Chariots for Apollo

This illustrated history by a trio of experts is the definitive reference on the Apollo spacecraft and lunar modules. It traces the vehicles' design, development, and operation in space. More than 100 photographs and illustrations.

Chariots for Apollo

This illustrated history by a trio of experts is the definitive reference on the Apollo spacecraft and lunar modules. It traces the vehicles' design, development, and operation in space. More than 100 photographs and illustrations.

Chariots for Apollo

Describes the design and construction of the lunar module, behind-the-scenes conflicts at NASA, and the drama of the Apollo Moon missions

Chariots for Apollo

Describes the design and construction of the lunar module, behind-the-scenes conflicts at NASA, and the drama of the Apollo Moon missions

Chariots for Apollo

Chariots for Apollo


Chariots for Apollo

Chariots for Apollo


Chariots for Apollo

The book was published as NASA Special Publication 4205 in the NASA History Series. The book highlights the complete history of the U.S. space agency.

Chariots for Apollo

Apollo was America's program to land men on the moon and get them safely back to the earth. In May 1961 President Kennedy gave the signal for planning and developing the machines to take men to that body. This decision, although bold and startling at the time, was not made at random nor did it lack a sound engineering base. Subcommittees of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), predecessor of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), had regularly surveyed aeronautical needs and pointed out problems for immediate resolution and specific areas for advanced research. After NASA's creation in October 1958, its leaders (many of them former NACA officials) continued to operate in this fashion and, less than a year later, set up a group to study what the agency should do in near−earth and deep−space exploration. Among the items listed by that group was a lunar landing, a proposal also discussed in circles outside NASA as a means for achieving and demonstrating technological supremacy in space. From the time Russia launched its first Sputnik in October 1957, many Americans had viewed the moon as a logical goal. A two-nation space race subsequently made that destination America's national objective for the 1960s. America had a program, Project Mercury, to put man in low-earth orbit and recover him safely. In July 1960 NASA announced plans to follow Mercury with a program, later named Apollo, to fly men around the moon. Soon thereafter, several industrial firms were awarded contracts to study the feasibility of such an enterprise. The companies had scarcely finished this task when the Russians scored again, orbiting the first space traveler, Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, on 12 April 1961. Three weeks later the Americans succeeded in launching Astronaut Alan Shepard into a suborbital arc. These events and other pressures to get America moving provided the popular, political, and technological foundations upon which President Kennedy could base his appeal for support from the Congress and the American people for the Apollo program. The Apollo story has many pieces: How and why did it start? What made it work? What did it accomplish? What did it mean? Some of its visible (and some not so visible) parts the launch vehicles, special facilities, administration, Skylab program, Apollo−Soyuz Test Project, as examples, have been recorded by the NASA History Office and some have not. A single volume treating all aspects of Apollo, whatever they were, must await the passage of time to permit a fair perspective. At that later date, this manuscript may seem narrow in scope and perhaps it is. But among present readers, particularly those who were Apollo program participants there are some who argue that the text is too broad and that their specialties receive short shrift. Moreover, some top NASA leaders during Apollo's times contend, perhaps rightly, that the authors were not familiar with all the nuances of some of the accounts set down here. Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft begins with the creation of NASA itself and with the definition of a manned space flight program to follow Mercury. It ends with Apollo 11, when America attained its goal of the 1960s, landing the first men on the moon and returning them to the earth. The focal points of this story are the spacecraft the command and service modules and the lunar module.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program Chariots for Apollo a History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft NASA SP 4205 Illustrated Edition Lunar and Command Module Development First Lunar Landing

We hope that this book will contribute to their assessments and assist in their judgments. Writing the history of Apollo has been a tremendous undertaking. There is so much to tell; there are so many facets.

Apollo and America s Moon Landing Program   Chariots for Apollo  a History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft  NASA SP 4205 Illustrated Edition    Lunar and Command Module Development  First Lunar Landing

This official NASA history document is a great review of the development of the Apollo spacecraft - the lunar module (LM) and the Command Service Module (CSM) - and the overall history of the moon landing program.The foreword states: " The story of Apollo is a remarkable chapter in the history of mankind. How remarkable will be determined by future generations as they attempt to assess and understand the relationship and significance of the Apollo achievements to the development of mankind. We hope that this book will contribute to their assessments and assist in their judgments. Writing the history of Apollo has been a tremendous undertaking. There is so much to tell; there are so many facets. The story of Apollo is filled with facts and figures about complex machines, computers, and facilities, and intricate maneuvers - these are the things with which the Apollo objectives were achieved. But a great effort has also been made to tell the real story of Apollo, to identify and describe the decisions and actions of men and women that led to the creation and operation of those complex machines." The preface notes: "Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft begins with the creation of NASA itself and with the definition of a manned space flight program to follow Mercury. It ends with Apollo 11, when America attained its goal of the 1960s, landing the first men on the moon and returning them to the earth. The focal points of this story are the spacecraft - the command and service modules and the lunar module. The 14 chapters cover three phases of spacecraft evolution: defining and designing the vehicles needed to do the job, developing and qualifying (or certifying) them for the task, and operating them to achieve the objective. Like most large-scale research and development projects, Apollo began haltingly. NASA, with few resources and a program not yet approved, started slowly. Ad hoc committees and the field centers studied, tested, reported, and suggested, looking for the best way to make the voyage. Many aerospace industrial firms followed the same line, submitting the results of their findings to NASA and hoping to get their bids in early for a piece of the program."Contents include: Chapter 1 - Concept to Challenge * 1957 to Mid-1961 * Forging a National Space Policy * The Starting * The Goett Committee * Focusing the Aim * Priming the Pipeline * The Feasibility Studies * Portents for Apollo * The Challenge * Chapter 2 - Project Planning and Contracting * May through December 1961 * Committees at Work * Spacecraft Development Decision * Astronavigation - The First Apollo Contract * Contracting for the Command Module * Influences on Booster Determination * Help from the Department of Defense * Choice of Facilities * The Launch Vehicle: Question and Decision * Chapter 3 - Contending Modes * 1959 to Mid-1962 * Proposals: Before and after May 1961 * LOR Gains a NASA Adherent * Early Reaction to LOR * Analysis of LOR * Settling the Mode Issue * Casting the Die * Chapter 4 - Matching Modules and Missions * 1962 * The Team and the Tools * Preliminary Designs for the Lunar Lander * Pressures by PSAC * Fitting the Lunar Module into Apollo * NASA Adjustments for Apollo * NASA-Grumman Negotiations * End of a Phase * Chapter 5 - Command Module and Program Changes * 1963-1964 * The Headquarters Role * Command Module: Problems and Progress * Chapter 6 - Lunar Module * 1963-1964 * External Design * Tailoring the Cockpit * Hatches and Landing Gear * Engines, Large and Small * Environment and Electricity * The "Sub-Prime" and the Radar Problem * Guidance and Navigation * Mockup Reviews * The Lunar Module and the Apollo Program * Chapter 7 - Searching for Order * 1965 * Program Direction and the Command Module * Lunar Module Refinement * The LEM Test Program: A Pacing Item * The Manned Factor * Portents for Operations * more

Chariots for Apollo

Traces the development of the Apollo spacecraft, discusses political aspects of the space program, and examines the challenges faced by the Apollo mission

Chariots for Apollo

Traces the development of the Apollo spacecraft, discusses political aspects of the space program, and examines the challenges faced by the Apollo mission

Explorations in space

Explorations in space


NASA Historical Data Book Programs and projects 1958 1968

Brooks , Grimwood , and Swenson , Chariots for Apollo , pp . 4-16 . Meeting from May to Dec. 1959 , the Research Steering Committee for Manned Space Flight headed by Harry Goett influenced the authors of the 10 - year plan .

NASA Historical Data Book  Programs and projects  1958 1968


How Apollo Flew to the Moon

As a topic, space history and the Apollo programme in particular are quite well represented in print and on the World Wide Web. ... Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, James M. Grimwood and Loyd S. Swenson.

How Apollo Flew to the Moon

Between 1968 and 1972, twenty four daring men journeyed from Earth to the Moon. This fascinating book traces what was a massive accomplishment right from the early launches through manned orbital spaceflights, detailing each step. Out of the battlefields of World War II came the gifted German engineers and designers who developed the V-2 rocket, which evolved into the powerful Saturn V booster that propelled men to the Moon. David Woods tells this exciting story, starting from America’s postwar astronautical research facilities. The techniques and procedures developed have been recognised as an example of human exploration at its greatest, demonstrating a peak of technological excellence.

Dictionary of Nature Myths

Perhaps the most popular myth of the sun chariot involves Phaethon, the mortal son of Apollo who drove his father's chariot and nearly destroyed the world. Chariots of Apollo and of many other sun gods across the globe flashed through ...

Dictionary of Nature Myths

Comprehensive and cross-referenced, this informative volume is a rich introduction to the world of nature as experienced by ancient peoples around the globe. 51 halftones.

Moon Lander

Chief engineer Thomas J. Kelly gives a firsthand account of designing, building, testing, and flying the Apollo lunar module.

Moon Lander

Chief engineer Thomas J. Kelly gives a firsthand account of designing, building, testing, and flying the Apollo lunar module. It was, he writes, “an aerospace engineer’s dream job of the century.” Kelly’s account begins with the imaginative process of sketching solutions to a host of technical challenges with an emphasis on safety, reliability, and maintainability. He catalogs numerous test failures, including propulsion-system leaks, ascent-engine instability, stress corrosion of the aluminum alloy parts, and battery problems, as well as their fixes under the ever-present constraints of budget and schedule. He also recaptures the exhilaration of hearing Apollo 11’s Neil Armstrong report that “The Eagle has landed,” and the pride of having inadvertently provided a vital “lifeboat” for the crew of the disabled Apollo 13.

Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology

C. G. Brooks , L. S. Grimwood , and L. S. Swenson , Jr. , Chariots for Apollo : A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft , NASA SP - 4205 Washington , D.C. , 1979 , p . 355 . 10. Hopkins , ' Electronic Navigator , " p . 116 . 11.

Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology

"This comprehensive reference work provides immediate, fingertip access to state-of-the-art technology in nearly 700 self-contained articles written by over 900 international authorities. Each article in the Encyclopedia features current developments and trends in computers, software, vendors, and applications...extensive bibliographies of leading figures in the field, such as Samuel Alexander, John von Neumann, and Norbert Wiener...and in-depth analysis of future directions."

History at NASA

Chariots for Apollo is certain to become a standard reference for all who examine the American manned space program . ... . . As historians have come to expect from the NASA history program , the book is meticulously researched in ...

History at NASA


NASA EP

( I & U ) Brooks , Courtney G. , James M. Grimwood , and Loyd S. Swenson , Jr. Chariots for Apollo : A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft . 1979. ( S & A ) Bruno , Leonard C. We Have a Sporting Chance : The Decision to Go to the Moon .

NASA EP


A Guide to Research in NASA History

In JSC History Office ( 600 linear feet ) : This is the collection on which Chariots for Apollo ( NASA SP - 4205 ) , a history of the development of manned lunar spacecraft , was based . It includes about 100 linear feet of photographs ...

A Guide to Research in NASA History


Historical Guide to NASA and the Space Program

C. Apollo “Apollo 11 moon landing: Ten facts about Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins' mission. ... “Apollo accident report.” Aviation Week and Space Technology (February ... Chariots for Apollo: The Untold Story behind the Race to the Moon.

Historical Guide to NASA and the Space Program

NASA—the National Aeronautics and Space Administration created in the wake of the Space Act—has and continues to accomplish those precepts every day. With many hundreds of satellites launched into space and close to 200 human spaceflights, NASA is a proven leader in space exploration. Most of the US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles. NASA is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. The Historical Guide to NASA and the Space Program contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on space missions, astronauts, technical terms, space shuttles, satellites and the international space station. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about NASA and space exploration.

Project Management for Engineering Business and Technology

87-116; the other source is Brooks C., Grimwood J. and Swenson, Jr., L. Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft. Washington, DC: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, SP-4205; 1979, sections 2.5 and 4.2.

Project Management for Engineering  Business and Technology

Project Management for Engineering, Business and Technology is a highly regarded textbook that addresses project management across all industries. First covering the essential background, from origins and philosophy to methodology, the bulk of the book is dedicated to concepts and techniques for practical application. Coverage includes project initiation and proposals, scope and task definition, scheduling, budgeting, risk analysis, control, project selection and portfolio management, program management, project organization, and all-important "people" aspects—project leadership, team building, conflict resolution, and stress management. The systems development cycle is used as a framework to discuss project management in a variety of situations, making this the go-to book for managing virtually any kind of project, program, or task force. The authors focus on the ultimate purpose of project management—to unify and integrate the interests, resources and work efforts of many stakeholders, as well as the planning, scheduling, and budgeting needed to accomplish overall project goals. This sixth edition features: updates throughout to cover the latest developments in project management methodologies; a new chapter on project procurement management and contracts; an expansion of case study coverage throughout, including those on the topic of sustainability and climate change, as well as cases and examples from across the globe, including India, Africa, Asia, and Australia; and extensive instructor support materials, including an instructor’s manual, PowerPoint slides, answers to chapter review questions and a test bank of questions. Taking a technical yet accessible approach, this book is an ideal resource and reference for all advanced undergraduate and graduate students in project management courses, as well as for practicing project managers across all industry sectors.