See Degler-Spengler, “The Incorporation of Cistercian Nuns into the Order,” 85–134, and the critique offered by Berman, “Were There Twelfth-Century Cistercian Nuns?,” 853–54. For earlier scholarship that emphasized the monks' suspicion ...
Author: Martha G. Newman
Publisher: Middle Ages
In Cistercian Stories for Nuns and Monks, Martha G. Newman shows how Engelhard of Langheim's late twelfth-century tales about Cistercian monks illuminate the religiosity of Cistercian nuns. Engelhard's writings locate a sacramental value in everyday objects and behaviors and teach a spiritual formation that nuns and monks could share.
Instead, they assume that the nuns would be interested in tales about Cistercian monks. In fact, Engelhard's stories address monks and nuns as a single social group that bypassed male sacerdotal authority on one hand, and a specifically ...
Author: Blake Gutt
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Trans and Genderqueer Subjects in Medieval Hagiography presents an interdisciplinary examination of trans and genderqueer subjects in medieval hagiography. Scholarship has productively combined analysis of medieval literary texts with modern queer theory - yet, too often, questions of gender are explored almost exclusively through a prism of sexuality, rather than gender identity. This volume moves beyond such limitations, foregrounding the richness of hagiography as a genre integrally resistant to limiting binaristic categories, including rigid gender binaries. The collection showcases scholarship by emerging trans and genderqueer authors, as well as the work of established researchers. Working at the vanguard of historical trans studies, these scholars demonstrate the vital and vitally political nature of their work as medievalists. Trans and Genderqueer Subjects in Medieval Hagiography enables the re-creation of a lineage linking modern trans and genderqueer individuals to their medieval ancestors, providing models of queer identity where much scholarship has insisted there were none, and re-establishing the place of non-normative gender in history.
These texts are made up of brief stories, often with a miraculous content, which provided moral support for novices and monks in Cistercian abbeys all over Europe in the High Middle Ages.
Author: Brian Patrick McGuire
In these articles Professor McGuire explores the riches of the Cistercian exemplum tradition. These texts are made up of brief stories, often with a miraculous content, which provided moral support for novices and monks in Cistercian abbeys all over Europe in the High Middle Ages. The Cistercians have been seen mainly in terms of their great writers like Bernard of Clairvaux and the impressive buildings they left behind. But Cistercian literature also provides us with more humble insights from daily life, shedding light on questions of sexuality, anger, depression, and bonds of friendship, also between monks and nuns. They bring a freshness of insight and immediate experience, and their seeming naivety lets us be aware of monks' commitment to each other in individual and community bonds. In Cistercian storytelling, the Gospel's message meets an historical context and bears witness to a transformation of Christian life and idealism, while at the same time allowing us precious insights into how ordinary men and women, not just monks and nuns, lived and thought.
Monks, Nuns, Canons, and Friars as Elites of Medieval Culture Gert Melville, James Mixson ... Before publication, I was unable to consult M. G. NEWMAN , Cistercian Stories for Nuns and Monks: The Sacramental Imagination of Engelhard of ...
Author: Gert Melville
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
For over a thousand years, monks, nuns, canons, friars, and others under religious vows stood at the pinnacle of Western European society. For their ascetic sacrifices, their learning, piety, and expertise, they were accorded positions of power and influence, and a wide range of legal, financial and social privileges. As such they present an important opportunity to consider the nature and dynamics of an "elite" in medieval culture. Using medieval religious life as their interpretive lens, the essays of this volume seek to uncover the essential markers of elite status. They explore how those under vows claimed and manifested elite status in complex spiritual, temporal, and social combinations. They explore the workings of elite status from day to day, across region and locale - who earned recognition and how, whether through specific achievements or the deployment of specific capacities; who recognized, conferred, or helped maintain elite status, how and why; how elite status could be redefined, contested or rejected. The essays also seek to understand how medieval European religious elites compared to those found in other cultures and settings, from Syria and South Asia to the early modern transatlantic world.
41 The vision narrative, embedded in the vita of Arnulf of Villers, is one version of the foundation story for ... As Arnulf and Gerard make clear, Cistercian monks and lay brothers played a significant role in this transmission.
Author: Anne E. Lester
Publisher: Cornell University Press
In Creating Cistercian Nuns, Anne E. Lester addresses a central issue in the history of the medieval church: the role of women in the rise of the religious reform movement of the thirteenth century. Focusing on the county of Champagne in France, Lester reconstructs the history of the women’s religious movement and its institutionalization within the Cistercian order. The common picture of the early Cistercian order is that it was unreceptive to religious women. Male Cistercian leaders often avoided institutional oversight of communities of nuns, preferring instead to cultivate informal relationships of spiritual advice and guidance with religious women. As a result, scholars believed that women who wished to live a life of service and poverty were more likely to join one of the other reforming orders rather than the Cistercians. As Lester shows, however, this picture is deeply flawed. Between 1220 and 1240 the Cistercian order incorporated small independent communities of religious women in unprecedented numbers. Moreover, the order not only accommodated women but also responded to their interpretations of apostolic piety, even as it defined and determined what constituted Cistercian nuns in terms of dress, privileges, and liturgical practice. Lester reconstructs the lived experiences of these women, integrating their ideals and practices into the broader religious and social developments of the thirteenth century—including the crusade movement, penitential piety, the care of lepers, and the reform agenda of the Fourth Lateran Council. The book closes by addressing the reasons for the subsequent decline of Cistercian convents in the fourteenth century. Based on extensive analysis of unpublished archives, Creating Cistercian Nuns will force scholars to revise their understanding of the women’s religious movement as it unfolded during the thirteenth century.
Among his latest books is Shame and Modernity in Britain (with Anne-Marie Kilday), Palgrave (2017). ... Her most recent book is Cistercian Stories for Nuns and Monks: The Sacramental Imagination of Engelhard of Langheim, forthcoming, ...
Author: Anne Stensvold
This volume examines both historical developments and contemporary expressions of blasphemy across the world. The transgression of religious boundaries incurs more or less severe sanctions in various religious traditions. This book looks at how religious and political authorities use ideas about blasphemy as a means of control. In a globalised world where people of different faiths interact more than ever before and world-views are an increasingly important part of identity politics, religious boundaries are a source of controversy. The book goes beyond many others in this field by widening its scope beyond the legal aspects of freedom of expression. Approaching blasphemy as effective speech, the chapters in this book focus on real-life situations and ask the following questions: who are the blasphemers, who are their accusers and what does blasphemy accomplish? Utilising case studies from Europe, the Middle East and Asia that encompass a wide variety of faith traditions, the book guides readers to a more nuanced appreciation of the historical roots, political implications and religious rationale of attitudes towards blasphemy. Incorporating historical and contemporary approaches to blasphemy, this book will be of great use to academics in Religious Studies and the Sociology of Religion as well as Political Science, Media Studies, History.
At this monastery and probably many others of the more than one hundred O.C.S.O. houses of the Trappist-Cistercians spread around the world, the telling of edifying stories brings monks and nuns together in a common life with shared ...
The articles in this collection offer an in-depth analysis of the Dialogus Miraculorum by the Cistercian Caesarius of Heisterbach (thirteenth century) and provide an insight into the theory and practice of Cistercian persuasion and Caesarius’s narrative theology.
While documents of practice concerning religious women at Molesme , Jully , le Tart , and elsewhere provide abundant evidence for twelfth - century Cistercian nuns , the standard monastic histories have tended to leave out or ...
Author: Constance H. Berman
Publisher: Psychology Press
Constance Hoffman Berman presents an indispensable collection of the most influential and revisionist work to be done on religion in the Middle Ages in the last two decades. Bringing together an authoritative list of scholars from around the world, this book is a comprehensive compilation of the most important work in this field. Medieval Religion provides a valuable service for all those who study the Middle Ages, church history or religion.
Release on 2010-03-23 | by Constance Hoffman Berman
In the thirteenth century, moreover, foundation of communities of Cistercian women was viewed as a significant prophylactic ... The monks of Cistercian Aiguebelle were associated with an abbey for nuns at le Bouchet founded circa n 150, ...
Author: Constance Hoffman Berman
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
According to the received history, the Cistercian order was founded in Cîteaux, France, in 1098 by a group of Benedictine monks who wished for a stricter community. They sought a monastic life that called for extreme asceticism, rejection of feudal revenues, and manual labor for monks. Their third leader, Stephen Harding, issued a constitution, the Carta Caritatis, that called for the uniformity of custom in all Cistercian monasteries and the establishment of an annual general chapter meeting at Cîteaux. The Cistercian order grew phenomenally in the mid-twelfth century, reaching beyond France to Portugal in the west, Sweden in the north, and the eastern Mediterranean, ostensibly through a process of apostolic gestation, whereby members of a motherhouse would go forth to establish a new house. The abbey at Clairvaux, founded by Bernard in 1115, was alone responsible for founding 68 of the 338 Cistercian abbeys in existence by 1153. But this well-established view of a centrally organized order whose founders envisioned the shape and form of a religious order at its prime is not borne out in the historical record. Through an investigation of early Cistercian documents, Constance Hoffman Berman proves that no reliable reference to Stephen's Carta Caritatis appears before the mid-twelfth century, and that the document is more likely to date from 1165 than from 1119. The implications of this fact are profound. Instead of being a charter by which more than 300 Cistercian houses were set up by a central authority, the document becomes a means of bringing under centralized administrative control a large number of loosely affiliated and already existing monastic houses of monks as well as nuns who shared Cistercian customs. The likely reason for this administrative structuring was to check the influence of the overdominant house of Clairvaux, which threatened the authority of Cîteaux through Bernard's highly successful creation of new monastic communities. For centuries the growth of the Cistercian order has been presented as a spontaneous spirituality that swept western Europe through the power of the first house at Cîteaux. Berman suggests instead that the creation of the religious order was a collaborative activity, less driven by centralized institutions; its formation was intended to solve practical problems about monastic administration. With the publication of The Cistercian Evolution, for the first time the mechanisms are revealed by which the monks of Cîteaux reshaped fact to build and administer one of the most powerful and influential religious orders of the Middle Ages.
This story combines an assertion of Bernard's spiritual power with recognition of the courage of a lay brother.This was once noticed back in the 1940s by a novice at the Trappist-Cistercian monastery of Gethsemani, Frater Chrysogonus ...
Author: E. Rozanne Elder
Publisher: Liturgical Press
In the closing decades of the twelfth century, the Cistercian Order had become an important ecclesiastical and economic power in Europe. Yet it had lost its influential spokesman, Bernard of Clairvaux, and as the century drew to a close, religious sensibilities were changing. The new mendicant orders, the Franciscans and the Dominicans, and the impulses they embodied were to shift the center of gravity in Christian religious life for centuries to come. It was in this transitional period that Conrad of Eberbach gradually—between the 1180s and 1215—compiled the Exordium magnum cisterciense: The Great Beginning of Cîteaux. It is a book of history and lore, often with miraculous stories, meant to continue a great spiritual tradition, and it is also a book meant to justify and repair the Order. The Exordium magnum was in part an effort to provide a historical and formative context for those who were to be Cistercians in the thirteenth century. Conrad's combination of a historical sensibility and the edifying exempla makes the Exordium magnum a remarkably innovative book. Its unique combination of genres—narratio and exempla—is conceivable only within the intellectual world of the twelfth or early thirteenth centuries, before exempla collections came to be complied solely for edification or use in sermons. The Great Beginning of Cîteaux is a revealing book and an excellent place to begin more detailed study of the Cistercian Order between 1174 and the middle of the thirteenth century.
... Friendship and Faith Cistercian Men, Women, and their Stories, 1100-1250 (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002); Lester, Creating Cistercian Nuns, Erin L. Jordan, "Gender Concerns. Monks, Nuns, and Patronage of the Cistercian Order in ...
Author: Jennifer C. Edwards
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Superior Women examines the claims of abbesses of the abbey of Sainte-Croix in medieval Poitiers to authority from the abbey's foundation to its 1520 reform. These women claimed to hold authority over their own community, over dependent chapters of male canons, and over extensive properties in Poitou; male officials such as the king of France and the pope repeatedly supported these claims. To secure this support, the abbesses relied on two strategies that the abbey's founder, the sixth-century Saint Radegund, established: they documented support from a network of allies made up of powerful secular and ecclesiastical officials, and they used artefacts left from Radegund's life to shape her cult and win new patrons and allies. Abbesses across the 900 years of this study routinely turned to these strategies successfully when faced with conflict from dependents, or more local officials such as the bishop of Poitiers. Sainte-Croix's nuns proved adept at tailoring these strategies to shifting historical contexts, turning from Frankish bishops to the kings of Frankia, then to the Pope and finally to the King of France as former allies became unavailable to them. The book demonstrates respectful cooperation between men and monastic women, and more extensive respect for female monastic authority than scholars typically recognize. Chapters focus on the cult's manuscripts, church decoration, procession, jurisdictions between cult institutions, reform, and rebellion.
83 See Martha Newman, Cistercian Stories for Monks and Nuns: The Sacramental Imagination of Engelhard of Langheim (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2020) regarding Cistercian ...
Author: Matthew Rowley
This volume examines how historical beliefs about the supernatural were used to justify violence, secure political authority or extend toleration in both the medieval and early modern periods. Contributors explore miracles, political authority and violence in Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, various Protestant groups, Judaism, Islam and the local religious beliefs of Pacific Islanders who interacted with Christians. The chapters are geographically expansive, with contributions ranging from confessional conflict in Poland-Lithuania to the conquest of Oceania. They examine various types of conflict such as confessional struggles, conversion attempts, assassination and war, as well as themes including diplomacy, miraculous iconography, toleration, theology and rhetoric. Together, the chapters explore the appropriation of accounts of miraculous violence that are recorded in sacred texts to reveal what partisans claimed God did in conflict, and how they claimed to know. The volume investigates theories of justified warfare, changing beliefs about the supernatural with the advent of modernity and the perceived relationship between human and divine agency. Miracles, Political Authority and Violence in Medieval and Early Modern History is of interest to scholars and students in several fields including religion and violence, political and military history, and theology and the reception of sacred texts in the medieval and early modern world.
These gatherings are usually led by a monk or nun who prays the daily office with those gathered and teaches on a topic of ... The movement began in Nigeria at Awhum Monastery but was brought to the United States by the Cistercian monk ...
Author: Greg Peters
Publisher: Baker Academic
Some evangelicals perceive monasticism as a relic from the past, a retreat from the world, or a shirking of the call to the Great Commission. At the same time, contemporary evangelical spirituality desires historical Christian manifestations of the faith. In this accessibly written book Greg Peters, an expert in monastic studies who is a Benedictine oblate and spiritual director, offers a historical survey of monasticism from its origins to current manifestations. Peters recovers the riches of the monastic tradition for contemporary spiritual formation and devotional practice, explaining why the monastic impulse is a valid and necessary manifestation of the Christian faith for today's church.
The Cistercians would do their utmost to spread the cult of the Virgin, as we find in many stories in which monks and nuns gain her assistance, as well as in the tale of the Madonna who protects the Cistercians whom she keeps neatly ...
Author: Mette Birkedal Bruun
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Covering the whole history of the order, but focusing overwhelmingly on the medieval period, this companion offers an accessible synthesis of current scholarship on the Cistercian order. After a preliminary section tracing the history of the order, and in particular its rapid expansion throughout medieval Europe, topics are addressed such as the order's structures and institutions, the material world they inhabited and constructed, including agriculture, art and architecture, and the spiritual and intellectual world of the order, in particular its founder, Bernard of Clairvaux. Themes of withdrawal and engagement with the world run throughout the book, but are not seen as mutually exclusive, nor as representing "ideals and reality".
behalf of Cistercian monasteries were directed at women as well as men.4 Indeed, aristocratic women and the wives of rulers ... contacts between Cistercian monks and nuns were tar more likely to be conducted through correspondence than ...
Author: Emilia Jamroziak
The Cistercian Order in Medieval Europe offers an accessible and engaging history of the Order from its beginnings in the twelfth century through to the early sixteenth century. Unlike most other existing volumes on this subject it gives a nuanced analysis of the late medieval Cistercian experience as well as the early years of the Order. Jamroziak argues that the story of the Cistercian Order in the Middle Ages was not one of a ‘Golden Age’ followed by decline, nor was the true ‘Cistercian spirit’ exclusively embedded in the early texts to remain unchanged for centuries. Instead she shows how the Order functioned and changed over time as an international organisation, held together by a novel 'management system'; from Estonia in the east to Portugal in the west, and from Norway to Italy. The ability to adapt and respond to these very different social and economic conditions is what made the Cistercians so successful. This book draws upon a wide range of primary sources, as well as scholarly literature in several languages, to explore the following key areas: the degree of centralisation versus local specificity how much the contact between monastic communities and lay people changed over time how the concept of reform was central to the Medieval history of the Cistercian Order This book will appeal to anyone interested in Medieval history and the Medieval Church more generally as well as those with a particular interest in monasticism.
She is demonstrated as being active in Cistercian affairs , and in protecting Cistercian monks , in other Cistercian compositions ... and her protection of individual Cistercian monks , nuns and conversi , as well as the order itself .
In general , no form of monastic discipline differed qualitatively from individual penances that monks might ... The twelfth - century Cistercian writer Ailred of Rievaulx told the story of the nun of Watton , who , around 1160 , became ...
Author: Norval Morris
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Category: Social Science
Ranging from ancient times to the present, a survey of the evolution of the prison explores its relationship to the history of Western criminal law and offers a look at the social world of prisoners over the centuries
St Albans, perhaps by Thomas Walsingham between c.1390 and c.1415, added a large number of new stories to those ... devoted to Marian miracles bestowed on Cistercian monks and nuns.23 3 Living with Miracles The texts that monks and nuns ...
A companion volume for the usage of medieval miracle collections as a source, offering versatile approaches to the origins, methods, and techniques of various types of miracle narratives, as well as fascinating case studies from across Europe.
with some lay people, and had the healed man stand in the middle of them and retell his story. ... Cistercian monks from other houses, abbots, Benedictine monks, laybrothers, secular canons, priests, nuns, and the laity.
Author: Rachel Koopmans
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Category: Literary Criticism
While the late Anglo-Saxons rarely recorded saints' posthumous miracles, a shift occurred as monastic writers of the late eleventh and twelfth centuries started to preserve hundreds of the stories they had heard of healings, acts of vengeance, resurrections, recoveries, and other miraculous deeds effected by their local saints. Indeed, Rachel Koopmans contends, the miracle collection quickly became a defining genre of high medieval English monastic culture. Koopmans surveys more than seventy-five collections and offers a new model for understanding how miracle stories were generated, circulated, and replicated. She argues that orally exchanged narratives carried far more propagandistic power than those preserved in manuscripts; stresses the literary and memorial roles of miracle collecting; and traces changes in form and content as the focus of the collectors shifted from the stories told by religious colleagues to those told by lay visitors to their churches. Wonderful to Relate highlights the importance of the two massive collections written by Benedict of Peterborough and William of Canterbury in the wake of the murder of Thomas Becket in 1170. Koopmans provides the first in-depth examination of the creation and influence of the Becket compilations, often deemed the greatest of all medieval miracle collections. In a final section, she ponders the decline of miracle collecting in the thirteenth century, which occurred with the advent of formalized canonization procedures and theological means of engaging with the miraculous.
Great mystics such as Hildegard of Bingen and St Gertrude of Helfta (1256–c.1302) followed the more austere Cistercian rule. By their time, reform movements among Benedictine monks had led to the foundation of new communities where ...
Author: Gerald O'Collins
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
This book explains how Roman Catholicism and its beliefs and practices came to be what they are. The authors move through history to sum up the present characteristics of Catholic Christianity and the major tests it faces in the third millennium. Explaining matters in a fresh and original way, they do justice to the Catholic heritage and show that Catholicism is a dynamic and living faith. Well-structured, highly informative, and clearly written, the book does not evade critical problems and the negative side of history. Rather, O'Collins and Farrugia explore challenges facing Catholics and other Christians and engage with contemporary moral issues. --Book cover,