Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies Volume 1 Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics Series

This book was originally published in 2004. Black holes are among the most mysterious objects in the Universe.

Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies  Volume 1  Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics Series

This book was originally published in 2004. Black holes are among the most mysterious objects in the Universe. Weighing up to several billion Suns, massive black holes have long been suspected to be the central powerhouses of energetic phenomena such as quasars. Advances in astronomy have not only provided spectacular proof of this long-standing paradigm, but have revealed the unexpected result that far from being rare, exotic beasts, they inhabit the center of virtually all large galaxies. Candidate black holes have been identified in increasingly large numbers of galaxies, both inactive and active, to the point where statistical studies are possible. Fresh work has highlighted the close connection between the formation, growth, and evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. This volume contains the invited lectures from an international symposium that was held to explore this exciting theme, and is a valuable review for professional astronomers and graduate students.

Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies

This book contains papers by some of the most influential astrophysicists working in this exciting field.

Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies

Black holes are among the most mysterious objects in the Universe. Weighing up to several billion Suns, massive black holes have long been suspected to be the central powerhouses of energetic phenomena such as quasars. This book contains papers by some of the most influential astrophysicists working in this exciting field. They not only provide spectacular proof of the long-standing paradigm, but unexpectedly reveal that these objects, far from being rare, inhabit the center of virtually every large galaxy.

Coevolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies

The role of black holes in galaxy evolution has come under intense scrutiny since it was discovered that every galaxy in the local universe contains a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its nucleus.

Coevolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies


Co evolution of Central Black Holes and Galaxies IAU S267

The emerging theme is that quasars are not only tracers of the evolution of galaxies; they are agents of that evolution. The central black holes in galaxies grow by accretion during a quasar-like phase.

Co evolution of Central Black Holes and Galaxies  IAU S267

IAU Symposium 267 assesses the diverse observational and theoretical attempts to answer the complex question of how quasars physically evolve and how their evolution is tied to those of the host galaxies in which they are found. The emerging theme is that quasars are not only tracers of the evolution of galaxies; they are agents of that evolution. The central black holes in galaxies grow by accretion during a quasar-like phase. However, the accretion process itself eventually produces energetic feedback in the form of intense radiation, massive outflows, and jets, which heat and perhaps remove entirely the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, effectively shutting down star formation. These up-to-date reviews of this dynamic field have particular appeal to newcomers to the field or anyone interested in the 'big picture' of how galaxies and black holes evolve over cosmic time.

Demographics of Supermassive Black Holes

These are found in large surveys of the sky. In this thesis, I use one of these surveys, the Hamburg/ESO survey (HES), to study the AGN population in the local volume (z~0).

Demographics of Supermassive Black Holes

Supermassive black holes are a fundamental component of the universe in general and of galaxies in particular. Almost every massive galaxy harbours a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in its center. Furthermore, there is a close connection between the growth of the SMBH and the evolution of its host galaxy, manifested in the relationship between the mass of the black hole and various properties of the galaxy's spheroid component, like its stellar velocity dispersion, luminosity or mass. Understanding this relationship and the growth of SMBHs is essential for our picture of galaxy formation and evolution. In this thesis, I make several contributions to improve our knowledge on the census of SMBHs and on the coevolution of black holes and galaxies.The first route I follow on this road is to obtain a complete census of the black hole population and its properties. Here, I focus particularly on active black holes, observable as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) or quasars. These are found in large surveys of the sky. In this thesis, I use one of these surveys, the Hamburg/ESO survey (HES), to study the AGN population in the local volume (z0). The demographics of AGN are traditionally represented by the AGN luminosity function, the distribution function of AGN at a given luminosity. I determined the local (z

Coevolution Between Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies

Within the framework of coevolution between the central black hole and the host spheriod galaxy, the black hole growth has been investigated, the associated luminosity function of active galactic nuclei at different redshift has been ...

Coevolution Between Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies

Within the framework of coevolution between the central black hole and the host spheriod galaxy, the black hole growth has been investigated, the associated luminosity function of active galactic nuclei at different redshift has been calculated. Compared with the results of all kinds of deep survey observations, the semi-analytic results provide the fully explanation for the downsizing features. On the other hand, star formation processes, dust absorption and ohther stellar population properties in the primeval galaxies at high redshift, make the tight constraints on the research of cosmic reionization.

An Infrared View of the Coevolution of Massive Blackholes and Galaxies

Massive blackhole (MBH) growth is now recognized as a critical ingredient of galaxy formation and evolution.

An Infrared View of the Coevolution of Massive Blackholes and Galaxies

Massive blackhole (MBH) growth is now recognized as a critical ingredient of galaxy formation and evolution. To investigate the interplay between MBH growth and galaxy evolution, we have used the capabilities of the Spitzer Space Telescope to study active galactic nuclei (AGN) and luminous infrared galaxies. We have tested the unification model for radio-loud AGN by finding that radio quasars and some FRII radio galaxies follow a correlation between low-frequency radio and the 70 um emission, two presumably isotropic indicators of nuclear radiation. We have found that mid-IR obscuration (characterized by the strength of the silicate feature) correlates with the X-ray obscuration (characterized by the HI column density), such that low HI columns correspond to silicate emission while high columns correspond to silicate absorption, for various types of AGN. We have demonstrated that in situ electron acceleration is required for both jet and lobe emission in M87. We have measured aromatic features in local AGN, demonstrated the diverse nature (star formation vs. AGN) of the far-IR emission mechanism, and constructed the star formation luminosity functions of the AGN hosts. These luminosity functions are flatter than that of field galaxies, implying that the interplay between star formation and nuclear activity enhances both processes. For luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), we have characterized galaxy morphologies of a complete sample of LIRGs at z1̃ and found that LIRGs at z1̃ are as asymmetric as local ones, implying similar conditions within galaxies lead to a LIRG level of star formation.

A New Twist on Black Holes

We study the coevolution of black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies through cosmic time.

A New Twist on Black Holes


Black Hole Masses in Nearby Brightest Cluster Galaxies

These are the largest black hole masses ever directly measured, and they significantly exceed predictions from both the MBH-[sigma] and MBH-L relations.

Black Hole Masses in Nearby Brightest Cluster Galaxies

The most massive galaxies in the Universe live at the centers of galaxy clusters and exhibit a number of extreme properties. Although their evolution broadly resembles that of normal elliptical galaxies, with early gas quenching and gradual assembly from smaller stellar systems, their unique cosmic environments may have offered additional pathways for growth. The extreme stellar mass growth of BCGs is clearly demonstrated by their overall luminosities, but the growth histories and present-day masses of their central black holes are not well known. A key body of evidence for the evolutionary connections between galaxies and supermassive black holes is the set of scaling relations between black hole masses (MBH) and the stellar velocity dispersions ([sigma]), luminosities (L), or bulge masses (Mbulge) of their host galaxies. However, these scaling relations are poorly sampled for BCGs. Populating the relations with direct measurements of MBH could offer new insights to the growth of black holes and stellar systems at the hearts of galaxy clusters. Along with collaborators, I have undertaken a series of observations of the centers of BCGs, using integral-field spectrographs on the Keck, Gemini, and Harlan J. Smith telescopes. In this dissertation, I describe the measurement and analysis of stellar kinematics at the centers of five BCGs, and measurements of their black hole masses using stellar orbit models. The most notable result is the measurement of black holes with approximately 10 billion solar masses in NGC 3842 and NGC 4889. These are the largest black hole masses ever directly measured, and they significantly exceed predictions from both the MBH-[sigma] and MBH-L relations. Their masses are comparable to the biggest black holes powering high-redshift quasars, suggesting a tantalizing link between early sites of prolific black hole growth and rich galaxy clusters today. In contrast, I find that NGC 6086 and NGC 7768 host black holes with only a few billion solar masses. These measurements, as well as my upper limit for MBH in NGC 2832, are more consistent with the existing black hole scaling relations. Recent measurements by my team and others have reshaped the sample of well-measured black hole masses, introducing significant updates to previous compilations. I present a sample of 65 dynamical black hole mass measurements, compiled from published literature through May 2012. In addition to previously reported values of [sigma] and L, I have compiled an updated sample of bulge masses for 34 galaxies. The updated sample yields a steeper MBH-[sigma] relation than previous versions, while the MBH-L and MBH-Mbulge relations experience relatively small changes. I have examined the black hole scaling relations for a variety of galaxy subsamples and find noteworthy variations in the MBH-[sigma] relation for early- versus late-type galaxies and core-profile versus power-law galaxies. Using the new sample, I have measured the empirical scatter in MBH and have attempted to measure the intrinsic scatter for multiple intervals in [sigma], L, and Mbulge. This is an important step forward from previous studies, which have only measured the intrinsic scatter over the full range of a given host galaxy property. Several models of black hole growth over cosmic time have predicted decreasing scatter in MBH as galaxy mass increases, reflecting the influence of hierarchical mergers driving galaxies and black holes toward an average MBH/Mbulge ratio. In contrast, I find nearly constant scatter in MBH over a wide range of galaxy luminosities and bulge masses. My investigations thus far have contributed to a gradual change in astronomers' understanding of the black hole scaling relations. The present-day relations are not as tight as previously reported versions, and evidence is mounting against a universal process for co-evolution between black holes and galaxies. I will use observations of a larger sample of BCGs and massive group galaxies to explore the effects of environment on the growth of individual black holes and on cosmic scatter in MBH.

AGN Physics with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

This will require careful subtraction of host galaxy starlight to probe the faint
underlying AGN ( e . g . , see Hao et al . ... 2004 , this volume ) , and for
understanding the coevolution of black holes and galaxies ( e . g . , the above
outflows can ...

AGN Physics with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey


Galaxy Formation with Self Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes I

There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm.

Galaxy Formation with Self Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes  I

There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 1011 M {circle_dot} galactic halo and its 105 {circle_dot} M embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological CDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 106 K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

Galaxy Formation and Mergers with Stars and Massive Black Holes

While mounting observational evidence suggests the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs), a comprehensive astrophysical understanding which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs has been missing.

Galaxy Formation and Mergers with Stars and Massive Black Holes

While mounting observational evidence suggests the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs), a comprehensive astrophysical understanding which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs has been missing. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy formation, we develop a state-of-the-art numerical framework which self-consistently models the interplay between galactic components: dark matter, gas, stars, and MBHs. Utilizing this physically motivated tool, we present an investigation of a massive star-forming galaxy hosting a slowly growing MBH in a cosmological LCDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding gas and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. In simulations of merging galaxies, the high-resolution adaptive mesh allows us to observe widespread starbursts via shock-induced star formation, and the interplay between the galaxies and their embedding medium. Fast growing MBHs in merging galaxies drive more frequent and powerful jets creating sizable bubbles at the galactic centers. We conclude that the interaction between the interstellar gas, stars and MBHs is critical in understanding the star formation history, black hole accretion history, and cosmological evolution of galaxies. Expanding upon our extensive experience in galactic simulations, we are well poised to apply this tool to other challenging, yet highly rewarding tasks in contemporary astrophysics, such as high-redshift quasar formation.

Galaxy Formation and Mergers with Stars and Massive Black Holes

While mounting observational evidence suggests the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs), a comprehensive astrophysical understanding which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs has been missing.

Galaxy Formation and Mergers with Stars and Massive Black Holes

While mounting observational evidence suggests the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs), a comprehensive astrophysical understanding which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs has been missing. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy formation, we develop a state-of-the-art numerical framework which self-consistently models the interplay between galactic components: dark matter, gas, stars, and MBHs. Utilizing this physically motivated tool, we present an investigation of a massive star-forming galaxy hosting a slowly growing MBH in a cosmological LCDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding gas and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. In simulations of merging galaxies, the high-resolution adaptive mesh allows us to observe widespread starbursts via shock-induced star formation, and the interplay between the galaxies and their embedding medium. Fast growing MBHs in merging galaxies drive more frequent and powerful jets creating sizable bubbles at the galactic centers. We conclude that the interaction between the interstellar gas, stars and MBHs is critical in understanding the star formation history, black hole accretion history, and cosmological evolution of galaxies. Expanding upon our extensive experience in galactic simulations, we are well poised to apply this tool to other challenging, yet highly rewarding tasks in contemporary astrophysics, such as high-redshift quasar formation.

Year Book

Dressler , A. , Infall and starbursts in z ~ 0.5 clusters , in Outskirts of Galaxy
Clusters : Intense Life in the Suburbs , IAU ... Ho , L. C. , Black hole demography
from nearby active galactic nuclei , in Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies ...

Year Book