Communicating Risks and Benefits

First , we present what the science says about health care professional risk - benefit communication . Next , we discuss what general practical advice the science can support . Finally , we give suggestions on how one might evaluate ...

Communicating Risks and Benefits

Effective risk communication is essential to the well-being of any organization and those people who depend on it. Ineffective communication can cost lives, money and reputations. Communicating Risks and Benefits: An Evidence-Based User’s Guide provides the scientific foundations for effective communications. The book authoritatively summarizes the relevant research, draws out its implications for communication design, and provides practical ways to evaluate and improve communications for any decision involving risks and benefits. Topics include the communication of quantitative information and warnings, the roles of emotion and the news media, the effects of age and literacy, and tests of how well communications meet the organization’s goals. The guide will help users in any organization, with any budget, to make the science of their communications as sound as the science that they are communicating.

Utilizing Effective Risk Communication in COVID 19

This book demonstrates how a novel decision-aid, called a Benefit-Risk Characterization Theater (BRCT), can be used to: · Significantly improve accurate communication of health risks from exposure to COVID-19; and · Assess how to best ...

Utilizing Effective Risk Communication in COVID 19

This book demonstrates how a novel decision-aid, called a Benefit-Risk Characterization Theater (BRCT), can be used to: · Significantly improve accurate communication of health risks from exposure to COVID-19; and · Assess how to best contain and control COVID-19. To date, there have been far-reaching ramifications based on ineffective risk communication when clarifying these health endpoints. A BRCT is a familiar, theatrical chart representation of 1,000 people, with the risks and benefits shown by blackened seats. Since health outcomes can easily be put into such a chart, we show how BRCTs can be used objectively by professionals, the media and lay people. It allows characterization and communication of health benefits and risks of COVID-19 treatment and containment in an undemanding and straightforward way. BRCTs have been successfully used to assist patients in determining: · Their level of acceptable risk of various medical interventions; · If the benefits of intervention outweigh the risks; · Who should make the final decision regarding medical intervention; and · Whether the decision is evidence-based. Written by experts in the field, this book fills in a gap in communication between the medical community, the public and patients. It also provides an area of expertise in communication that is beneficial for medical providers and medical students.

Communicating Risks to the Public

voluntariness — controllability – catastrophic potential – delay of consequences — tendency to kill rather than to injure — perceived threat to future generations – equal exposure to risk – equal risk-benefit distribution — familiarity ...

Communicating Risks to the Public

Risk communication: the evolution of attempts Risk communication is at once a very new and a very old field of interest. Risk analysis, as Krimsky and Plough (1988:2) point out, dates back at least to the Babylonians in 3200 BC. Cultures have traditionally utilized a host of mecha nisms for anticipating, responding to, and communicating about hazards - as in food avoidance, taboos, stigma of persons and places, myths, migration, etc. Throughout history, trade between places has necessitated labelling of containers to indicate their contents. Seals at sites of the ninth century BC Harappan civilization of South Asia record the owner and/or contents of the containers (Hadden, 1986:3). The Pure Food and Drug Act, the first labelling law with national scope in the United States, was passed in 1906. Common law covering the workplace in a number of countries has traditionally required that employers notify workers about significant dangers that they encounter on the job, an obligation formally extended to chronic hazards in the OSHA's Hazard Communication regulation of 1983 in the United States. In this sense, risk communication is probably the oldest way of risk manage ment. However, it is only until recently that risk communication has attracted the attention of regulators as an explicit alternative to the by now more common and formal approaches of standard setting, insuring etc. (Baram, 1982).

Interpreting Health Benefits and Risks

This timely guide to communication in patient-centered medicine argues for greater clarity in explaining health risks versus benefits of an array of screening tests, procedures, and drug regimens.

Interpreting Health Benefits and Risks

This timely guide to communication in patient-centered medicine argues for greater clarity in explaining health risks versus benefits of an array of screening tests, procedures, and drug regimens. It reviews the growing trend toward patients' involvement in their own care, particularly in terms of chronic conditions, and details approaches physicians can use to prepare patients (and themselves) for collaborative decision-making based on informed choices and clear, meaningful knowledge. Chapters apply this lens to a wide range of common interventions as contentious as estrogen replacement therapy and antibiotics, and as widely prescribed as the daily aspirin and the annual physical. With this goal in mind, the authors also introduce an innovative decision-making tool that translates risks and benefits into a clear graphic format for fewer chances of miscommunication or misunderstanding. Among the topics covered: Involving the patient in decision making. Towards a universal decision aid. BRCT: the Benefit/Risk Characterization Theater. Breast Cancer Screening—Mammograms. Prostate Cancer Screening. Colon cancer screening with colonoscopy. Screening for and treating dementia. Statins, cholesterol, and coronary heart disease. Physicians in family and internal medicine will find Interpreting Health Benefits and Risks: A Practical Guide to Facilitate Doctor- Patient Communication a valuable resource for communicating with patients and new possibilities for working toward their better health and health education. This book considers several common and important situations where faulty decision-making makes overtreatment a serious risk. Clear, fair, referenced, and useful information is provided. And a powerful intuitive technique is introduced which allows patient and doctor to talk as equals as they work together in the exam room. The authors emphasize that some patients who have been fully educated will still accept high risks of harm for a small chance of avoiding premature death. But as this book is accepted and its ideas and technique are extended, I feel sure that net harm to patients will be curtailed. And what is more, the integrity of the decision-making process will be improved. —Thomas Finucane, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Communicating about Risks and Safe Use of Medicines

A Note on Communicating Risks in the Context of Benefits of Medicines While this book is dedicated to risk communication, ... expect from communication about medicines to also cover their benefits and the benefit-risk trade-offs.

Communicating about Risks and Safe Use of Medicines

At the core of this book lies the question how to approach medicines, risks and communication as a researcher - or anybody planning and evaluating a communication intervention, or wanting to understand communication events in private and the media. With a view to tackle current shortcomings of communication systems and processes for improved implementation, patient satisfaction and health outcomes, a multilayered approach is presented. This combines multiple data types and methods to obtain a wider and deeper understanding of the major parties and their interactions, as well as the healthcare, social and political contexts of information flows, how they interfere and which impact they have. Illustrated with real life experiences of safety concerns with medicines, worldwide active experts discuss the methods and contributions their disciplines can offer. With considerations on terminologies, tabulated overviews on communication types and outcomes, a patient-centred vision and plain language for non-medical readers, the book creates a platform for multidisciplinary collaborations amongst researchers as well as practitioners from communications, healthcare, the social sciences and pharmacovigilance. Importantly, it advocates for an active role of patients and highlights the achievements and aspirations of patient organisations. Finally, the book suggests establishing an inclusive discipline of humanities and epidemiology of medicinal product risk communication to realise full research potential. The authors are driven by the curiosity for communication as the most human behaviour, and as good health is amongst the basic human needs, medicinal product risk communication is an exciting research field of high global relevance.

The Perception and Management of Drug Safety Risks

Focusing on the risks and benefits of pharmaceutical products and following the material presented in this background paper, the project would address several questions: – What means of risk communication are employed in different ...

The Perception and Management of Drug Safety Risks

In the past two decades public debate about the risks, benefits, and safety associated with drugs has intensified. Public disputes over risks are brought to court when individuals seek compensation for health problems attributed to a pharmaceutical product. The issue reaches legislatures and regulatory agencies when consumer advocates seek to influence the standards of drug usage. Front-page news tends to focus on accidents or other risk events with drugs. Drug risk and drug safety have become an important political issue. Drug regulat ory agencies have been instituted, and their responsibility has increased. The approval to market a drug is dependent on a set of sophisticated studies executed according to strict protocols and scientifically defined criteria. Drug surveillance activities have gained recognition, and reporting systems to identify drug safety problems have been strengthened. The understanding and management of drug safety is, nonetheless, beset by doubts, disagreements, and disputes. Conflict occurs over the significance of risk, the adequacy of evidence, the methodologies used to evaluate and measure risk, the standards that guide regulation, and the optimal means of communicating risk information to the public.

Risk Communication And Health Psychology

This is the first book to clearly assess the increasingly important area of communication of risk in the health sector.

Risk  Communication And Health Psychology

This is the first book to clearly assess the increasingly important area of communication of risk in the health sector. We are moving away from the days when paternalistic doctors managed healthcare without involving patients in decision making. With the current emphasis on patient empowerment and shared decision making, patients want and need reliable, comprehensive and understandable information about their conditions and treatment. In order to make informed decisions, the people concerned must understand the risks and benefits associated with possible treatments. But the challenge for health professionals is how best to communicate this complex medical information to diverse audiences.

Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain of Function Research

Similarly, the full fundamental basis of risk assessment is missing for the risk management considerations for GoF research, although it is still possible to discuss to what degree ... Communicating risks and expected benefits 4.

Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain of Function Research

On October 17, 2014, spurred by incidents at U.S. government laboratories that raised serious biosafety concerns, the United States government launched a one-year deliberative process to address the continuing controversy surrounding so-called "gain-of-function" (GOF) research on respiratory pathogens with pandemic potential. The gain of function controversy began in late 2011 with the question of whether to publish the results of two experiments involving H5N1 avian influenza and continued to focus on certain research with highly pathogenic avian influenza over the next three years. The heart of the U.S. process is an evaluation of the potential risks and benefits of certain types of GOF experiments with influenza, SARS, and MERS viruses that would inform the development and adoption of a new U.S. Government policy governing the funding and conduct of GOF research. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research is the summary of a two-day public symposia on GOF research. Convened in December 2014 by the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council, the main focus of this event was to discuss principles important for, and key considerations in, the design of risk and benefit assessments of GOF research. Participants examined the underlying scientific and technical questions that are the source of current discussion and debate over GOF research involving pathogens with pandemic potential. This report is a record of the presentations and discussion of the meeting.

The Application of Risk Communication to Food Standards and Safety Matters

Although there are many similarities , the strategies needed during a food safety emergency differ in many respects from strategies needed to engage the public in dialogue about risks and benefits of new food technologies , and from ...

The Application of Risk Communication to Food Standards and Safety Matters

With increased public concern regarding food safety, greater demands are placed on risk communicators to involve the public and other interested parties in an interactive dialogue and to explain the magnitude and severity of risks associated with foodborne hazards in clear and comprehensible terms that convey credibility and trustworthiness. This requires communicators to recognize and overcome gaps in knowledge as well as obstacles inherent in the uncertainties of scientific risk assessment. This document is the report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Application of Risk Communication to Food Standards and Safety Matters was held from 2-6 February 1998 at the Italian Ministry of Health, Rome.

Communicating Therapeutic Risks

The Health Belief Model organizes the relevant beliefs that patients holdabout their illness orits treatmentinto four categories; beliefsabout theseverity ofillness, patient susceptibility toillness, benefits from taking the prescribed ...

Communicating Therapeutic Risks

I guess everyone has a cousin Ernest. He is the fellow of whom your mother asks . . . "Why can't you be more like your cousin Ernest?" Cousin Ernest went to the high school for genius children and got all A's, even in French. As the years went by, I lost contact with Cousin Ernest. Then last year, at a family gathering, I met him again. Sure enough, he had gone to Harvard and become a doctor, a radiologist. We began discussing his practice and he mentioned that he performs some fairly risky diagnostic tests. While legally he was compelled to tell patients about the risks they were undertaking, he said that risk disclosure was a useless exercise. "No one has ever refused to undergo the procedure," he said. It was difficult to argue with his observation that no patient ever refused to undergo his tests. I understood that the lack of refusals did not necessarily mean that risk disclosure was a useless exercise, but his underlying argument was quite compelling.

Environmental Health Risks

important in the case of communication about environmental health risks, given the high stakes and current stalemates, ... Downs J. S. (2011) 'Chapter 3: Evaluations', in: Communicating Risks and Benefits: An Evidence-based ...

Environmental Health Risks

Environmental health involves the assessment and control of environmental factors that can potentially affect human health, such as radiation, toxic chemicals and other hazardous agents. It is less commonly understood that environmental health also requires addressing questions of an ethical nature. Bringing together work from experts across a range of sub-disciplines of environmental health, this collection of essays discusses the ethical implications of environmental health research and its application, presented at the 3rd International Symposium on Ethics of Environmental Health held in August 2016 in the Czech Republic. In doing so, it builds upon the insights and ideas put forward in the first volume of Ethics of Environmental Health, published by Routledge in early 2017. This volume will be of great interest to students and scholars of environmental health, applied ethics, environmental ethics, medical ethics and bioethics, as well as those concerned with public health, environmental studies, toxicology and radiation.

The International Encyclopedia of Political Communication 3 Volume Set

The democratic view of risk communication is governed by rules that guarantee a just and fair process, ... in society are made—and distributive fairness—how fairly risks and benefits are distributed over different groups in society.

The International Encyclopedia of Political Communication  3 Volume Set

The International Encyclopedia of Political Communication is the definitive single-source reference work on the subject, with state-of-the-art and in-depth scholarly reflection on the key issues within political communication from leading international experts. It is available both online and in print. Explores pertinent/salient topics within political science, sociology, psychology, communication and many other disciplines Theory, empirical research and academic as well as professional debate are widely covered in this truly international and comparative work Provides clear definitions and explanations which are both cross-national and cross-disciplinary by nature Offers an unprecedented level of authority, accuracy and balance, with contributions from leading international experts in their associated fields Part of The Wiley Blackwell-ICA International Encyclopedias of Communication series, published in conjunction with the International Communication Association. Online version available at Wiley Online Library Named Outstanding Academic Title of 2016 by Choice Magazine, a publication of the American Library Association

Communicating about Risks to Environment and Health in Europe

Deutsche Risikostudie Kernkraftwerke, Hauptband [German risk study on nuclear power plants, main volume]. Cologne, TÜV Rheinland. ... Communicating risks to the public. ... Physiological benefits from low levels of ionising radiation.

Communicating about Risks to Environment and Health in Europe

Public experience with risk communication differs greatly from country to country in Europe and there has been little opportunity for the transfer of experience and learning between countries. This is especially true for the many new European States, including the countries in transition from centralised to market economies. This book presents case studies on risk communication. One of its unifying concepts is the role of risk communication in the risk management process. Technical and philosophical introductions to risk communication and risk management and research in risk communication are given. The case studies themselves occupy the central portion of the book, each one covering a particular hazard, risk or situation seen from a particular point of view. The issue of the special circumstances for environmental and health risk communication in central and eastern Europe is also addressed through a separate presentation and discussion of an appropriate case study. A different approach to risk communication is taken by examining how it forms part of the risk management process at the local level. Research into risk perception, a field that forms an important foundation for many aspects of risk communication, is summarised and practical guidelines for risk communication are reviewed. These include discussions on how to carry out public information programmes and methods for increasing public involvement in risk management decisions.

Communication Risks and Best Practices in Global Software Development

The thesis concentrate on empirical studies and industrial settings to classify communication risks, their causes and ... He explained that all mentioned benefits of offshore development are ineffective if communication issues are not ...

Communication Risks and Best Practices in Global Software Development

This book focusses on the identification of communication risks, their causes and effects and the practices to mitigate the risks from both state of the art and state of the practice perspectives. It's like puzzle solving game. According to Casey "Communication is one the biggest issue that cause due to geographical, temporal and socio-cultural distances". At the end of the book authors provide set of recommendations based on the best practices that need to be followed by the globally distributed organizations to achieve communicated environment just like co-located settings.

Drug Benefits and Risks

Recently, much attention has been placed on the development of risk management strategies (see above and see Eudravigilance, 2007). ... Edwards IR, Hugman B. The challenge of effectively communicating riskbenefit information.

Drug Benefits and Risks

This updated and revised 2nd edition of Drug Benefits and Risks is an inclusive reference exploring the scientific basis and practice of drug therapy. The key concept is to look at the balance between the benefits and risks of drugs, but in this context also highlighting the social impact which drugs have in modern societies. Taking an evidence-based approach to the problem, the practice of clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy in the developing as well as the developed world is examined. For this purpose the book covers general clinical pharmacology, pharmacology of various drug groups and the treatments specific to various diseases; the book gives guidance on how doctors should act so that drugs can be used effectively and safely; and it encourages the rational use of drugs in society. This publication brings together a large amount of excellent content that will be invaluable for anyone working within, or associated with, the field of clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy - undergraduates, postgraduates, regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry.

Health and Safety Management

This important new book considers health and safety management as an equal partner to other strategic business risks.

Health and Safety Management

"The frequently neglected field of health and safety management, the responsibility of many but understood by few, is well served by this comprehensive and well written book. It is, above all, highly informative and a 'must have' for senior practitioners and managers alike." John Barrell, OBE TD, formerly Chief Executive, The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health "This is a text for life. A comprehensive work that uniquely integrates occupational health and safety firmly into the international business management environment.... Undoubtedly it will also become a standard text for those embarking upon post graduate study in both occupational health and safety, and business management." Trevor Cooke, Faculty of Business & Law, Staffordshire University With increasing stakeholder interest in health and safety management, the onus is being put on organisations to anticipate and manage health and safety risks. This important new book considers health and safety management as an equal partner to other strategic business risks. Concepts of risk and models of risk management supply the context for the management of health and safety in a range of sectors. By applying the principles of business risk management to health and safety, the authors develop crucial best practice approaches that are applicable on a global platform, irrespective of local legislation. Key features: The underlying principles of health and safety management, such as risk management, risk perception, risk communication, behaviour, human error, economics and cost benefit analysis is explored. Using international and national approaches, ¿best practice¿ techniques are presented to help managers develop and implement health and safety management systems in their own organisations. The roles of risk assessment, risk control, training, performance measurement, auditing, benchmarking and continuous improvement in health and safety management are analysed to provide an integrated and effective management system. Examples are drawn from a range of industrial, commercial and public sector organisations. Contemporary views on the social responsibilities of both the organisation and the individual to manage health and safety are featured in order to stimulate further debate and look to the future direction of health and safety management. Dr Colin Fuller and Dr Luise Vassie present the MSc in Health and Safety Management at the University of Leicester.

Risks and Management of Dioxin like Compounds in Baltic Sea Fish

... goals strategy evaluation properties of tech and other means cost information (risks and benefits) obstacles and ... communication reconcile risk views/allow plurality multi-actor/-sector communication risk and benefit information ...

Risks and Management of Dioxin like Compounds in Baltic Sea Fish


Transparent Communication of Health Risks

our research, however, is that icon arrays were added to the numerical information about treatment risk reduction that ... benefits of icon arrays when physicians communicate risks directly to patients with limited language skills.

Transparent Communication of Health Risks

Recent research in health decision making has shown that many patients, even those with a college education, have difficulties grasping a host of numerical concepts, including percentages and probabilities. Yet, basic numeracy and graph literacy are essential for understanding information relevant to making decisions about health, such as the incidence and prevalence of different diseases, risk reductions from medical screenings and treatments, and risk increases from side effects of treatments and unhealthy behaviors. Patients who have problems understanding such numerical concepts are often prone to errors in risk perception and medical choices. Importantly, informed medical decision making, heavily reinforced these days by the legal requirement for informed consent, depends critically on communication of quantitative medical information. Meeting the challenge of effectively communicating medical information to patients with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy has become more important than ever. Transparent Communication of Health Risks describes a series of cross-cultural studies investigating how people in countries with different medical and educational systems understand numerical and graphical information, what they know about existing medical treatments and screenings, which presentation formats help them better understand the relevant information, and how they use the data to make medical decisions. Focusing on the careful measurement of necessary knowledge and skills, the book also includes validated numeracy and graph literacy scales in English, Spanish, and German. Some of the topics covered in the book are: numeracy and graph literacy for health; measuring risk comprehension in educated samples; communicating information about medical treatment and screening; reducing the effect of framed messages about health; the effect of individual differences on shared decision making; and transparent health information in the media. Transparent Communication of Health Risks emphasizes the importance and value of working toward the development of tailored risk communication interventions and clarifies the tasks ahead for health psychologists, public health professionals, pharmaceutical and medical education companies, medical physicists, and nurses.

Dose Benefit and Risk in Medical Imaging

Informed consent suffers from a number of weaknesses, and thus informed decision-making can allow physicians to better communicate with patients about the risks of medical imaging radiation exposure. Future directions should explore the ...

Dose  Benefit  and Risk in Medical Imaging

This timely overview of dose, benefit, and risk in medical imaging explains to readers how to apply this information for informed decision-making that improves patient outcomes. The chapters cover patient and physician perspectives, referral guidelines, appropriateness criteria, and quantifying medical imaging benefits. The authors have included essential discussion about radiologic physics in medical imaging, fundamentals of dose and image quality, risk assessment, and techniques for optimization and dose reduction. The book highlights practical implementation aspects with useful case studies and checklists for treatment planning. Clinicians, students, residents, and professionals in medical physics, biomedical engineering, radiology, oncology, and allied disciplines will find this book an essential resource with the following key features: Discusses risk, benefit, dose optimization, safety, regulation, radiological protection, and shared & informed decision-making. Covers regulatory oversight by government agencies, manufacturers, and societies. Highlights best practices for improving patient safety and outcomes. Gives guidelines on doses associated with specific procedures.

Drug Benefits and Risks

The staff must be good communicators and use the principles of communication in Table 8.1 . ... its subsequent effects Adapted from : Edwards IR , Hugman B ( 1997 ) The challenge of effectively communicating risk - benefit information .

Drug Benefits and Risks

This is an inclusive reference exploring the scientific basis and practice of drug therapy. The key concept is to look at the balance between the benefits and risks of drugs but in this context also the social impact which drugs have in modern societies is highlighted. Taking an evidence-based approach to the problem, the practice of clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy in the developing as well as the developed world is examined. For this purpose the book * Covers general clinical pharmacology, pharmacology of various drug groups and the treatments specific to various diseases * Gives guidance on how doctors should act so that drugs can be used effectively and safely * Encourages the rational use of drugs in society This book brings together a large amount of excellent content that will be invaluable for anyone working within, or associated with, the field of clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy - undergraduates, postgraduates, regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry.