Buddha in the Crown

This book offers a case study in religious and cultural change.

Buddha in the Crown

This book offers a case study in religious and cultural change. Sri Lanka is the home of one of Asia's most pluralistic religious cultures; four major religions - Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity - have found a permanent home within its boundaries. This makes it an ideal laboratory for the study of how religious traditions mix. John Holt here examines the career of a single deity, who began as the Indian Mahayana Buddhist bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, was assimilated to the indigenous Sinhala god Natha, and ultimately became identified with the bodhisattva Maitreya - the next Buddha of the future, expected by virtually all Buddhist traditions of Asia.

Buddha in the Crown

Interdisciplinary in scope, addressing a wide variety of issues relating to Buddhist thought and practice, and providing new and original information on the rich cultural history of Sri Lanka, this book will interest students of Buddhism ...

Buddha in the Crown

Historical, anthropological, and philosophical in approach, Buddha in the Crown is a case study in religious and cultural change. It examines the various ways in which Avalokitesvara, the most well known and proliferated bodhisattva of Mahayana Buddhism throughout south, southeast, and east Asia, was assimilated into the transforming religious culture of Sri Lanka, one of the most pluralistic in Asia. Exploring the expressions of the bodhisattva's cult in Sanskrit and Sinhala literature, in iconography, epigraphy, ritual, symbol, and myth, the author develops a provocative thesis regarding the dynamics of religious change. Interdisciplinary in scope, addressing a wide variety of issues relating to Buddhist thought and practice, and providing new and original information on the rich cultural history of Sri Lanka, this book will interest students of Buddhism and South Asia.

Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra

24; see also Ronald M. Davidson, Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Movement (New York: Columbia ... John Clifford Holt, Buddha in the Crown: Avalokiteßvara in the Buddhist Tradition of Sri Lanka (New York: Oxford ...

Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra

Explores the importance of Buddhism as it developed in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra (modern-day Andhra Pradesh) and its influence.

The Buddha Image

From the six- Buddha images have also come from the teenth century , a final type of the Buddha Hinayānist Laos after ... In the realm of art , the in meditation on a nāga with a crown on Hīnayānist tradition of Dvāravati ( Thai- the ...

The Buddha Image

Illustrations: 247 b/w illustrations Description: This book deals with crucial though controversial questions in Buddhist art: the origin of the Buddha image and the iconography of the Buddha images. The earliest Buddhist art of Sanchi and Bharhut is aniconic : The Buddha is represented in symbols only. In the later Buddhist art of Gandhara and Mathura, the Buddha is represented in human form: he is the principal subject of sculptural art. The book seeks to explore the geographical area in which the image of the Buddha first emerged and whether the Buddhist doctrines-Hinayana or Mahayana-had anything to do with this transformation. The Buddha image, as developed eventually at Sarnath, became the model for the Buddha images in whole of Asia, south-east, central and eastern Asia. The iconographic features of the Buddha image are superficially an aberration, being in apparent conflict with the doctrine. The Buddha had cut off his hair at the time of his renunciation; the rules of the order enjoin that a monk must be tonsured and must discard and eschew all riches. However, in his images, the Buddha has hair on his head; later he is also endowed with a crown and jewels. After an exhaustive examination of the views of various scholars, the book answers these questions and resolves the controversies on the basis of literary, numismatic and epigraphic sources. More importantly it makes use of the valuable evidence from the contemporaneous Jaina art : Aniconism of early Jaina art and the iconographic features of Jaina images. The implications of this study are also important : Does India owe idolatry to Buddhism? Was this of foreign inspiration? Was the Buddha image fashioned after the Vedic Brahma and whether the Buddha's usnisa and Buddhist art motifs are rooted in the Vedic tradition? The book is profusely illustrated and provides rich and stimulating fare to students of Indian art in general and of Buddhist art in particular.

The Religious World of Kirti Sri

In this interdisciplinary inquiry, John Clifford Holt seeks to uncover how Buddhism was understood and expressed during the waning years of indigenous political power in Asia's oldest continuing Buddhist culture.

The Religious World of Kirti Sri

In this interdisciplinary inquiry, John Clifford Holt seeks to uncover how Buddhism was understood and expressed during the waning years of indigenous political power in Asia's oldest continuing Buddhist culture. Holt focusses on King Kirti Sri Rajasinha and how, despite powerful and persistent Dutch colonial threats and a deeply suspicious Kandyan Buddhist Sinhalese aristocracy, he successfully revived Sinhalese Theravada Buddhism. As Holt demonstrates, Kirti Sri succeeded in formulating his vision of an orthodox Buddhism in a number of ways: through the patronage of monastic sanha and re-establishing traditional lines of ordination, translating the Pali suttas into Sinhala, sponsoring public Buddhist religious rites, and refurbishing almost all Buddhist temples in the Kandyan culture region. The ultimate aim of Holt's study is to describe and interpret Kirti Sri's articulation of a normative Buddhist world, the essentials of which remain normative for many Buddhists in the Kandyan region of Sri Lanka today. Scholars and students will find The Religious World of Kirti Sri is an indispensable resource for the understanding of orthodox Buddhism at this important historical juncture, as well as the present day.

An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism

Why is it , then , that we do not come across any such miniature figure on the crown of any other deity in the Hindu pantheon ? Those who are acquainted with the rudiments of Buddhist iconography know perfectly well that all deities of ...

An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism

In spite of the prevalent view against Tantricism and Tantric literature, Hindus in general are in the grip of this very Tantra in their daily life, customs and usages with all the attendant good and evil. The present work investigates and places before the scholars a dispassionate account of the Tantras in general and Buddhist Tantras in particular. The author traces its origin to primitive magic and its development. Narrating the rise of Vajrayana and its place of origin, along with the Tantras and Mantras Buddhism has given to the world, he records the accounts of prominent authors. Aims and objects, the leading tenets, the procedure for worship are elaborated together with a description of the Buddhist deities and its Pantheon. The influence of Buddhist Tantraicism on Hinduism is logically evaluated. Contains Index and illustrations.

The Buddhist Visnu

John Holt's groundbreaking study examines the assimilation, transformation, and subordination of the Hindu deity Visnu within the contexts of Sri Lankan history and Sinhala Buddhist religious culture.

The Buddhist Visnu

John Holt's groundbreaking study examines the assimilation, transformation, and subordination of the Hindu deity Visnu within the contexts of Sri Lankan history and Sinhala Buddhist religious culture. Holt argues that political agendas and social forces, as much as doctrinal concerns, have shaped the shifting patterns of the veneration of Visnu in Sri Lanka. Holt begins with a comparative look at the assimilation of the Buddha in Hinduism. He then explores the role and rationale of medieval Sinhala kings in assimilating Visnu into Sinhala Buddhism. Offering analyses of texts, many of which have never before been translated into English, Holt considers the development of Visnu in Buddhist literature and the changing practices of deity veneration. Shifting to the present, Holt describes the efforts of contemporary Buddhist monks in Sri Lanka to discourage the veneration of Visnu, suggesting that many are motivated by a reactionary fear that their culture and society will soon be overrun by the influences and practices of Hindus, Muslims, and Christians.

Buddha s Crown

The young Dalai Lama, the supreme political and spiritual leader of Tibet, disappears amid a bloody kidnapping by a crack force of Major Chen Ling's communist Chinese commandos.

Buddha s Crown

The young Dalai Lama, the supreme political and spiritual leader of Tibet, disappears amid a bloody kidnapping by a crack force of Major Chen Ling's communist Chinese commandos. To gain strategic international ground, the President orders the Night Stalkers to undermine the Chinese hold on Tibet--and rescue the Dalai Lama.

Buddha s Not Smiling

The eight - inch - high Vajra Mukut would become one of the most famous material objects in Tibetan Buddhism . When it was completed , the emperor presented the crown to Deshin Shegpa . Using this imperial gift , Deshin Shegpa developed ...

Buddha s Not Smiling

Interest in Buddhism has exploded in the last couple of decades, and millions of people around the world view Tibetan Buddhism as the religion's most pure and authentic form. Yet, a political conflict among Tibetan lamas themselves is now poised to tear the Tibetan Buddhist world apart and threaten the ntegrity of its thousand-year old teachings. On August 2, 1993, Rumtek monastery was attacked. Its monks were expelled and the cloister was turned over to supporters of a boy-lamas appointed by the Chinese government. But Rumtek was not in China, and its attackers were not Communist troops. Rumtek was in India, the refuge for most exiled Tibetans. And it was Tibetan lamas and monks themselves who led the siege. Yet, evidence shows that Chinese agents directly supported Tibetan lamas and monks who attacked Rumtek monastery. While a complete picture of this controversy has been blurred by the media's focus on international Buddhist celebrities, Buddha's Not Smiling challengers Readers to Judge for themselves the health of Tibetan Buddhism today.

Mount Wutai

Ritual Crown with the Five Tathagata Buddhas, Tibet, late 14th–early 15th century. ... From Du, Yonghegong: Palace of Harmony, 221. adorned with a small gold image of a seated Amitābha Buddha and encircled by colorful gems set within ...

Mount Wutai

The northern Chinese mountain range of Mount Wutai has been a preeminent site of international pilgrimage for over a millennium. Home to more than one hundred temples, the entire range is considered a Buddhist paradise on earth, and has received visitors ranging from emperors to monastic and lay devotees. Mount Wutai explores how Qing Buddhist rulers and clerics from Inner Asia, including Manchus, Tibetans, and Mongols, reimagined the mountain as their own during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Wen-Shing Chou examines a wealth of original source materials in multiple languages and media--many never before published or translated—such as temple replicas, pilgrimage guides, hagiographic representations, and panoramic maps. She shows how literary, artistic, and architectural depictions of the mountain permanently transformed the site's religious landscape and redefined Inner Asia's relations with China. Chou addresses the pivotal but previously unacknowledged history of artistic and intellectual exchange between the varying religious, linguistic, and cultural traditions of the region. The reimagining of Mount Wutai was a fluid endeavor that proved central to the cosmopolitanism of the Qing Empire, and the mountain range became a unique site of shared diplomacy, trade, and religious devotion between different constituents, as well as a spiritual bridge between China and Tibet. A compelling exploration of the changing meaning and significance of one of the world's great religious sites, Mount Wutai offers an important new framework for understanding Buddhist sacred geography.

Into the Jaws of Yama Lord of Death

After a practitioner has died, a companion may even direct the deceased's attention to a Buddha on the crown of the head, touch the crown, or gently pull the hair at the crown aperture to nudge the consciousness toward a higher realm of ...

Into the Jaws of Yama  Lord of Death

A fascinating look at Buddhist, especially Tibetan, views of death and their implications for a Buddhist bioethics.

Chinese and Tibetan Esoteric Buddhism

The Impact of the Sūtra of the Heart of the Buddha Crown [Uṣṇīṣa] of Avalokiteśvara The apocryphal Sūtra of the Heart of the Buddha Crown [Uṣṇīṣa] of Avalokiteśvara has never been included in printed editions of the Buddhistcanon.

Chinese and Tibetan Esoteric Buddhism

Chinese and Tibetan Esoteric Buddhism presents cutting-edge research and unfolds the sweeping impact of esoteric Buddhism on Tibetan and Chinese cultures, and the movement's role in forging distinct political, ethnical, and religious identities across Asia at large.

Sacred Biography in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia

The Burmese term hpaya :, or Lord , is also used to refer to the Buddha , to address monks , or in the past , to address nobility or royalty ... Its throne , crown , and royal insignia are in the style of the Burmese Konbaung dynasty .

Sacred Biography in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia

This interdisciplinary collection of essays explores the biographical genre of the Buddhist traditions of South and Southeast Asia. Scholars in the history of religions, anthropology, literature and art history present a broad range of explorations into sacred biography as an interpretive genre. Easch essay makes unique contributions and the collection as a whole engages methodological and interpretive approaches that are central to scholars of Buddhism and those specializing in the study of south and Southeast Asia.

The Maha Bodhi

69 B. E. 2504-5 C. E. 1961 Page A A Lotus Flower (Poem) — Marie B. Byles I Akihito and the Crown Princess Michiko, Address of Welcome to Their Imperial Highnesses Crown Prince ......... 19, 26 An Early Buddhist Mission to America ...

The Maha Bodhi


Tibet and India

Some are of the same type as a tenth- or eleventh-century crowned Buddha in the Metropolitan Museum's collection (fig. 15).22 Silver inlay embellishes the Buddha's crown, necklace, eyes, and urna (the dot on his forehead sometimes ...

Tibet and India


Seeing Like the Buddha

The controversy that ensued focused nominally on the Buddha's appearance—did Śākyamuni ever actually wear a crown?—but the underlying concern was that the crown, which covered the Buddha's cranial protuberance and its protective rays of ...

Seeing Like the Buddha

Considers film as a form of Buddhist ritual and contemplative practice. In this important new contribution to Buddhist studies and Buddhist film criticism, Francisca Cho argues that films can do more than simply convey information about Buddhism. Films themselves can become a form of Buddhist ritual and contemplative practice that enables the viewer not only to see the Buddha, but to see like the Buddha. Drawing upon her extensive knowledge of both Buddhism and film studies, Cho examines the aesthetic vision of several Asian and Western films that explicitly or implicitly embody Buddhist teachings about karma, emptiness, illusion, and overcoming duality. Her wide-ranging analysis includes Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter … and Spring (South Korea, 2003), Nang Nak (Thailand, 1999), Rashomon (Japan, 1950), Maborosi (Japan, 1995), and the films of American Terrence Malick.

Bodhisattva Precepts

A fleshy mound on the crown of a Buddha's head, which is one of the thirty- two physical marks of a Buddha, a sign resulting from countless lives of doing good dharmas and teaching others to do so. The same term also refers to the ...

Bodhisattva Precepts

The spiritual training of a Buddhist comprises the Three Learning: precepts, meditation, and wisdom. Observance of precepts is the foundation of one’s spiritual journey to Buddhahood. Classified into three clusters—restraining precepts, precepts for doing good dharmas, and precepts for benefiting sentient beings—Bodhisattva precepts are called the three clusters of pure precepts. This book, Rulu’s third, presents seven sutras in English, all translated from texts in the Chinese Buddhist Canon. Five of these seven English translations have never before been published in book form. Sutras 1 and 2 cover the ten good karmas; Sutra 3 teaches repentance of sins; Sutra 4 expounds the Mahayana Vinaya; Sutras 5–7 each contain time-honored Bodhisattva precepts. Sutra 6 is the well-known Brahma Net Sutra; Sutra 7, Sutra of the Upasaka Precepts, also covers the six paramitas in detail. Buddhist terms are explained in the glossary. The translator’s introduction presents sets of Buddhist precepts and describes the arrival of the Hinayana Vinaya in China. It explains the development of the Vinaya School, a Mahayana school originated in China, and summarizes its tenets. It compares voice-hearer precepts with Bodhisattva precepts, and discusses five texts of the latter. It also touches on selecting those Bodhisattva precepts that suit our modern times. Such precepts will be fewer in number but complete in spirit. Buddhist or non-Buddhist, those who seek to benefit themselves and others need to learn and observe such Bodhisattva precepts.

The Influence of the Jatakas on Art and Literature

THE ADI - BUDDHA Kanai Lal Hazra INDIA IN PRIMITIVE CHRISTIANITY / 1986 , xvi , 227pp . , 23 cm . Arthur Lillie BUDDHISM : India 50 Years ... 2 : 1986 , 107pp . , 22 Black & White viii , 340pp . , Crown 4to Plates , Illus . , Demy 4to .

The Influence of the Jatakas on Art and Literature


Buton s History of Buddhism in India and Its Spread to Tibet

I made offerings To seventy-six thousand buddhas From Buddha Excellent Deeds Until Sage Victory Banner of Power. ... The Treasury of Observed Phenomena states' that the first incalculable aeon ends with Buddha Jewel Crown, ...

Buton s History of Buddhism in India and Its Spread to Tibet

This 14th century lively history introduces basic Buddhism as practiced throughout India and Tibet and describes the process of entering the Buddhist path through study and reflection. In the first chapter, we read about the structure of Buddhist education and the range of its subjects, and we're treated to a rousing litany of the merits of such instruction. In the second chapter, Butön introduces us to the buddhas of our world and eon, three of whom have already lived, taught, and passed into transcendence, before examining in detail the fourth, our own Buddha Shakyamuni. Butön tells the story of Shakyamuni in his past lives, then presents the path the Buddha followed (the same that all historical buddhas, including future ones, must follow). Only at the conclusion of the discussion of the result—enlightenment—do we return to the specific case of the Buddha and his twelve deeds. This marks the start of the history of the Buddha as most of us imagine it. After the Buddha's story, Butön recounts three compilations of Buddhist scriptures, and then quotes from sacred texts that foretell the lives and contributions of great Indian Buddhist masters, which he then relates. The chapter concludes with the tale of the Buddhist doctrine's eventual demise and disappearance, a concept and a tale squarely within the Mahayana. The final chapter, the shortest of the three, gives an account of the inception and spread of Buddhism in Tibet, focused mainly on the country's kings and early adopters of the foreign faith. The watershed debate at Samyé Monastery between representatives of Chinese and Indian styles of Buddhist practice is given the most attention in this chapter. An afterword by Ngawang Zangpo, one of the translators, discusses and contextualizes Butön's exemplary life, his turbulent times, and his prolific works.