Cherokee Editor

sIn 1796 George Washington outlined the "civilization" program in a letter to the Cherokees that was reprinted in the Cherokee Phoenix, Mar. 20, 1828. For the program's implementation, see Henry T. Malone, Cherokees of the Old South: A ...

Cherokee Editor

This volume collects most of the writings published by the accomplished Cherokee leader Elias Boudinot, founding editor of the "Cherokee Phoenix". Mentions: Moravians, Spring Place, GA and missions.

Demanding the Cherokee Nation

Theda Perdue, ed., Cherokee Editor: The Writings of Elias Boudinot (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983), 3–25. 20. Prucha, Great Father, 191–94; Moulton, John Ross, 34–40.; McLoughlin, Cherokees and Missionaries, 240–54; Andrew, ...

Demanding the Cherokee Nation

Demanding the Cherokee Nation examines nineteenth-century Cherokee political rhetoric in reassessing an enigma in American Indian history: the contradiction between the sovereignty of Indian nations and the political weakness of Indian communities. Drawing from a rich collection of petitions, appeals, newspaper editorials, and other public records, Andrew Denson describes the ways in which Cherokees represented their people and their nation to non-Indians after their forced removal to Indian Territory in the 1830s. He argues that Cherokee writings on nationhood document a decades-long effort by tribal leaders to find a new model for American Indian relations in which Indian nations could coexist with a modernizing United States. Most non-Natives in the nineteenth century assumed that American development and progress necessitated the end of tribal autonomy, and that at best the Indian nation was a transitional state for Native people on the path to assimilation. As Denson shows, however, Cherokee leaders articulated a variety of ways in which the Indian nation, as they defined it, belonged in the modern world. Tribal leaders responded to developments in the United States and adapted their defense of Indian autonomy to the great changes transforming American life in the middle and late nineteenth century, notably also providing cogent new justification for Indian nationhood within the context of emergent American industrialization.

Removable Type

See Walker and Sarbaugh, “Early History of the Cherokee Syllabary,” for a convincing defense of Sequoyah as the sole inventor of the system. 22. Perdue, Cherokee Editor, 12. 23. Quoted in Gaul, To Marry an Indian, 16. 24.

Removable Type

In 1663, the Puritan missionary John Eliot, with the help of a Nipmuck convert whom the English called James Printer, produced the first Bible printed in North America. It was printed not in English but in Algonquian, making it one of the first books printed in a Native language. In this ambitious and multidisciplinary work, Phillip Round examines the relationship between Native Americans and printed books over a two-hundred-year period, uncovering the individual, communal, regional, and political contexts for Native peoples' use of the printed word. From the northeastern woodlands to the Great Plains, Round argues, alphabetic literacy and printed books mattered greatly in the emergent, transitional cultural formations of indigenous nations threatened by European imperialism. Removable Type showcases the varied ways that Native peoples produced and utilized printed texts over time, approaching them as both opportunity and threat. Surveying this rich history, Round addresses such issues as the role of white missionaries and Christian texts in the dissemination of print culture in Indian Country, the establishment of "national" publishing houses by tribes, the production and consumption of bilingual texts, the importance of copyright in establishing Native intellectual sovereignty (and the sometimes corrosive effects of reprinting thereon), and the significance of illustrations.

Cherokee Renascence in the New Republic

The Cherokee Phoenix began publication in February 1828 and in its pages various candidates offered their views on how the government should operate under the new constitution. In addition, the editor of the Phoenix printed ...

Cherokee Renascence in the New Republic

The Cherokees, the most important tribe in the formative years of the American Republic, became the test case for the Founding Fathers' determination to Christianize and "civilize" all Indians and to incorporate them into the republic as full citizens. From the standpoint of the Cherokees, rather than from that of the white policymakers, William McLoughlin tells the dramatic success story of the "renascence" of the tribe. He goes on to give a full account of how the Cherokees eventually fell before the expansionism of white America and the zeal of Andrew Jackson.

Modernity Through Letter Writing

See McLoughlin, “Cherokee Anomie,” 456f. 63. See Conser Jr., “John Ross and the Cherokee Resistance Campaign,” 191–212. See also Anderson, Introduction to Cherokee Removal, ix. 64. See Perdue, Cherokee Editor, 25. 65.

Modernity Through Letter Writing

In Modernity through Letter Writing Claudia B. Haake shows how the Cherokees and Senecas envisioned their political modernity in missives they sent to members of the federal government to negotiate their status. They not only used their letters, petitions, and memoranda to reject incorporation into the United States and to express their continuing adherence to their own laws and customs but also to mark areas where they were willing to compromise. As they found themselves increasingly unable to secure opportunities for face-to-face meetings with representatives of the federal government, Cherokees and Senecas relied more heavily on letter writing to conduct diplomatic relations with the U.S. government. The amount of time and energy they expended on the missives demonstrates that authors from both tribes considered letters, memoranda, and petitions to be a crucial political strategy. Instead of merely observing Western written conventions, the Cherokees and Senecas incorporated oral writing and consciously insisted on elements of their own culture they wanted to preserve, seeking to convey to the government a vision of their continued political separateness as well as of their own modernity.

Race and the Cherokee Nation

52. See Cherokee Editor: The Writings of Elias Boudinot, Theda Perdue, ed., (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1983), 114–17. 53. See Cherokee Phoenix, March 20, 1828. 54. Robert Sparks Walker, Torchlights to the Cherokees (New ...

Race and the Cherokee Nation

"We believe by blood only," said a Cherokee resident of Oklahoma, speaking to reporters in 2007 after voting in favor of the Cherokee Nation constitutional amendment limiting its membership. In an election that made headlines around the world, a majority of Cherokee voters chose to eject from their tribe the descendants of the African American freedmen Cherokee Indians had once enslaved. Because of the unique sovereign status of Indian nations in the United States, legal membership in an Indian nation can have real economic benefits. In addition to money, the issues brought forth in this election have racial and cultural roots going back before the Civil War. Race and the Cherokee Nation examines how leaders of the Cherokee Nation fostered a racial ideology through the regulation of interracial marriage. By defining and policing interracial sex, nineteenth-century Cherokee lawmakers preserved political sovereignty, delineated Cherokee identity, and established a social hierarchy. Moreover, Cherokee conceptions of race and what constituted interracial sex differed from those of blacks and whites. Moving beyond the usual black/white dichotomy, historian Fay A. Yarbrough places American Indian voices firmly at the center of the story, as well as contrasting African American conceptions and perspectives on interracial sex with those of Cherokee Indians. For American Indians, nineteenth-century relationships produced offspring that pushed racial and citizenship boundaries. Those boundaries continue to have an impact on the way individuals identify themselves and what legal rights they can claim today.

An American Betrayal

Perdue, Cherokee Editor, 161. 48. Ibid., 177, 162. 49. Ibid., 162. 50. John Ross to General Council, August 4, 1832, in Moulton, Papers ofChiefJohn Ross, 1:250; Perdue, Cherokee Editor, 226, 175. 51. Cherokee Phoenix, August 11, 1832; ...

An American Betrayal

The fierce battle over identity and patriotism within Cherokee culture that took place in the years surrounding the Trail of Tears Though the tragedy of the Trail of Tears is widely recognized today, the pervasive effects of the tribe's uprooting have never been examined in detail. Despite the Cherokees' efforts to assimilate with the dominant white culture—running their own newspaper, ratifying a constitution based on that of the United States—they were never able to integrate fully with white men in the New World. In An American Betrayal, Daniel Blake Smith's vivid prose brings to life a host of memorable characters: the veteran Indian-fighter Andrew Jackson, who adopted a young Indian boy into his home; Chief John Ross, only one-eighth Cherokee, who commanded the loyalty of most Cherokees because of his relentless effort to remain on their native soil; most dramatically, the dissenters in Cherokee country—especially Elias Boudinot and John Ridge, gifted young men who were educated in a New England academy but whose marriages to local white girls erupted in racial epithets, effigy burnings, and the closing of the school. Smith, an award-winning historian, offers an eye-opening view of why neither assimilation nor Cherokee independence could succeed in Jacksonian America.

Cherokee Removal

He is the coauthor with James A. Lewis of A Guide to Cherokee Documents in Foreign Archives and has published articles on ... An Oral History of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1865-1907 and Cherokee Editor: The Writings of Elias Boudinot.

Cherokee Removal

Includes bibliographical references. Includes index.

Pen and Ink Witchcraft

39. Perdue, Cherokee Editor, 121. 40. Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. 515, 559–60 (1832); Jill Norgren, The Cherokee Cases: Two Landmark Federal Decisions in the Fight for Sovereignty (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004). 41.

Pen and Ink Witchcraft

Indian peoples made some four hundred treaties with the United States between the American Revolution and 1871, when Congress prohibited them. They signed nine treaties with the Confederacy, as well as countless others over the centuries with Spain, France, Britain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, Canada, and even Russia, not to mention individual colonies and states. In retrospect, the treaties seem like well-ordered steps on the path of dispossession and empire. The reality was far more complicated. In Pen and Ink Witchcraft, eminent Native American historian Colin G. Calloway narrates the history of diplomacy between North American Indians and their imperial adversaries, particularly the United States. Treaties were cultural encounters and human dramas, each with its cast of characters and conflicting agendas. Many treaties, he notes, involved not land, but trade, friendship, and the resolution of disputes. Far from all being one-sided, they were negotiated on the Indians' cultural and geographical terrain. When the Mohawks welcomed Dutch traders in the early 1600s, they sealed a treaty of friendship with a wampum belt with parallel rows of purple beads, representing the parties traveling side-by-side, as equals, on the same river. But the American republic increasingly turned treaty-making into a tool of encroachment on Indian territory. Calloway traces this process by focusing on the treaties of Fort Stanwix (1768), New Echota (1835), and Medicine Lodge (1867), in addition to such events as the Peace of Montreal in 1701 and the treaties of Fort Laramie (1851 and 1868). His analysis demonstrates that native leaders were hardly dupes. The records of negotiations, he writes, show that "Indians frequently matched their colonizing counterparts in diplomatic savvy and tried, literally, to hold their ground." Each treaty has its own story, Calloway writes, but together they tell a rich and complicated tale of moments in American history when civilizations collided.

Literacy and Intellectual Life in the Cherokee Nation 1820 1906

The missionaries served as facilitators,but the idea came from the Indians; indeed,the newspaper'sexpressions were thoseofthe Cherokee editor and othercitizensofthe Cherokee Nation. Samuel A. Worcester published thefirstfive chapters of ...

Literacy and Intellectual Life in the Cherokee Nation  1820   1906

Many Anglo-Americans in the nineteenth century regarded Indian tribes as little more than illiterate bands of savages in need of “civilizing.” Few were willing to recognize that one of the major Southeastern tribes targeted for removal west of the Mississippi already had an advanced civilization with its own system of writing and rich literary tradition. In Literacy and Intellectual Life in the Cherokee Nation, 1820–1906, James W. Parins traces the rise of bilingual literacy and intellectual life in the Cherokee Nation during the nineteenth century—a time of intense social and political turmoil for the tribe. By the 1820s, Cherokees had perfected a system for writing their language—the syllabary created by Sequoyah—and in a short time taught it to virtually all their citizens. Recognizing the need to master the language of the dominant society, the Cherokee Nation also developed a superior public school system that taught students in English. The result was a literate population, most of whom could read the Cherokee Phoenix, the tribal newspaper founded in 1828 and published in both Cherokee and English. English literacy allowed Cherokee leaders to deal with the white power structure on their own terms: Cherokees wrote legal briefs, challenged members of Congress and the executive branch, and bargained for their tribe as white interests sought to take their land and end their autonomy. In addition, many Cherokee poets, fiction writers, essayists, and journalists published extensively after 1850, paving the way for the rich literary tradition that the nation preserves and fosters today. Literary and Intellectual Life in the Cherokee Nation, 1820–1906 takes a fascinating look at how literacy served to unite Cherokees during a critical moment in their national history, and advances our understanding of how literacy has functioned as a tool of sovereignty among Native peoples, both historically and today.

Laws and Joint Resolutions of the Cherokee Nation

Enacted by the National Council During the Regular and Extra Sessions of 1884-5-6 Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma. Fund not otherwise set apart , for the purpose of paying the ... Further defining the duties of Editor of CHEROKEE ADVOCATE .

Laws and Joint Resolutions of the Cherokee Nation


To Marry an Indian

For further discussion of these changes, see Malone, Cherokees; McLoughlin, Cherokee Renascence; Young; and Perdue, Cherokee Women. ... On Elias's role as editor of the Cherokee Phoenix, see Luebke; Malone, “Cherokee Phoenix”; Martin; ...

To Marry an Indian

When nineteen-year-old Harriett Gold, from a prominent white family in Cornwall, Connecticut, announced in 1825 her intention to marry a Cherokee man, her shocked family initiated a spirited correspondence debating her decision to marry an Indian. Eventually, Gold's family members reconciled themselves to her wishes, and she married Elias Boudinot in 1826. After the marriage, she returned with Boudinot to the Cherokee Nation, where he went on to become a controversial political figure and editor of the first Native American newspaper. Providing rare firsthand documentation of race relations in the early nineteenth-century United States, this volume collects the Gold family correspondence during the engagement period as well as letters the young couple sent to the family describing their experiences in New Echota (capital of the Cherokee Nation) during the years prior to the Cherokee Removal. In an introduction providing historical and social contexts, Theresa Strouth Gaul offers a literary reading of the correspondence, highlighting the value of the epistolary form and the gender and racial dynamics of the exchange. As Gaul demonstrates, the correspondence provides a factual accompaniment to the many fictionalized accounts of contacts between Native Americans and Euroamericans and supports an increasing recognition that letters form an important category of literature.

Native Acts

34.36. chance encounter, the poetry in the Cherokee Phoenix as a topic of investigation. Bennett, Poets in the Public Sphere, 5; Loeffelholz, From School to Salon, 3. Perdue, Cherokee Editor, 90, my emphasis. The remaining two content ...

Native Acts

Long before the Boston Tea Party, where colonists staged a revolutionary act by masquerading as Indians, people looked to Native Americans for the symbols, imagery, and acts that showed what it meant to be “American.” And for just as long, observers have largely overlooked the role that Native peoples themselves played in creating and enacting the Indian performances appropriated by European Americans. It is precisely this neglected notion of Native Americans “playing Indian” that Native Acts explores. These essays—by historians, literary critics, anthropologists, and folklorists—provide the first broadly based chronicle of the performance of “Indianness” by Natives in North America from the seventeenth through the early nineteenth century. The authors’ careful and imaginative analysis of historical documents and performative traditions reveals an intricate history of intercultural exchange. In sum, Native Acts challenges any simple understanding of cultural “authenticity” even as it celebrates the dynamic role of performance in the American Indian pursuit of self-determination. In this collection, Indian peoples emerge as active, vocal, embodied participants in cultural encounters whose performance powerfully shaped the course of early American history.

Racism Sexism and the Media

In addition, see Barbara F. Luebke, “Elias Boudinott, Indian Editor: Editorial Columns from Cherokee Phoenix,” Journalism History 6 (No. 2, Summer 1979): 48–53, and Sam G. Riley, “A Note of Caution—The Indian's Own Prejudice, ...

Racism  Sexism  and the Media

The Fourth Edition of Racism, Sexism, and the Media examines how different race, ethnic, and gender groups fit into the fabric of America; how the media influence and shape everyone's perception of how they fit; and how the media and advertisers are continuously adapting their communications to effectively reach these groups. The authors explore how the rise of class/group-focused communication, resulting from the convergence of new media technologies and continued demographic segmentation of audiences, has led media outlets and advertisers to see women and people of color as influential key audiences and target markets, as well as a source of stereotypes, which may lead to media insensitivity and may help perpetuate social inequity. The Fourth Edition includes updated content on topics covered in the previous editions, and new material on: women of color, including an integrated assessment of their media experiences; new material on Muslim, Arab, and Asian groups; new technologies; and social media use and their impact

Cherokee Women

William G. McLoughlin , “ Cherokee Antimission Sentiment , 1823–24 " in Cherokee Ghost Dance , 385-96 ; Perdue , “ The Conflict Within , " 467-91 . 131. Elias Boudinot , " An Address to the Whites ” in Cherokee Editor : The Writings of ...

Cherokee Women

Theda Perdue examines the roles and responsibilities of Cherokee women during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a time of intense cultural change. While building on the research of earlier historians, she develops a uniquely complex view of the effects of contact on Native gender relations, arguing that Cherokee conceptions of gender persisted long after contact. Maintaining traditional gender roles actually allowed Cherokee women and men to adapt to new circumstances and adopt new industries and practices.

The Cherokee Syllabary

Cherokee Phoenix 1(11) (May 6). ———. 1832. "Invention of a New Alphabet." American Annals of Education (April 1). Reprinted in Theda Perdue, ed., Cherokee Editor: The Writings of Elias Boudinot, 48-63. Knoxville: University of Tennessee ...

The Cherokee Syllabary

In 1821, Sequoyah, a Cherokee metalworker and inventor, introduced a writing system that he had been developing for more than a decade. His creation—the Cherokee syllabary—helped his people learn to read and write within five years and became a principal part of their identity. This groundbreaking study traces the creation, dissemination, and evolution of Sequoyah’s syllabary from script to print to digital forms. Breaking with conventional understanding, author Ellen Cushman shows that the syllabary was not based on alphabetic writing, as is often thought, but rather on Cherokee syllables and, more importantly, on Cherokee meanings. Employing an engaging narrative approach, Cushman relates how Sequoyah created the syllabary apart from Western alphabetic models. But he called it an alphabet because he anticipated the Western assumption that only alphabetic writing is legitimate. Calling the syllabary an alphabet, though, has led to our current misunderstanding of just what it is and of the genius behind it—until now. In her opening chapters, Cushman traces the history of Sequoyah’s invention and explains the logic of the syllabary’s structure and the graphic relationships among the characters, both of which might have made the system easy for native speakers to use. Later chapters address the syllabary’s enduring significance, showing how it allowed Cherokees to protect, enact, and codify their knowledge and to weave non-Cherokee concepts into their language and life. The result was their enhanced ability to adapt to social change on and in Cherokee terms. Cushman adeptly explains complex linguistic concepts in an accessible style, even as she displays impressive understanding of interrelated issues in Native American studies, colonial studies, cultural anthropology, linguistics, rhetoric, and literacy studies. Profound, like the invention it explores, The Cherokee Syllabary will reshape the study of Cherokee history and culture. Published through the Recovering Languages and Literacies of the Americas initiative, supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

The Legal Ideology of Removal

Elias Boudinot, “To the Editor of the Cherokee Phoenix,” in Perdue, Cherokee Editor, 170–74; Thurman Wilkins, Cherokee Tragedy, 256–57; Perdue, Cherokee Editor, 25–26. 4. King and Evans, “Death of John Walker, Jr.,” 4.

The Legal Ideology of Removal

This study is the first to show how state courts enabled the mass expulsion of Native Americans from their southern homelands in the 1830s. Our understanding of that infamous period, argues Tim Alan Garrison, is too often molded around the towering personalities of the Indian removal debate, including President Andrew Jackson, Cherokee leader John Ross, and United States Supreme Court Justice John Marshall. This common view minimizes the impact on Indian sovereignty of some little-known legal cases at the state level. Because the federal government upheld Native American self-dominion, southerners bent on expropriating Indian land sought a legal toehold through state supreme court decisions. As Garrison discusses Georgia v. Tassels (1830), Caldwell v. Alabama (1831), Tennessee v. Forman (1835), and other cases, he shows how proremoval partisans exploited regional sympathies. By casting removal as a states' rights, rather than a moral, issue, they won the wide support of a land-hungry southern populace. The disastrous consequences to Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles are still unfolding. Important in its own right, jurisprudence on Indian matters in the antebellum South also complements the legal corpus on slavery. Readers will gain a broader perspective on the racial views of the southern legal elite, and on the logical inconsistencies of southern law and politics in the conceptual period of the anti-Indian and proslavery ideologies.

Seven Cherokee Myths

Rennard Stricklend, a lawyer of Cherokee and Osage descent and dean of the law school of the University of Oregon at Eugene, documents the development of ... 73, in Theda Perdue, ed., Cherokee Editor: The Writings of Elias Boudinot.

Seven Cherokee Myths

Like ancient peoples the world over, the Cherokees of the southern Appalachian Mountains passed along their traditions and beliefs through stories, songs, dances, and religious and healing rituals. With the creation of Cherokee writing by Sequoyah, some of the traditions were also recorded in books. While evoking local geography and natural phenomena, the stories were also enhanced by powerful psychological and spiritual dynamics. This work examines seven myths that grew out of Cherokee culture, looking at how they emerged to explain archetypal issues. Each of the seven stories is told in full and is followed by a detailed history and analysis that provides its background, its associated rituals, and its psychological basis. One quickly discovers that while the myths are ancient, they are strikingly modern in their understanding of human personality development, family dynamics, community solidarity, and the reality of religion or spirituality. Grounded in the experience of this American Indian people and the land they inhabited, the myths tell universal truths.

In Pursuit of Dead Georgians

6 On “civilizing” the Cherokees, see Henry Thompson Malone, Cherokees of the Old South: A People in Transition (Athens, Ga., 1956), ... 14 Boudinot, “Address to the Whites,” in Perdue, Cherokee Editor, p.72; CP, May 14, June 18, 1828.

In Pursuit of Dead Georgians

George R. Lamplugh, a historian of Georgia and the South, explores some of his home state’s most fascinating historical events, beginning with the American Revolution and continuing through the 1850s, in this well-researched collection of essays. He covers political factionalism during the American Revolution; the development of political parties in Georgia (which was different from the process in other states); and the impact of the Yazoo Land Fraud on Georgia’s political development. Some of the most fascinating essays focus on the maneuverings of individual politicians, such as William Few, who was determined to exert local influence after the American Revolution by having the Richmond County courthouse and jail, and hence the county polling place, constructed in the settlement of Brownsborough rather than in Augusta. More complex issues get equal treatment, such as how after the War of 1812, political parties in Georgia began to slowly adopt policies that were popular in other states—even though that meant hurting Creeks, Cherokees, and slaves. While Georgia didn’t always live up to democratic ideals, its political history teaches us a lot about our past and possible future.

Signs of Cherokee Culture

Sequoyah's Syllabary in Eastern Cherokee Life Margaret Bender ... The Swimmer Manuscript: Cherokee Sacred Formulas and Medicinal Prescriptions. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian ... Cherokee Editor: The Writings of Elias Boudinot. Knoxville:

Signs of Cherokee Culture

Based on extensive fieldwork in the community of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in western North Carolina, this book uses a semiotic approach to investigate the historic and contemporary role of the Sequoyan syllabary--the written system for representing the sounds of the Cherokee language--in Eastern Cherokee life. The Cherokee syllabary was invented in the 1820s by the respected Cherokee Sequoyah. The syllabary quickly replaced alternative writing systems for Cherokee and was reportedly in widespread use by the mid-nineteenth century. After that, literacy in Cherokee declined, except in specialized religious contexts. But as Bender shows, recent interest in cultural revitalization among the Cherokees has increased the use of the syllabary in education, publications, and even signage. Bender also explores the role played by the syllabary within the ever more important context of tourism. (The Eastern Cherokee Band hosts millions of visitors each year in the Great Smoky Mountains.) English is the predominant language used in the Cherokee community, but Bender shows how the syllabary is used in special and subtle ways that help to shape a shared cultural and linguistic identity among the Cherokees. Signs of Cherokee Culture thus makes an important contribution to the ethnographic literature on culturally specific literacies.