the strategic and diplomatic methods of a peaceful global organization.

Bibliography of Sources on the Region of Former Yugoslavia Volume III

In: Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation, and Communication, ed by Stephane A ... Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1992-1996: A Post-War Survey of Selected Municipalities.

Bibliography of Sources on the Region of Former Yugoslavia Volume III


International Legal Materials

Destruction of historical , religious and cultural property 335 . ... under their control , Bosnian Serb forces ... destroyed , quasi - systematically , the Muslim and Catholic cultural heritage , in particular , sacred sites .

International Legal Materials


Art Libraries Journal

For up - to - date information on how to help Bosnian libraries please consult the Bosnian Manuscript Project's home page on ... Information Report on the Destruction by War of the Cultural Heritage in Croatia and Bosnia - Herzegovina .

Art Libraries Journal


Critical Perspectives on Cultural Memory and Heritage

-- Part VI: Epilogue. 'Cultural heritage is concerned with the future'. A critical epilogue.

Critical Perspectives on Cultural Memory and Heritage

Critical Perspectives on Cultural Memory and Heritage focuses on the importance of memory and heritage for individual and group identity, and for their sense of belonging. It aims to expose the motives and discourses related to the destruction of memory and heritage during times of war, terror, sectarian conflict and through capitalist policies. It is within these affected spheres of cultural heritage where groups and communities ascribe values, develop memories, and shape their collective identity. It is an essential read for researchers in Museum and Heritage Studies, Archaeology and History who seek a global, comprehensive study of cultural memory and heritage.

Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict

In particular , it expressed grave concern at the conunuing massacres of and aggression against innocent human beings and destruction of the cultural , bistorical and religious heritage of the Republic of Bosnia and ...

Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict


Islam und Muslime in S dost Europa im Kontext von Transformation und EU Erweiterung

Die slawischen Bosniaken dominierten die 1882 gegründete Islamische ( Glaubens- ) Gemeinschaft " auch in den jugoslawischen Zeiten . ... András J. Riedlmayer , „ Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Bosnia - Herzegovina , 1992-1996 .

Islam und Muslime in  S  dost Europa im Kontext von Transformation und EU Erweiterung

Die elf Beiträge des Bandes thematisieren muslimische Gemeinschaften in Südosteuropa seit der Wende, deren Diversität die Gruppenbezeichnung in Frage stellt. Können die Balkanmuslime einen Beitrag beim Entstehen eines europäischen Islam leisten? Für die in Westeuropa aktuelle Debatte um die Ausverhandlung muslimischer Identität im säkularen Staat zwingt sich die Parallele zur muslimischen Erfahrung in den postosmanischen Nationalstaaten seit dem 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert an. Auf die zwei Überblicksartikel von Xavier Bougarel und Jamal Malik folgt das Panel "Religion und Staat: Albanien, Bosnien-Herzegowina, Türkei", das anhand muslimischer Gruppen mit Eigenstaatlichkeit das Spannungsverhältnis nationaler und religiöser Identität analysiert. Das Panel "Muslimische Identitäten in Bulgarien, Makedonien und Griechenland" nähert sich muslimischen Minderheiten aus feldforschungsbasierter ethnologischer und soziolinguistischer Sicht.

The Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

In order to protect cultural property during a time of armed conflict , states are obligated to introduce , in times ... ON THE DESTRUCTION BY WAR OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA - HERZEGOVINA ( Council of Europe 2 Feb.

The Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

This thorough commentary on the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia draws on legislative history, international and comparative law sources, and the Tribunal's Rules of Procedure and Evidence to analyze its workings, effectiveness, and significance in the development of international ciminal law. In addition to its penetrating commentary, the book provides an overview of the conflict of the former Yugoslavia, an article-by-article analysis of the Statute, and annotated texts of the Rules of Procedure, the Rules on Detention, and the Directives for the Assignment of Defence Counsel.

ISIL Year Book of International Humanitarian and Refugee Law

Bosnia and Herzegovina appointed an expert , András J Riedlmayer , who had carried out a field survey on the destruction of cultural heritage in 19 municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the Prosecutor of the ICTY in the Miloševiæ ...

ISIL Year Book of International Humanitarian and Refugee Law