This volume, aimed at the general reader, presents life and times of the amazing animals that inhabited Earth more than 500 million years ago.
Author: John Foster
Publisher: Indiana University Press
This volume, aimed at the general reader, presents life and times of the amazing animals that inhabited Earth more than 500 million years ago. The Cambrian Period was a critical time in Earth’s history. During this immense span of time nearly every modern group of animals appeared. Although life had been around for more than 2 million millennia, Cambrian rocks preserve the record of the first appearance of complex animals with eyes, protective skeletons, antennae, and complex ecologies. Grazing, predation, and multi-tiered ecosystems with animals living in, on, or above the sea floor became common. The cascade of interaction led to an ever-increasing diversification of animal body types. By the end of the period, the ancestors of sponges, corals, jellyfish, worms, mollusks, brachiopods, arthropods, echinoderms, and vertebrates were all in place. The evidence of this Cambrian "explosion" is preserved in rocks all over the world, including North America, where the seemingly strange animals of the period are preserved in exquisite detail in deposits such as the Burgess Shale in British Columbia. Cambrian Ocean World tells the story of what is, for us, the most important period in our planet’s long history.
General Buschman, Rainer F. Oceans in World History. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. ... Framing the Ocean, 1700 to the Present: Envisaging the Sea as a Social Space. ... Cambrian Ocean World: Ancient Sea Life of North America.
Author: Eric Paul Roorda
Publisher: Duke University Press
From prehistoric times to the present, the Ocean has been used as a highway for trade, a source of food and resources, and a space for recreation and military conquest, as well as an inspiration for religion, culture, and the arts. The Ocean Reader charts humans' relationship to the Ocean, which has often been seen as a changeless space without a history. It collects familiar, forgotten, and previously unpublished texts from all corners of the world. Spanning antiquity to the present, the volume's selections cover myriad topics including the slave trade, explorers from China and the Middle East, shipwrecks and castaways, Caribbean and Somali pirates, battles and U-boats, narratives of the Ocean's origins, and the devastating effects of climate change. Containing gems of maritime writing ranging from myth, memoir, poetry, and scientific research to journalism, song lyrics, and scholarly writing, The Ocean Reader is the essential guide for all those wanting to understand the complex and long history of the Ocean that covers over 70 percent of the planet.
Setting the ink ocean into the Cambrian ocean was a visual and verbal pun that hinged on the equivalency between the ... of imprisonment and the remote past of the Cambrian ocean world, Ishizaki's pun transformed an ink ocean carved at ...
Author: Brian Russell Roberts
Publisher: Duke University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
Conventional narratives describe the United States as a continental country bordered by Canada and Mexico. Yet, since the late twentieth century the United States has claimed more water space than land space, and more water space than perhaps any other country in the world. This watery version of the United States borders some twenty-one countries, particularly in the archipelagoes of the Pacific and the Caribbean. In Borderwaters Brian Russell Roberts dispels continental national mythologies to advance an alternative image of the United States as an archipelagic nation. Drawing on literature, visual art, and other expressive forms that range from novels by Mark Twain and Zora Neale Hurston to Indigenous testimonies against nuclear testing and Miguel Covarrubias's visual representations of Indonesia and the Caribbean, Roberts remaps both the fundamentals of US geography and the foundations of how we discuss US culture.
The Cambrian Period contains plenty of time to accomplish what the Proterozoic didn't without invoking processes unknown to population geneticists—20 million ... Foster, John H. Cambrian Ocean World: Ancient Sea Life of North America.
Author: Donald R. Prothero
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Every fossil tells a story. Best-selling paleontology author Donald R. Prothero describes twenty-five famous, beautifully preserved fossils in a gripping scientific history of life on Earth. Recounting the adventures behind the discovery of these objects and fully interpreting their significance within the larger fossil record, Prothero creates a riveting history of life on our planet. The twenty-five fossils portrayed in this book catch animals in their evolutionary splendor as they transition from one kind of organism to another. We witness extinct plants and animals of microscopic and immense size and thrilling diversity. We learn about fantastic land and sea creatures that have no match in nature today. Along the way, we encounter such fascinating fossils as the earliest trilobite, Olenellus; the giant shark Carcharocles; the "fishibian" Tiktaalik; the "Frogamander" and the "Turtle on the Half-Shell"; enormous marine reptiles and the biggest dinosaurs known; the first bird, Archaeopteryx; the walking whale Ambulocetus; the gigantic hornless rhinoceros Paraceratherium, the largest land mammal that ever lived; and the Australopithecus nicknamed "Lucy," the oldest human skeleton. We meet the scientists and adventurers who pioneered paleontology and learn about the larger intellectual and social contexts in which their discoveries were made. Finally, we find out where to see these splendid fossils in the world's great museums. Ideal for all who love prehistoric landscapes and delight in the history of science, this book makes a treasured addition to any bookshelf, stoking curiosity in the evolution of life on Earth.
... until very recently , had revealed no traces of lit ' , and what has been revealed tends to confirm this view . In the Cambrian rocks of Bray Head , county Wicklow , the Oldhamia is a zoophyte of the simplest organization , and the ...
Being a Description of the Sea and Some of Its Inhabitants Louis Figuier ... In the Cambrian rocks of Bray Head , county Wicklow , the Oldhamia antiqua is found it is a form of very simple organisation ; and the Rhizopods ( Eozoon ...
In the Cambrian rocks of Bray Head, county Wicklow, the Oldhamia is a zoophyte of the simplest organization, and the Rhizapods found near the bottom of the Azoic rocks of Canada are the lowest form of living types; and it is only in ...
Author: Louis Figuier
Publisher: Library of Alexandria
Category: Marine animals
"Our Planet is surrounded by two great oceans," says Dr. Maury, the eminent American savant: "the one visible, the other invisible; one is under foot, the other over head. One entirely envelopes it, the other covers about two-thirds of its surface." It is proposed in "The Ocean World" to give a brief record of the Natural History of one of those great oceans and its living inhabitants, with as little of the nomenclature of Science, and as few of the repulsive details of Anatomy, as is consistent with clearness of expression; to describe the ocean in its majestic calm and angry agitation; to delineate its inhabitants in their many metamorphoses; the cunning with which they attack or evade their enemies; their instructive industry; their quarrels, their combats, and their loves. The learned Schleiden eloquently paints the living wonders of the deep: "If we dive into the liquid crystal of the Indian Ocean, the most wondrous enchantments are opened to us, reminding us of the fairy tales of childhood's dreams. The strangely-branching thickets bear living flowers. Dense masses of Meandrineas and Astreas contrast with the leafy, cup-shaped expansions of the Explanarias, and the variously-branching Madrepores, now spread out like fingers, now rising in trunk-like branches, and now displaying an elegant array of interlacing tracery. The colouring surpasses everything; vivid greens alternate with brown and yellow; rich tints, ranging from purple and deepest blue to a pale reddish-brown. Brilliant rose, yellow, or peach-coloured Nullipores overgrow the decaying masses: they themselves being interwoven with the pearl-coloured plates of the Retipores, rivalling the most delicate ivory carvings. Close by wave the yellow and lilac Sea-fans (Gorgonia), perforated like delicate trellis-work. The bright sand of the bottom is covered with a thousand strange forms of sea-urchins and star-fishes. The leaf-like Flustræ and Escharæ adhere like mosses and lichens to the branches of coral—the yellow, green, and purple-striped limpets clinging to their trunks. The sea-anemones expand their crowns of tentacula upon the rugged rocks or on flat sands, looking like beds of variegated ranunculuses, or sparkling like gigantic cactus blossoms, shining with brightest colours. "Around the branches of the coral shrubs play the humming-birds of the ocean: little fishes sparkling with red or blue metallic glitter, or gleaming in golden green or brightest silvery lustre; like spirits of the deep, the delicate milk-white jelly-fishes float softly through the charmed world. Here gleam the violet and gold-green Isabelle, and the flaming yellow, black, and vermilion-striped Coquette, as they chase their prey; there the band-fish shoots snake-like through the thicket, resembling a silvery ribbon glittering with rose and azure hue. Then come the fabulous cuttle-fishes, in all the diaphanous colours of the rainbow, but with no definite outline.
Sea Level Variations and the Quality of the Continental Fossil Record. Journal of the Geological Society ... Life: A Natural History of the First Four Billion Years of Life on Earth. New York: Knopf. ———. 2015. ... Cambrian Ocean World.
Author: Robert L. Carlton
Publisher: Springer Nature
This new and significantly updated authored dictionary is a unique glossary of paleontological terms, taxa, localities, and concepts. It focuses primarily on identifying the most significant groups of fossil animals and plants in relation to their evolution and phylogeny. It also focuses on mass extinctions, on taxa that are problematic in some significant way, on the principal fossil-Lagerstätten of the world, and on historical turning points marked by index fossils. Although there are many current resources on the subject, none contains an accurate representation of the paleontological lexicon. Although well aware that the fast-changing field of paleontology will always defy any attempt at complete description, the author has attempted to provide an accurate and comprehensive set of about 4,000 entries that will be useful to professionals as well as to general readers of scientific literature without a background in paleontology.
JOHN FOSTER is a paleontologist at the Utah Field House of Natural History State Park Museum in Vernal, Utah. He has conducted fieldwork and research in the ... He is also author of Cambrian Ocean World: Ancient Sea Life of North America.
Author: John Foster
Publisher: Indiana University Press
The famous bone beds of the Morrison Formation, formed one hundred and fifty million years ago and running from Wyoming down through the red rock region of the American Southwest, have yielded one of the most complete pictures of any ancient vertebrate ecosystem in the world. Jurassic West, Second Edition tells the story of the life of this ancient world as scientists have so far been able to reconstruct it. Aimed at the general reader, Jurassic West, Second Edition recounts the discovery of many important Late Jurassic dinosaurs such as Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, and Stegosaurus. But dinosaurs compose barely a third of the more than 90 types of vertebrates known from the formation, which include crocodiles and turtles, frogs and salamanders, dinosaurs and mammals, clams and snails, and ginkgoes, ferns, and conifers. Featuring nearly all new illustrations, the second edition of this classic work includes new taxa named since 2007, updates to the naming and classifications of some old taxa, and expanded sections on numerous aspects of Morrison Formation paleontology and geology.
Since then, Cambrian rocks have been recognised in many places around the world, and the base of the Cambrian is now ... of the continents and oceans (but not the margins of land and sea) near the beginning of the Cambrian at 540 Ma, ...
Author: Trond H. Torsvik
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book provides a complete Phanerozoic story of palaeogeography, using new and detailed full-colour maps, to link surface and deep-Earth processes.
But the earth was so different back then too. ... They grew in large numbers and dominated the ocean world. But as the Cambrian era matured, the oceans began to cool drastically, and the trilobites could not adapt enough to stop their ...
Author: Jonathan G. Loree
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
The New Humans reveals the very real possibility that we as a people are already evolving into the next higher species of hominids. The lives of the most advanced humans on Earth are portrayed as they struggle to survive in a post cold war, government run institution designed with dark secrets. Each member of this unique brotherhood is carrying a special ability that sets them apart from our world. The recorded life of the most powerful man in existence is examined as he discovers when he is a boy that he has an advanced brain. Tim Walker’s evolved brain gives him the ability for higher cognitive thinking, perceiving without the use of eyes and psychokinesis. He realizes at a young age that he is superior to us in every way. This knowledge coupled with his abilities makes Tim extremely dangerous to us as we try to cope with his existence. Also as we learn and understand why nature created such superior humans we start to realize that we are not the true heirs of the planet Earth after all ...
At the beginning of the Cambrian a new system of mid - ocean ridges came into existence . The sea floor swelled along the ridges , and seawater spilled over the continents . A major marine ingression took place during the Cambrian .
Author: Cesare Emiliani
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book explains why we have such a vast array of environments across the cosmos and on our own planet, and also a stunning diversity of plant and animal life on earth.
See also Ecosystems; Midocean ridges; specific oceans Cambrian ocean floor, 334f magma, 228, 240f minerals in, 54 salinity, 39 “world ocean,” 39 Ocean anoxic events (OAEs), 410–411 Ocean basins closing, 254 opening, 253–254, ...
Author: Harold L. Levin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The Earth Through Time, 11th Edition, by Harold L. Levin and David T. King chronicles the Earth's story from the time the Sun began to radiate its light, to the beginning of civilization. The goal of The Earth Through Time is to present the history of the Earth, and the science behind that hsitory, as simply and clearly as possible. The authors strived to make the narrative more engaging, to convey the unique perspective and value of historical geology, and to improve the presentation so as to stimulate interest and enhance the reader's ability to retain essential concepts, long after the final exam.
Instead, they appear to have looked upwards and outwards, perhaps nervously surveying the Cambrian ocean for any predators that might dart in from above. On the underside of the head shield of Fallotaspis was found a simple mouth into ...
Author: Martin Brasier
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Darwin made a powerful argument for evolution in the Origin of Species, based on all the evidence available to him. But a few things puzzled him. One was how inheritance works - he did not know about genes. This book concerns another of Darwin's Dilemmas, and the efforts of modern palaeontologists to solve it. What puzzled Darwin is that the most very ancient rocks, before the Cambrian, seemed to be barren, when he would expect them to be teeming with life. Darwin speculated that this was probably because the fossils had not been found yet. Decades of work by modern palaeontologists have indeed brought us amazing fossils from far beyond the Cambrian, from the depths of the Precambrian, so life was certainly around. Yet the fossils are enigmatic, and something does seem to happen around the Cambrian to speed up evolution drastically and produce many of the early forms of animals we know today. In this book, Martin Brasier, a leading palaeontologist working on early life, takes us into the deep, dark ages of the Precambrian to explore Darwin's Lost World. Decoding the evidence in these ancient rocks, piecing together the puzzle of what happened over 540 million years ago to drive what is known as the Cambrian Explosion, is very difficult. The world was vastly different then from the one we know now, and we are in terrain with few familiar landmarks. Brasier is a master storyteller, and combines the account of what we now know of the strange creatures of these ancient times with engaging and amusing anecdotes from his expeditions to Siberia, Outer Mongolia, Barbuda, and other places, giving a vivid impression of the people, places, and challenges involved in such work. He ends by presenting his own take on the Cambrian Explosion, based on the picture emerging from this very active field of research. A vital clue involves worms - burrowing worms are one of the key signs of the start of the Cambrian. This is fitting: Darwin was inordinately fond of worms.
expansion in life forms is seen to be evidence of what is often referred to as the Cambrian Explosion. The Burgess Shale, the first World Heritage Site designated in the mountain West, is one of the best places on Earth to witness ...
Author: Robert W. Sandford
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Ecology and Wonder celebrates Western Canada's breathtaking landscape. The book makes several remarkable claims. The greatest cultural achievement in the mountain region of western Canada may be what has been preserved, not what has been developed. Protecting the spine of the Rocky Mountains will preserve crucial ecological functions. Because the process of ecosystem diminshment and species loss has been slowed, an ecological thermostat has been kept alive. This may well be an important defence against future impacts of climate change in the Canadian West.
The older , Ediacaran world is reconstructed from soft - bodied fossils found mainly in southern Australia ; Newfoundland , Canada ; Namibia , Africa ; and the White Sea region of Russia . The subsequent world of the Cambrian is ...
Author: Todd E. Feinberg
Publisher: MIT Press
How consciousness appeared much earlier in evolutionary history than is commonly assumed, and why all vertebrates and perhaps even some invertebrates are conscious. How is consciousness created? When did it first appear on Earth, and how did it evolve? What constitutes consciousness, and which animals can be said to be sentient? In this book, Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt draw on recent scientific findings to answer these questions—and to tackle the most fundamental question about the nature of consciousness: how does the material brain create subjective experience? After assembling a list of the biological and neurobiological features that seem responsible for consciousness, and considering the fossil record of evolution, Feinberg and Mallatt argue that consciousness appeared much earlier in evolutionary history than is commonly assumed. About 520 to 560 million years ago, they explain, the great “Cambrian explosion” of animal diversity produced the first complex brains, which were accompanied by the first appearance of consciousness; simple reflexive behaviors evolved into a unified inner world of subjective experiences. From this they deduce that all vertebrates are and have always been conscious—not just humans and other mammals, but also every fish, reptile, amphibian, and bird. Considering invertebrates, they find that arthropods (including insects and probably crustaceans) and cephalopods (including the octopus) meet many of the criteria for consciousness. The obvious and conventional wisdom–shattering implication is that consciousness evolved simultaneously but independently in the first vertebrates and possibly arthropods more than half a billion years ago. Combining evolutionary, neurobiological, and philosophical approaches allows Feinberg and Mallatt to offer an original solution to the “hard problem” of consciousness.
“Waves of anoxia swept through the oceans and species went extinct at alarming rates.” B. C. Gill et al. “Geochemical evidence for widespread euxinia in the later Cambrian ocean.” 2011. Nature 469(7328), p. 80. DOI: 10.1038/nature09700.
Author: Ben Mcfarland
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Chemical elements
A World From Dust describes how a set of chemical rules combined with the principles of evolution in order to create an environment in which life as we know it could unfold. Beginning with simple mathematics, these predictable rules led to the advent of the planet itself, as well as cells, organs and organelles, ecosystems, and increasingly complex life forms. McFarland provides an accessible discussion of a geological history as well, describing how the inorganic matter on Earth underwent chemical reactions with air and water, allowing for life to emerge from the world's first rocks. He traces the history of life all the way to modern neuroscience, and shows how the bioelectric signals that make up the human brain were formed. Most popular science books on the topic present either the physics of how the universe formed, or the biology of how complex life came about; this book's approach would be novel in that it condenses in an engaging way the chemistry that links the two fields. This book is an accessible and multidisciplinary look at how life on our planet came to be, and how it continues to develop and change even today. This book includes 40 illustrations by Gala Bent, print artist and studio faculty member at Cornish College of the Arts, and Mary Anderson, medical illustrator.
In a world dominated by microbial organisms and unicellular predators, the sinking of organic matter to the ocean ... thus the diffusion of animals in Cambrian oceans probably enhanced organic carbon sequestration; as discussed in Chap.
Author: Roberto Ligrone
The book is a detailed account of major biological events that contributed to create the present world and our species, with emphasis on cause-effect interrelationships and environmental impact. Its main goal is to guide the reader toward an understanding of the continuity of life across diversity, and of its large-scale interactions with the planet. Combining scientific soundness with a constant effort for clarity, the book begins with a cloud of dust in a corner of the Galaxy and, covering an immense lapse of time, terminates with an organism that ponders about the texture of the Universe. Comprehensive, updated references added to each chapter will help the reader wishing to expand any of the topics. A glossary explains less common technical terms.
This has now been further developed ; some research workers ( N.M. Strakhov , M.G. Valyashko , and others ) do not perceive any changes in the composition of the water of the world ocean since the Cambrian , but others ( A.L. Yanshin ...
Author: E. V. Pinneker
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This 1983 volume is concerned with the features of and the laws governing the occurrence of water in the interior of the Earth. Special attention is paid to the origin of the water in the interior of the Earth, its movements and its changes of state.
The ocean world had become, in many respects, surprisingly modern (see Plate 3). ... No phylum has ever gone extinct since the Cambrian, and a few million years after each mass extinction event the complexity of the ocean food web ...
Author: Jan Zalasiewicz
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Oceans make up most of the surface of our blue planet. They may form just a sliver on the outside of the Earth, but they are very important, not only in hosting life, including the fish and other animals on which many humans depend, but in terms of their role in the Earth system, in regulating climate, and cycling nutrients. As climate change, pollution, and over-exploitation by humans puts this precious resource at risk, it is more important than ever that we understand and appreciate the nature and history of oceans. There is much we still do not know about the story of the Earth's oceans, and we are only just beginning to find indications of oceans on other planets. In this book, geologists Jan Zalasiewicz and Mark Williams consider the deep history of oceans, how and when they may have formed on the young Earth — topics of intense current research — how they became salty, and how they evolved through Earth history. We learn how oceans have formed and disappeared over millions of years, how the sea nurtured life, and what may become of our oceans in the future. We encounter some of the scientists and adventurers whose efforts led to our present understanding of oceans. And we look at clues to possible seas that may once have covered parts of Mars and Venus, that may still exist, below the surface, on moons such as Europa and Callisto, and the possibility of watery planets in other star systems.