Aging and Cognitive Processes

Botwinick, J. Cognitive processes in maturity and old age. New York: Springer, 1967. Craik, F. I. M. Age differences in human memory. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging.

Aging and Cognitive Processes

For a variety of reasons, there has been an explosion of interest in research on aging over the past few years. The reasons include an awareness that a large and growing proportion of our popUlation is over 65 and that research findings can contribute to their health, satisfaction, and efficiency as members of society; the fact that funding agencies have endorsed the need for more research effort in the area by setting up special programs; and also the fact that researchers themselves are turning more to practical problems as many theoretical issues (in experimen tal psychology at least) seem to remain as intractable as ever. Thus, at present there is widespread interest in aging, but there is also a lack of knowledge as to what has already been accomplished in the area, what the theoretical issues are, and what factors contribute to the methodological and practical difficulties. The time is propitious for meetings of experts in various aspects of the aging process, both to discuss among themselves latest advances in the field and also to inte grate known information for researchers and practitioners. In the summer of 1980 we organized such a meeting as the 10th annual psychology symposium to be held at the Erindale Campus of the University of Toronto. The topic chosen was Aging and Cognitive Processes, and the edited contributions to the symposium form the chapters of the present book.

Dynamic Cognitive Processes

In contrast to RetM, however, a substantial portion of age declines in ProMP remains unexplained by processing resources or by sensory functions. ... Cognitive processes in maturity and old age. New York: Springer.

Dynamic Cognitive Processes

The conference from which this book derives took place in Tsukuba, Japan in March 2004. The fifth in a continuing series of conferences, this one was organized to examine dynamic processes in "lower order" cognition from perception to attention to memory, considering both the behavioral and the neural levels. We were fortunate to attract a terrific group of con tributors representing five countries, which resulted in an exciting confer ence and, as the reader will quickly discover, an excellent set of chapters. In Chapter 1, we will provide a sketchy "road map" to these chapters, elu cidating some of the themes that emerged at the conference. The conference itself was wonderful. We very much enjoyed the vari ety of viewpoints and issues that we all had the opportunity to grapple with. There were lively and spirited exchanges, and many chances to talk to each other about exciting new research, precisely what a good confer ence should promote. We hope that the readers of this book will have the same experience—moving from careful experimental designs in the cogni tive laboratory to neural mechanisms measured by new technologies, from the laboratory to the emergency room, from perceptual learning to changes in memory over decades, all the while squarely focusing on how best to explain cognition, not simply to measure it. Ultimately, the goal of science is, of course, explanation. We also hope that the reader will come away absolutely convinced that cognition is a thoroughly dynamic, interactive system.

Aging and Cognition

Mental Processes, Self-Awareness and Interventions E.A. Lovelace. personality and other personal factor variables, such as self-efficacy, to cognitive functioning (Cavanaugh & Green, ... Cognitive processes in maturity and old age.

Aging and Cognition

Presented in this volume is a discussion of current literature and theoretical issues relating to three aspects of late-life age-related cognitive change. Firstly, evidence regarding aging and the basic mental processes of attention, motor control, memory, language, problem-solving, and intelligence are presented. Secondly, the role of personal traits such as personality and self-efficacy in the aging of cognitive function are developed, along with self-awareness of cognitive processes and age changes in the monitoring of these processes. Thirdly, consideration is given to the study of interventions to delay or remediate the cognitive declines of aging.

Theoretical Perspectives on Cognitive Aging

Cognitive processes in maturity and old age. New York: Springer. Botwinick, J. (1969). Disinclination to venture response versus cautiousness in responding: Age differences. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 115, 55-62.

Theoretical Perspectives on Cognitive Aging

The phenomenon of age-related cognitive decline has long been controversial, both in terms of mere existence, and with respect to how it is explained. Some researchers have dismissed it as an artifact of declining health or lower levels of education, and others have attributed it to general changes occurring in the external environment. Still other interpretations have been based on the "use it or lose it" principle -- known as the Disuse Hypothesis -- or on the idea that there are qualitative differences in either the structure or the process of cognition across the adult years. Perhaps the most popular approach at present relies on the information-processing perspective and attempts to identify the critical processing component most responsible for age-related differences in cognition. The primary purposes of this book are first to review the evidence of age-related differences in cognitive functioning and then to evaluate the major explanations proposed to account for the negative relations between age and cognition that have been established. Included is a discussion of theoretical dimensions and levels of scientific theorizing assumed to be helpful in understanding and evaluating alternative perspectives on cognitive aging. The various perspectives are then covered in detail and analyzed. The text concludes with observations about the progress that has been made in explaining cognitive aging phenomena, plus recommendations for research practices that might contribute to greater progress in the future.

Aging and Cognition

Social foundation of thought & action: A social cognitive theory. ... Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy. Developmental Psychology, 25, 729735. ... Cognitive processes in maturity and old age.

Aging and Cognition

During the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in the study of aging-related changes in cognitive abilities. In this volume researchers from a variety of theoretical perspectives discuss adult age differences in a wide range of cognitive skills. Of special interest is the extent to which aging effects on performance are related to variations in the representation, organization, and utilization of knowledge, broadly defined. Recent research and theory in the field of aging has emphasized the need to examine such processes more closely in order to provide a more complete understanding of aging effects on cognitive behavior.

A Theory of Cognitive Aging

The History of Experimental Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts. Bo twin ic k, J. 1966. Cautiousness in advanced age. Journal of Gerontology, 21, 347–353. Bo twin ic k, J. 1967. Cognitive Processes in Maturity and Old Age.

A Theory of Cognitive Aging

Over a half-century of research has documented the fact that people of different ages perform at different levels on a variety of tests of cognitive functioning, and yet there are still no comprehensive theories to account for these phenomena. A Theory of Cognitive Aging is intended to begin intellectual discussion in this area by identifying major issues of controversy, and proposing a particular theoretical interpretation based on the notion that the rate of processing information slows down with increased age. Although still quite preliminary, the theoretical perspective is demonstrated to provide a plausible account for age-related differences in functioning on measures of memory, spatial ability and reasoning. The book has four aims: - To advocate a more explicitly theoretical approach to research in the area of cognitive aging. - To outline three important dimensions along which it is argued that any theory of cognitive aging phenomena must take a position. - To evaluate empirical evidence relevant to specific positions along those dimensions. - To summarize the major concepts of the current theory, and to describe its application to selected findings in the research literature.

Experimental Psychology Cognition and Human Aging

ogy of aging (1st ed.). ... Age differences in response speed as a function of controlled variations of stimulus conditions: Evidence of a general speed factor. Gerontologia, 6, 1–18. ... Cognitive processes in maturity and old age.

Experimental Psychology  Cognition  and Human Aging

This book is a major revision and extension of my earlier book, Experimental Psychology and Human Aging, which appeared in 1982. The intervening years have seen a remarkable expansion of psychological research on human aging, especially on topics dealing with cognition. They have also seen research on cognitive aging gain increasing importance within the mainstream of basic cognitive research. As my lecture notes for my course in the psychology of aging grew, so did my apprehension regarding the task ahead of me in revis ing the first edition. The research explosion in cognitive aging forced several major changes in content from the first to the second edition. Two chapters on learning and memory in the first edition were necessarily expanded to six chapters in the present edition. Similarly, the single prior chapter on percep tion and attention became two chapters, as did the single prior chapter on thinking. Another change from the first edition is in the addition of some review of the effects of abnormal aging on various cognitive processes, parti cularly in regard to memory functioning. To keep the revision within reason able length, some sacrifices had to be made. The multiple chapters on metho dology and theory in the first edition were condensed into the present, single chapter. However, the major topics from the first edition were retained and, in fact, added to by the inclusion of important topics and issues that emerged over the past eight years.

Brain Function in Old Age

Benton, A.L.: Interactive effects of age and brain disease on reaction time. Arch. Neurol. ... In: Behavior, aging and thenervous system. ... 145, 129–136 (1976) Botwinick, J.: Cognitive processes in maturity and old age.

Brain Function in Old Age

Experimental gerontopsychology attempts to test causal hypotheses about old age-related behavioral changes by the manipulation of age-differences. An experimental treatment is introduced with the purpose of equating different age-groups with respect to a potentially relevant function. If the treatment results in an assimilation of the behavior of the different age-groups (age by-treatment interaction), differences in this function are con sidered as causal for the normally observed behavioral differ ence. If it does not result in an assimilation of the behavior of the different age-groups (main effect of treatment), differ ences in this function are considered as irrelevant for the nor mally observed behavioral difference. The different interpretations of age-by-treatment interactions and main effects of treatment in this kind of research are reasonable only if the experimental treatment actually results in an equalization of the age-groups with respect to the func tion of interest. As is shown, such a functional equalization can neither be demonstrated nor assumed in many cases. In such cases, studies with either age-group can be used to investigate hypotheses about potential causes for old age-related behavioral changes, studies with young subjects having important advantages over studies with old subjects. A test of causal relationships by age-by-treatment interactions is possible in cases where the experimental treatment evidently results in an equalization of the age groups with respect to the function in question. Unfortunately, the field of application for this kind of approach is rather limited.

The Handbook of Aging and Cognition

Botwinick, J. (1967). Cognitive processes in maturity and old age. New York: Springer. Bransford, J. D., & Schwartz, D. L. (2000). Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications. Review of Research in Education, 24, ...

The Handbook of Aging and Cognition

Cognitive aging is a flourishing area of research. A significant amount of new data, a number of new theoretical notions, and many new research issues have been generated in the past ten years. This new edition reviews new findings and theories, enables the reader to assess where the field is today, and evaluates its points of growth. The chapters are organized to run from reviews of current work on neuroimaging, neuropsychology, genetics and the concept of brain reserve, through the 'mainstream' topics of attention, memory, knowledge and language, to a consideration of individual differences and of cognitive aging in a lifespan context. This edition continues to feature the broad range of its predecessors, while also providing critical assessments of current theories and findings.

Survey Report on the Aging Nervous System

predominent determinants of cognitive deficits in the normal aged and in the average aged . ... BIRREN , J. E. Handbook of Aging and the Individual . ... BOTWINICK , J. Cognitive Processes in Maturity and Old Age .

Survey Report on the Aging Nervous System


Neurodevelopment Aging and Cognition

Bhatti JZ, Hindmarch I (1987): Vinpocetine effects on cognitive impairments produced by flunitrazepam. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 2(4): 325– 331 Botwinik J (1973): Cognitive Processes in Maturity and Old Age.

Neurodevelopment  Aging and Cognition

It was Oscar Wilde who defined the tragedy of old age by saying that " . . . as soon as you are old enough to know better, you don't know anything at all. " As improvements in the quality of health care bring about longer life, our attention has turned from the prolonging of life to the maintenance of involvement in life. In developed nations, a full 100% increase in the ranks of the elderly has appeared and with the benefits of this prolongation have come new and greater needs of the elderly cohort. Our interest is in those processes that may lead to dementia among the elderly, for in dementia we see a thief that robs victims of their memories and their place in life. This text was conceived and developed from an international con ference on neurodevelopment, aging, and cognition; the purpose of this few days a group of experts in these conference was to bring together for a fields from around the world to generate a dialog on common themes and unresolved problems. Our hope was that by keeping the meeting small and informal, we could break through barriers of terminology unique to the areas of developmental neurobiology, neuroscience, cognitive sci ence, and clinical medicine, and have a meaningful discussion on pro cesses that affect the biological integrity and cognitive performance of the aging nervous system.

Aging

S. W. Greenhouse, L. Sokoloff, and M. R. Yarrow, eds., Human Aging: A Biological and Behavioral Study. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing ... Botwinick, J. (1967) Cognitive Processes in Maturity and Old Age. New York: Springer.

Aging

Aging: Biology and Behavior addresses behavioral changes in aging related to biological processes, focusing on the nature of changes in brain plasticity, factors influencing life-span, and environmental and social influences on health in the elderly. This book is divided into four main topics—longevity, aging, and mortality; aging brain and behavior; cognitive and social functioning; and health. In these topics, this publication specifically discusses the longevity in primates, life-span extension, environment and biology in aging, and some economic implications of life-span extension. The neurobiological basis of age-related changes in neuronal connectivity, aging and brain plasticity, and cognitive functioning in the elderly are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the life changes and disease in elderly populations, social stress and mental disorders in the elderly, and perspective of social epidemiology. This volume is a useful source to clinicians and students examining possible social and behavioral science research perspectives on aging.

Words on Aging

BORTZ , EDWARD L. Creative aging . New York , Macmillan , 1963. 179p . Physiology and psychology of aging . BOTWINICK , Jack . Cognitive processes in maturity and old age . New York , Springer , 1967. 212p .

Words on Aging

Annotated references of selected articles (1963-1967) and books (1900-1967/1968) about aging. Includes government documents and reports. Legislation not covered. Entries arranged by broad topics. Author, subject indexes. Complements previous publications: Aging in the modern world, 1964, and Selected references on aging, 1959.

Adult Basic Education The State of the Art

Nathan W. Schock , " Gerontology ( Later Maturity ) , ” in Annual Review of Psychology , eds . Calvin P. Stone and Donald ... Jack Botwinick , Cognitive Processes in Maturity and Old Age ( New York : Springer , 1967 , ) pp . 38-39 . 6.

Adult Basic Education  The State of the Art


Adult Basic Education

Jack Botwinick , Cognitive Processes in Maturity and Old Age ( New York : Springer , 1967 , ) 12 . Jerome Doppelt and Wimburn Wallace , “ Standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for Older Persons , ” Journal of Abnormal ...

Adult Basic Education


Aging and Behavior

This study focuses more on what can be done to improve the intellectual abilities of the elderly than on regarding ... Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1952, 16, 399–405. ... Botwinick, J. Cognitive processes in maturity and old age.

Aging and Behavior


Differential Diagnosis and Treatment in Social Work

The caseworker's practice is bound to be affected by the way in which he understands and deals with behavior. Cognitive processes in aging have been coming under increasing scrutiny.13 Traditional methods of assessing a client's ...

Differential Diagnosis and Treatment in Social Work


Normal Aging II

Botwinick , J. Cognitive processes in maturity and old age . New York : Springer , 1967 . Botwinick , J. Geropsychology . Annual review of psychology , 21. Palo Alto , Calif .: Annual Reviews , 1970 . Busse , E. W. A physiological ...

Normal Aging II

Since they began in 1955, the Duke Longitudinal Studies have aging have been regarded as landmark investigations, amassing invaluable data on the typical physical changes that accompany aging, typical patterns of mental health and mental illness, psychological aging, and the normal social roles, self-concepts, satisfactions, and adjustments to retirement of the aged. Comprising information on more than 750 aged and middle-aged persons, these studies have contributed enormously to our ability to distinguish normal and inevitable processes of aging from those that may accompany aging because of accident, stress, maladjustment, or disuse.

The Older Adult as Learner

Cognitive development in adulthood : A fifth stage ? Developmental Psychology , 11 ... In C. Eisdorfer & M. P. Lawton ( Eds . ) , The psychology of adult development and aging . ... Cognitive processes in maturity and old age .

The Older Adult as Learner