Bread Revolution

I}ve been thrilled and privileged to be in the midst of the American artisan bread revolution that began in the mid-1980s. Actually, its roots go back even further, as I}ve chronicled in earlier books, but it wasn}t until the 1980s that ...

Bread Revolution

Renowned baking instructor, and author of The Bread Baker’s Apprentice, Peter Reinhart explores the cutting-edge developments in bread baking, with fifty recipes and formulas that use sprouted flours, whole and ancient grains, nut and seed flours, alternative flours (such as teff and grape skin), and allergy-friendly and gluten-free approaches. A new generation of bakers and millers are developing innovative flours and baking techniques that are designed to extract the grain’s full flavor potential—what Reinhart calls “the baker’s mission.” In this lushly photographed primer, Reinhart draws inspiration from these groundbreaking methods to create master recipes and formulas any home baker can follow, including Sprouted Sandwich Rye Bread, Gluten-Free Many-Seed Toasting Bread, and Sprouted Wheat Croissants. In many instances, such as with sprouted flours, preferments aren’t necessary because so much of the flavor development occurs during the sprouting phase. For grains that benefit from soakers, bigas, and sourdough starters, Reinhart provides the precise guidance that has made him such a trusted expert in the field. Advanced bakers will relish Reinhart’s inventive techniques and exacting scientific explanations, while beginning bakers will rejoice in his demystification of ingredients and methods—and all will come away thrilled by bread’s new frontier. *Correction to the Sprouted Whole Wheat Bread recipe on page 63: The volume measure of water should be 1 ¾ cups plus 1 tablespoon, not 3 ¼ cups.

Brilliant Bread

A BREAD REVOLUTION If you've read the last couple of chapters and believed all the stuff I said, then this chapter might be a little exasperating. It will describe a throng of both ancient and modern techniques that are ofien deeply ...

Brilliant Bread

Winner of the 2014 Guild of Food Writers Award for Cookery Book of the Year. James Morton was surely the people's favourite to win 2012's Great British Bake Off series - with his Fairisle jumpers and eccentric showstoppers, this soft-spoken Scottish medical student won the viewers' hearts if not the trophy. James's real passion is bread-making. He is fascinated by the science of it, the taste of it, the making of it. And in Brilliant Bread he communicates that passion to everyone, demystifying the often daunting process of "proper" bread making. James uses supermarket flour and instant yeast - you can save money by making your own bread. You don't even have to knead! It just takes a bit of patience and a few simple techniques. Using step by step photos, James guides the reader through the how-to of dough making and shaping, with recipes ranging from basic loaves through flatbreads, sourdoughs, sweet doughs, buns, doughnuts, focaccia and pretzels. Inspiring and simple to follow, with James's no-nonsense advice and tips, this book will mean you never buy another sliced white loaf again.

The Bread Baker s Apprentice

... Dr. Irving Schneider, Tom Wright, and Tom Farrell, sets a tone of inspiration and forward thinking Assistant Public Relations Director, Linda Beaulieu, has been fantastic in helping me spread news of the bread revolution.

The Bread Baker s Apprentice

Learn the art of bread making through techniques and recipes for making pizza dough, challah, bagels, sourdough, and more! Co-founder of the legendary Brother Juniper’s Bakery, author of the landmark books Brother Juniper’s Bread Book and Crust & Crumb, and distinguished instructor at the world’s largest culinary academy, Peter Reinhart has been a leader in America’s artisanal bread movement for over fifteen years. Never one to be content with yesterday’s baking triumph, however, Peter continues to refine his recipes and techniques in his never-ending quest for extraordinary bread. In The Bread Baker’s Apprentice, Peter shares his latest bread breakthroughs, arising from his study in several of France’s famed boulangeries and the always-enlightening time spent in the culinary academy kitchen with his students. Peer over Peter’s shoulder as he learns from Paris’s most esteemed bakers, like Lionel Poilâne and Phillippe Gosselin, whose pain à l’ancienne has revolutionized the art of baguette making. Then stand alongside his students in the kitchen as Peter teaches the classic twelve stages of building bread, his clear instructions accompanied by over 100 step-by-step photographs. You’ll put newfound knowledge into practice with 50 new master formulas for such classic breads as rustic ciabatta, hearty pain de campagne, old-school New York bagels, and the book’s Holy Grail: Peter’s version of the famed pain à l’ancienne. En route, Peter distills hard science, advanced techniques, and food history into a remarkably accessible and engaging resource that is as rich and multitextured as the loaves you’ll turn out. This is original food writing at its most captivating, teaching at its most inspired and inspiring—and the rewards are some of the best breads under the sun.

Bread Revolution

Affordable, easy recipes to make bread making accessible to everyone from novices through to experienced cooks. Contains 60 recipes including enriched white bread, sourdough, English muffins, doughnuts and hot cross buns .

Bread Revolution

Affordable, easy recipes to make bread making accessible to everyone from novices through to experienced cooks. Contains 60 recipes including enriched white bread, sourdough, English muffins, doughnuts and hot cross buns .

White Bread

A BREAD REVOLUTION In 1890, 90 percent of American bread was baked at home by women. From Perry County, Missouri, where German homesteaders made their own sourdough starters from beer mash and baked dark loaves in communal brick ovens, ...

White Bread

What can the history of America's one-hundred-year love-hate relationship with sliced white bread tell us about contemporary efforts to change the way we eat? Fluffy industrial loaves are about as far from slow, local, and organic as you can get, but the story of social reformers, food experts, and diet gurus who believed that getting people to eat certain food could restore the nation's decaying physical, moral, and social fabric will sound very familiar. White Bread teaches us that when Americans debate what one should eat, they are also wrestling with larger questions of race, class, immigration, and gender. As Bobrow-Strain traces the story of bread, from the first factory loaf to the latest gourmet pain au levain, he shows how efforts to champion "good food" reflect dreams of a better society--even as they reinforce stark social hierarchies. In the early twentieth century, the factory-baked loaf heralded a new future, a world away from the hot, dusty, "dirty" bakeries run by immigrants. This bread, the original "superfood," was fortified with vitamins and marketed as patriotic. However, sixties counterculture made white bread an icon of all that was wrong with America. Today, the alternative food movement favors foods deemed ethical and environmentally correct to eat. In a time when open disdain for "unhealthy" eaters and discrimination on the basis of eating habits grow increasingly acceptable, White Bread is a timely and important examination of what we talk about when we talk about food.

Holiday and Celebration Bread in Five Minutes a Day

H ALSO BY ZOË FRANÇOIS AND JEFF ERTZBERG, M.D. The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day: Revised and Updated with New ... and Gluten-Free Ingredients Artisan Pizza and Flatbread in Five Minutes a Day: The Homemade Bread Revolution ...

Holiday and Celebration Bread in Five Minutes a Day

From the authors of the Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day series comes a holiday and celebration cookbook that uses the same groundbreaking quick and easy baking method. Zoë François and Jeff Hertzberg shocked the baking world when they proved that homemade yeast dough could be stored in the refrigerator to use whenever you need it. Now, they’ve done it again with Holiday and Celebration Bread in Five Minutes a Day, a cookbook with savory, sweet, healthy, and decadent recipes for every occasion. Every culture has its great bread traditions for holidays and celebrations—traditional Christmas loaves from Ukraine, Greece, Germany, Italy and Scandinavia; celebration breads from France and Israel; Easter breads from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Austria to name a few. The book is chock-full of fragrant, yeasted treats made for celebrations and special occasions. All the old standbys are here, plus delicious examples from around the world. All were too time-consuming and painstaking to make at home—until now. In 100 clear and concise recipes that build on the successful formula of their bestselling series, Holiday and Celebration Bread will adapt their ingenious approach for high-moisture stored dough to a collection of breads from the four corners of the globe. This beautiful cookbook has color photos of every bread and includes step-by-step collages. With Zoë and Jeff’s help, you’ll be creating breads that rival those of the finest bakeries in the world—with just five minutes a day of active preparation time.

Gluten Free Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day

The Baking Revolution Continues with 90 New, Delicious and Easy Recipes Made with Gluten-Free Flours Jeff Hertzberg, M.D., Zoë François. ALSOBYJEFF HERTZBERG, M.D., ANDZOË FRANÇOIS Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day: The Discovery that ...

Gluten Free Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day

The bestselling authors of the groundbreaking Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day bring you a cookbook with 90 delicious, entirely gluten-free bread recipes made from easy-to-find ingredients--a perfect gift for health conscious foodies and bakers! With more than half a million copies of their books in print, Jeff Hertzberg, MD and Zoë François have proven that people want to bake their own bread, so long as they can do it quickly and easily. But what about people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity? They want to eat well too, but gluten is everywhere: in cakes, pastas, desserts, gravy—even in beer and Scotch whiskey. But the thing they miss most? Bread. Based on overwhelming requests from their readers, Jeff Hertzberg and Zoë François have returned to their test kitchens to create an entirely gluten-free bread cookbook—most of the recipes that readers loved in Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day appear here in a gluten-free version. In just five minutes a day of active preparation time, you can create delectable, gluten-free Sandwich loaves. European Peasant Bread, 100% Whole Grain Loaves, French Baguettes, Crock Pot Bread, Caraway "Rye" Bread, Challah, and even fabulous dessert breads like Brioche, Doughnuts, and Sticky Pecan Caramel Rolls. Gluten-Free Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day extends their revolutionary stored-dough method to yeasted and unleavened breads made without wheat, barley, or rye. With 90 recipes—plus 100 black-and-white instructional photos and 40 gorgeous color images—the authors adopt the rich palette of world breads to their unique method. With this revolutionary approach, you CAN have mouthwatering gluten-free artisan bread in just five minutes a day!

Bread

... 94 Bread Line: No One Has Starved (Marsh) 93, 95 91–6, 94, 95, 123 see also scarcity Bread Matters (Whitley) 105 Bread of Dreams (Camporesi) 79 bread revolution 2, 109 bread riots 82, 83–4, 86 brewing 33,42, 116 Brothers Grimm 77–8, ...

Bread

Object Lessons is a series of short, beautifully designed books about the hidden lives of ordinary things. Bread is an object that is always in process of becoming something else: flower to grain, grain to dough, dough to loaf, loaf to crumb. Bread is also often a figure or vehicle of social cohesion: from the homely image of “breaking bread together” to the mysteries of the Eucharist. But bread also commonly figures in social conflict - sometimes literally, in the “bread riots” that punctuate European history, and sometimes figuratively, in the ways bread operates as ethnic, religious or class signifier. Drawing on a wide range of sources, from the scriptures to modern pop culture, Bread tells the story of how this ancient and everyday object serves as a symbol for both social communion and social exclusion. Object Lessons is published in partnership with an essay series in The Atlantic.

The New Bread Basket

... dedicated superstars who are making it happen. This is living tradition at its finest, reinvented in an exciting, contemporary manner. An idea whose time has come—again.” —PETER REIN HART, author of Bread Revolution “This book gives ...

The New Bread Basket

For more than 10,000 years, grains have been the staples of Western civilization. The stored energy of grain allowed our ancestors to shift from nomadic hunting and gathering and build settled communities—even great cities. Though most bread now comes from factory bakeries, the symbolism of wheat and bread—amber waves of grain, the staff of life—still carries great meaning. Today, bread and beer are once again building community as a new band of farmers, bakers, millers, and maltsters work to reinvent local grain systems. The New Bread Basket tells their stories and reveals the village that stands behind every loaf and every pint. While eating locally grown crops like heirloom tomatoes has become almost a cliché, grains are late in arriving to local tables, because growing them requires a lot of land and equipment. Milling, malting, and marketing take both tools and cooperation. The New Bread Basket reveals the bones of that cooperation, profiling the seed breeders, agronomists, and grassroots food activists who are collaborating with farmers, millers, bakers, and other local producers. Take Andrea and Christian Stanley, a couple who taught themselves the craft of malting and opened the first malthouse in New England in one hundred years. Outside Ithaca, New York, bread from a farmer-miller-baker partnership has become an emblem in the battle against shale gas fracking. And in the Pacific Northwest, people are shifting grain markets from commodity exports to regional feed, food, and alcohol production. Such pioneering grain projects give consumers an alternative to industrial bread and beer, and return their production to a scale that respects people, local communities, and the health of the environment. Many Americans today avoid gluten and carbohydrates. Yet, our shared history with grains—from the village baker to Wonder Bread—suggests that modern changes in farming and processing could be the real reason that grains have become suspect in popular nutrition. The people profiled in The New Bread Basket are returning to traditional methods like long sourdough fermentations that might address the dietary ills attributed to wheat. Their work and lives make our foundational crops visible, and vital, again.

The Bread Builders

Natural fermentation has been key to the paradigm shift that has sparked the new bread revolution in North America today, no matter what flours are used. I do enjoy a lighter loaf of “artisan” bread occasionally, but it has to be a ...

The Bread Builders

In recent years, a revived and burgeoning interest in wholesome, locally baked bread has swept the country, with bakeries springing up in small towns and major urban areas alike, producing an astounding variety of interesting, crusty, tasty, handmade breads. The Bread Builders explains the grains and flours, leavens and doughs, the chemistry of bread, and the physics of baking in a big book filled with helpful drawings, photographs, recipes, and tips. In a unique angle for a book on baking bread, it also includes detailed diagrams and instructions for building your own masonry bread oven from scratch.

The Bread Baker s Apprentice 15th Anniversary Edition

Behr and Steingarten are two of the more articulate spokespersons for the bread revolution, yet when it came to the Gosselin method, we all came away with different impressions of it. (Washe just messing with us, giving us partial ...

The Bread Baker s Apprentice  15th Anniversary Edition

WINNER OF THE JAMES BEARD AND IACP AWARD • Learn the art of bread making through techniques and recipes for making pizza dough, challah, bagels, sourdough, and more! “For the professional as well as the home cook, this book is one of the essentials for a bread baker’s collection.”—Nancy Silverton, chef and co-owner, Mozza Restaurant Group Co-founder of the legendary Brother Juniper’s Bakery, author of ten landmark bread books, and distinguished instructor at the world’s largest culinary academy, Peter Reinhart has been a leader in America’s artisanal bread movement for more than thirty years. Never one to be content with yesterday’s baking triumph, however, Peter continues to refine his recipes and techniques in his never-ending quest for extraordinary bread. In this updated edition of the bestselling The Bread Baker’s Apprentice, Peter shares bread breakthroughs arising from his study in France’s famed boulangeries and the always-enlightening time spent in the culinary college kitchen with his students. Peer over Peter’s shoulder as he learns from Paris’s most esteemed bakers, like Lionel Poilâne and Phillippe Gosselin, whose pain à l’ancienne has revolutionized the art of baguette making. Then stand alongside his students in the kitchen as Peter teaches the classic twelve stages of building bread, his clear instructions accompanied by more than 100 step-by-step photographs. You’ll put newfound knowledge into practice with fifty master formulas for such classic breads as rustic ciabatta, hearty pain de campagne, old-school New York bagels, and the book’s Holy Grail—Peter’s version of the famed pain à l’ancienne, as well as three all-new formulas. En route, Peter distills hard science, advanced techniques, and food history into a remarkably accessible and engaging resource that is as rich and multitextured as the loaves you’ll turn out. In this revised edition, he adds metrics and temperature conversion charts, incorporates comprehensive baker’s percentages into the recipes, and updates methods throughout. This is original food writing at its most captivating, teaching at its most inspired and inspiring—and the rewards are some of the best breads under the sun.

Slow Dough Real Bread

The same applies to Real Bread made nearby by people whom you know or can get to know. Successful revolutions involve a change of power. The Real Bread revolution is about more even than imaginative career changes, artisan bakery ...

Slow Dough  Real Bread

Slow Dough: Real Bread shares with you secrets from the experts on how to make a huge array of slow-rise breads at home from basic brown, white and rye breads and impressive loaves such as fig and fennel sourdough or goats' cheese and honey maslin, to a range of tea breads, flatbreads, pizza dough and classic international bakes. You'll learn how to make different starters for different breads, as well as the fundamental processes: fermenting, kneading, proving and baking. And, treating Real Bread with the respect it deserves, there are also recipes such as gingery treacle tart, breadcrumb pakoras or panzanella for using up any that you may have left over, so you don't waste a crumb. In a world of mass-production and unnecessary artificial additives, this book about real craftsmanship is like a breath of fresh air.

The New Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day

Since the first edition of Healthy Bread came out, our website and blog, at BreadIn5. com, has been deluged with questions about a host ... Quite a lot of people have tried it, and our books became part of a homebaked bread revolution.

The New Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day

The New Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day is a fully revised and updated edition of the bestselling cookbook featuring the quick and easy way to make nutritious whole grain artisan bread--a perfect gift for foodies and bakers! Jeff Hertzberg and Zoë François shocked the baking world when they proved that homemade yeast dough could be stored in the refrigerator to use whenever you need it, and they adapted the method for whole grains in Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day. Now, in this updated second edition, they’ve done it again, showcasing whole grains and heirloom flours like spelt, sprouted wheat, and khorasan. Also new in this edition is a super-fast natural sourdough, weight equivalents for every dough recipe, and intriguing new oils like coconut, avocado, grapeseed, and flaxseed. The New Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day has 33 new recipes as well as old favorites, including 100% Whole Wheat Bread, Whole Grain Garlic Knots with Parsley and Olive Oil, Whole Grain Crock Pot Bread, Rosemary Flax Baguette, Cinnamon-Raisin Whole Wheat Bagels, Pumpkin Pie Brioche, Raisin Buns, Challah, Whole Wheat Soft Pretzels, gluten-free breads, and many more. With over a half-million copies in print, the Bread in Five series is the quick and easy way to create healthy breads that rival those of the finest bakeries in the world—with just five minutes a day of active preparation time.

Good Bread Is Back

A Contemporary History of French Bread, the Way It Is Made, and the People Who Make It Steven Laurence Kaplan. direction, and all the less so after the white bread revolution of the 1960s, artisanal breadmaking did not want to ...

Good Bread Is Back

In Good Bread Is Back, historian and leading French bread expert Steven Laurence Kaplan takes readers into aromatic Parisian bakeries as he explains how good bread began to reappear in France in the 1990s, following almost a century of decline in quality. Kaplan describes how, while bread comprised the bulk of the French diet during the eighteenth century, by the twentieth, per capita consumption had dropped off precipitously. This was largely due to social and economic modernization and the availability of a wider choice of foods. But part of the problem was that the bread did not taste good. In a culture in which bread is sacrosanct, bad bread was more than a gastronomical disappointment; it was a threat to France's sense of itself. By the mid-1990s bakers rallied, and bread officially designated as "bread of the French tradition" was in demand throughout Paris. Kaplan meticulously describes good bread's ideal crust and crumb (interior), mouth feel, aroma, and taste. He discusses the breadmaking process in extraordinary detail, from the ingredients to the kneading, shaping, and baking, and even the sound bread should make when it comes out of the oven. Kaplan does more than tell the story of the revival of good bread in France. He makes the reader see, smell, taste, feel, and even hear why it is so very wonderful that good bread is back.

The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day

... ANDZOË FRANÇOIS Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day: 100 New Recipes Featuring Whole Grains, Fruits, Vegetables, and Gluten-Free Ingredients Artisan Pizza and Flatbread in Five Minutes a Day: The Homemade Bread Revolution Continues ...

The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day

The New Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day is a fully revised and updated edition of the bestselling, ground-breaking, and revolutionary approach to bread-making--a perfect gift for foodies and bakers! With more than half a million copies of their books in print, Jeff Hertzberg and Zoë François have proven that people want to bake their own bread, so long as they can do it easily and quickly. Based on fan feedback, Jeff and Zoë have completely revamped their first, most popular, and now-classic book, Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day. Responding to their thousands of ardent fans, Jeff and Zoë returned to their test kitchens to whip up more delicious baking recipes. They've also included a gluten-free chapter, forty all-new gorgeous color photos, and one hundred informative black-and-white how-to photos. They've made the "Tips and Techniques" and "Ingredients" chapters bigger and better than ever before, and included readers' Frequently Asked Questions. This revised edition also includes more than thirty brand-new recipes for Beer-Cheese Bread, Crock-Pot Bread, Panini, Pretzel Buns, Apple-Stuffed French Toast, and many more. There's nothing like the smell of freshly baked bread to fill a kitchen with warmth, eager appetites, and endless praise. Now, using Jeff and Zoë's innovative technique, you can create bread that rivals those of the finest bakers in the world in just five minutes of active preparation time.

The Bread Machine Gourmet

מזותמונוריות blance to the home - baked bread of our past ; they have little taste and even less nutritional value . Fortunately , I missed this white - bread revolution by growing up in Europe , where I feasted on long , thin , crusty ...

The Bread Machine Gourmet

Automatic bread machines take the work out of making fresh, hot, nutritious bread. This book shows readers how to make a wide range of delicious breads, from basic loaves to those with fruits and nuts to interesting blends of grains or vegetables. Detailed advice on choosing breadmakers, a glossary of ingredients and recipes are included. 12 color photos.

Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day

Quite a lot of people tried it, and our book became part of a home-baked bread revolution. Along the way, we started our blog at www.artisanbreadinfive.com, so that we could be in touch with readers who had questions or comments.

Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day

From the authors of the groundbreaking, hugely popular Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day comes a new cookbook filled with quick and easy recipes for healthy bread Their first book was called "stupendous," "genius," and "the holy grail of bread making." Now, in their much-anticipated second book, Jeff Hertzberg, M.D., and Zoë François have taken their super-fast method and adapted it for the health-conscious baker, focusing on whole grains and other healthier ingredients. The method is still quick and simple, producing professional-quality results with each warm, fragrant, hearty loaf. In just five minutes a day of active preparation time, you can create delectable, healthy treats such as 100% Whole Wheat Bread, Whole Grain Garlic Knots with Olive Oil and Parsley, Black-and-White Braided Pumpernickel and Rye Loaf, Black Pepper Focaccia, Pumpkin Pie Brioche, Chocolate Tangerine Bars, and a variety of gluten-free breads. About a dozen of the recipes are 100% whole grain. Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day will show you that there is time enough for home-baked bread, and that it can be part of a healthy diet. Calling all bread lovers: Whether you are looking for more whole grains, watching your weight, trying to reduce your cholesterol, or just care about what goes into your body, this book is a must-have. Jeff Hertzberg and Zoë François met while taking care of their toddlers at a kids' music class, and co-authored their first book, Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day: The Discovery That Revolutionizes Home Baking in 2007. The book became a bestseller, with rave reviews in the New York Times, Associated Press, the Arizona Republic, and other media all over the United States, Canada, and Europe. They've demonstrated their revolutionary stored-dough method on television in San Francisco, Chicago, Minneapolis, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Tampa, and Phoenix.

Professional Baking

Perhaps the most important figure in the bread revolution of the twentieth century was a professor of baking from Paris, France, Raymond Calvel. Calvel did extensive research on flour composition, fermentation, and other aspects of ...

Professional Baking

Professional Baking, 7th Edition is the latest release of the market leading title for the baking course. Focused on both understanding and performing, its goal is to provide students and working chefs with a solid theoretical and practical foundation in baking practices, including selection of ingredients, proper mixing and baking techniques, careful makeup and assembly, and skilled and imaginative decoration and presentation in a straight-forward, learner-friendly style.

Philosophy and Revolution

They formed the basis for ' one of Heine's key positions ( bread , revolution , the right to live ) , positions that were as spontaneous as they were stable ' 106 Thus it is hardly surprising to see that he restates these conclusions ...

Philosophy and Revolution

Throughout the nineteenth century, German philosophy was haunted by the spectre of the French Revolution. Kant, Hegel, and their followers spent their lives wrestling with its heritage, trying to imagine a specifically German path to modernity: a 'revolution without revolution'. Trapped in a politically frozen society, German intellectuals were driven to brood over the nature of the revolutionary experience. In this ambitious and original study, Stathis Kouvelakis paints a rich panorama of the key intellectual and political figures in the effervescence of German thought before the 1848 revolutions. He shows how the attempt to chart a moderate and reformist path entered into deep crisis, generating two antagonistic perspectives. In one camp, represented by Moses Hess and the early Friedrich Engels, were those socialists who sought to discover a principle of reconciliation and harmony in social relations, by bypassing the question of revolutionary politics. In sharp contrast, the poet Heinrich Heine and the young journalist Karl Marx developed a new perspective articulating revolutionary rupture and struggle for democracy, thereby redefining the very notion of politics.