The Encyclopedia of Crystals

The ultimate guide to crystals and how to use them! In The Encyclopedia of Crystals, Judy Hall draws on over 30 years' experience of working with crystals to provide the definitive reference.

The Encyclopedia of Crystals

The ultimate guide to crystals and how to use them! In The Encyclopedia of Crystals, Judy Hall draws on over 30 years' experience of working with crystals to provide the definitive reference. Lavishly illustrated, featuring newly discovered stones and providing new materials on geology and fluorescent properties, this is an essential addition to the libraries of everyone working with crystals. Organized by crystal color for easy reference, this gorgeous guide relates the colors of crystals to the chakras, tells readers how to cleanse and activate them, and provides helpful, authoritative advice on healing with crystals.

Healing Crystals and Gemstones

An illustrated encyclopedic explanation of the therapeutic uses of crystals and gems.

Healing Crystals and Gemstones

An illustrated encyclopedic explanation of the therapeutic uses of crystals and gems.

Fascinating liquid crystals

Literature about Liquid Crystals Texturen flüssiger Kristalle werden als aktuelles
Forschungsgebiet wissenschaftlich bearbeitet. Im vorliegenden Band wurden
aber nur die faszinierenden Texturbilder vorgestellt, um die Schönheit der Bilder
zu ...

Fascinating liquid crystals


The Illustrated Guide to Crystals

In this lavishly illustrated guide is all the information needed to choose, cleanse, and program crystals.

The Illustrated Guide to Crystals

In this lavishly illustrated guide is all the information needed to choose, cleanse, and program crystals. Along with a colorful directory and explanations of the different types, see how to use your special stone to find a soul mate and improve relationships. Restore the body with crystal medicine and chakra healing, relieve stress, turn stones into talismans and amulets, perform crystal divination, and more.

Crystals

Crystals


101 Power Crystals

This distinctive collection includes high vibration crystals that experienced crystal practitioners will want to explore as well as those with earthier vibrations that are suited to beginners or those developing their sensitivities.

101 Power Crystals

The definitive resource for working with powerful crystals! Sparkling, luminous, and colorful, it is no wonder crystals have always been regarded as a source of power from ancient times to present day. But with the enormous number of crystals now on the market, it is difficult to choose exactly the right stone. In 101 Power Crystals, internationally renowned crystal expert Judy Hall brings together 101 crystals that are powerful across a wide spectrum of uses and suitable for all types of user. Not all crystals suit everyone, and the selection has been specially chosen to offer alternatives and new possibilities that may not have been thought of before. This distinctive collection includes high vibration crystals that experienced crystal practitioners will want to explore as well as those with earthier vibrations that are suited to beginners or those developing their sensitivities. It also features some rare and recently discovered crystals and stones that have not been included in any other volume, such as Aurora Quartz, Que Sera, Trigonic Quartz, and Preseli Bluestone. Each entry covers the history, mythology, and symbolism of the crystal in addition to its healing properties and environmental effects. There are crystals and stones for love, health, protection, abundance, and many other powers.

Physical Properties of Crystals

Gives a unified and systematic presentation of the tensor properties of crystals, and explains their common mathematical basis and the thermodynamical relations between them.

Physical Properties of Crystals

First published in 1957, this classic study has been reissued in a paperback version that includes an additional chapter bringing the material up to date. The author formulates the physical properties of crystals systematically in tensor notation, presenting tensor properties in terms of their common mathematical basis and the thermodynamic relations between them. The mathematical groundwork is laid in a discussion of tensors of the first and second ranks. Tensors of higher ranks and matrix methods are then introduced as natural developments of the theory. A similar pattern is followed in discussing thermodynamic and optical aspects.

Crystals and Crystal Growing

Experiments and problems to be done by the non-specialist to aid in his understanding of crystals 'This work is a fascinating discussion of the strange ways in which solids form, an excellent hobby book describing ways of growing crystals, ...

Crystals and Crystal Growing

Experiments and problems to be done by the non-specialist to aid in his understanding of crystals

Morphology of Crystals

This is due to recent developments in theoretical and experimental investigations of crystal growth mechanisms. Morphology of Crystals is divided into three separately available volumes.

Morphology of Crystals

The molecular mechanisms underlying the fact that a crystal can take a variety of external forms is something we have come to understand only in the last few decades. This is due to recent developments in theoretical and experimental investigations of crystal growth mechanisms. Morphology of Crystals is divided into three separately available volumes. Part A contains chapters on roughening transition; equilibrium form; step pattern theory; modern PBC; and surface microtopography. This part provides essentially theoretical treatments of the problem, particularly the solid-liquid interface. Part B contains chapters on ultra-fine particles; minerals; transition from polyhedral to dendrite; theory of dendrite; and snow crystals. All chapters are written by world leaders in their respective areas, and some can be seen as representing the essence of a life's work. This is the first English-language work which covers all aspects of the morphology of crystals - a topic which has attracted top scientific minds for centuries. As such, it is indispensable for anyone seeking an answer to a question relating to this fascinating problem: mineralogists, petrologists, crystallographers, materials scientists, workers in solid-state physics and chemistry, etc. In Parts A: Fundamentals and B: Fine Particles, Minerals and Snow equilibrium and kinetic properties of crystals are generally approached from an `atomistic' point of view. In contrast, Part C: The Geometry of Crystal Growth follows the alternative and complementary `geometrical' description, where bulk phases are considered as continuous media and their interfaces as mathematical surfaces with orientation-dependent properties. Equations of motion for a crystal surface are expressed in terms of vector and tensor operators working on surface free energy and growth rate, both expressed as functions of surface orientation and driving force, or `affinity' for growth. This approach emphasizes the interrelation between equilibrium and kinetic behavior. Part 1 establishes the theoretical framework. Part 2 gives a construction toolbox for explicit (analytic) functions. An extra chapter is devoted to experimental techniques for measuring such functions: a new approach to sphere growth experiments. The emphasis throughout is on principles and new concepts. Audience: Advanced readers familiar with traditional aspects of crystal growth theory. Can be used as the basis for an advanced course, provided supplementation is provided in the areas of atomistic models of the advancing surface, diffusion fields, etc.

Liquid Crystals

1.4.1.1 Phase Structures and Textures of Calamitic Liquid Crystals Nematic
Liquid Crystals At present about 20000 compounds with nematic phases are
known. The word nematic (Greek vnux = thread) refers to thread-like defects often
 ...

Liquid Crystals

In 1959, about 1400 compounds forming liquid crystalline phases were known; by 1992, this number had increased to about 50 000. In portable devices like wristwatches, pocket caculators, measuring instruments, and laptop computers the liquid crystal display technology has gained total acceptance and is on the way to encompass the market of colour TV screens. This development makes a volume devoted to liquid crystals in the series Topics in Physical Chemistry desirable. Following the concept of this series, an easy introduction to liquid crystals is given, enabling the reader to understand the basic problems of liquid crystals research and application. Because of the widespread field of different research activities in liquid crystals and applications, various competent authors have been involved in writing chapters on: - Phase types, structures, and chemistry of liquid crystals; - Thermodynamical behavior and physical properties of thermotropic liquid crystals; - Liquid crystalline polymers; - Lyotropic liquid crystals; - Application of liquid crystals in spectroscopy; - Application of liquid crystals in display technology.

A Little Bit of Crystals

From choosing the right crystals and assembling a basic collection of important stones to creating a crystal "center" at home, this accessible guide helps you add a powerful source of energy to your daily routines.

A Little Bit of Crystals

Enjoy a top-notch book of classic, brain-bending logic puzzles, mental_floss-style. The fun begins when you're given a situation plus a list of clues. Try to unravel the specifics of each scenario, even though nothing is what it seems at first to be. It will take all your wits and the powers of logical thinking to figure things out!

Liquid Crystals

Although liquid crystals were discovered as an interesting phenomenon at the
end of the 19th century, it took nearly 30 years of research to establish their true
identity. Georges Friedel in the 1920's was responsible for recognising that liquid
 ...

Liquid Crystals

Liquid crystals are partially ordered systems without a rigid, long-range structure. The study of these materials covers a wide area: chemical structure, physical properties and technical applications. Due to their dual nature -- anisotropic physical properties of solids and rheological behavior of liquids -- and easy response to externally applied electric, magnetic, optical and surface fields liquid crystals are of greatest potential for scientific and technological applications. The subject has come of age and has achieved the status of being a very exciting interdisciplinary field of scientific and industrial research. This book is an outgrowth of the enormous advances made during the last three decades in both our understanding of liquid crystals and our ability to use them in applications. It presents a systematic, self-contained and up-to-date overview of the structure and properties of liquid crystals. It will be of great value to graduates and research workers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, biology, materials science, chemical and electrical engineering, and technology from a materials science and physics viewpoint of liquid crystals.

Crystals

Crystals are solids in which the smallest pieces are all ordered in a pattern, or
form. These pieces are atoms, molecules, and ions. A crystal's pattern takes the
same shape in all directions. The way in which a crystal is held together is called
its ...

Crystals

Explains what crystals are and how they form and describes the kinds of bonds that hold crystals together.

Liquid Crystals

crystals. MICHAEL R. FISCH AND SATY ENDRA. KU MAR Department of
Physics and Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
1.1 What is a liquid crystal? We all remember learning that there are three states
of ...

Liquid Crystals

This 2001 book provides hands-on details of several important techniques for the study of liquid crystals.

Liquid Crystals

In the area of LCDs alone, at least six different types of displays were developed,
including some that used chiral nematic and smectic liquid crystals. Research
papers began to fill volumes each year, and new applications appeared regularly
.

Liquid Crystals

Liquid crystals are a phase of matter critical both in many recent scientific developments in biology, chemistry, and physics and in applications such as computer displays, electronic books, and new thermometers. This fully illustrated book builds on basic scientific concepts from biology, chemistry, and physics to explore the full range of the broad and interdisciplinary field of liquid crystal science. After a brief introduction to liquid crystals, the text sketches the history of research into this phase of matter, beginning with its discovery. Interesting in its own right, this history also demonstrates the crucial role that technological applications play in promoting scientific research. The behavior of the various liquid crystalline phases is described in detail, with an emphasis on the electrical and optical properties so important for applications. Applications are then covered, with in-depth attention given to how liquid crystals are used in computer-screen displays. Chapters dealing with liquid crystalline phases formed in solutions, the liquid crystal phases of polymers, and the biological significance of liquid crystals explore the huge range of phenomena associated with liquid crystals--from new high-strength fibers to the frontiers of cell-membrane research. Finally, there is a chapter highlighting current theoretical knowledge about why liquid crystals exist and why they have the properties they do. In this second edition, many portions of the highly praised first edition have been thoroughly revised and expanded to incorporate the tremendous theoretical and applied research advances made over the last decade. The result is an up-to-date and comprehensive description of liquid crystal science and technology at the introductory level. Students and researchers in a variety of fields will find this book an ideal entry to a highly productive area of inquiry.

Molecular Crystals

large single crystal as the ampoule is lowered. Disadvantages of this technique
are that the crystal adopts the shape of the ampoule, leading to absence of
external faces aiding orientation, and that the crystal grows at a very high
temperature.

Molecular Crystals

There has been an explosion of interest in the study of molecular crystals, and their applications in optics and electronics. This advanced 1994 textbook describes their chemical and physical structure, their optical and electronic properties and the reactions between neighbouring molecules in crystals. The author has taken into account research areas which have undergone extremely rapid development since the first edition was published in 1987. For instance, this edition features the applications of molecular materials in high-technology devices. There is also an additional chapter on C60 and organic non-linear optic materials. The level of treatment is aimed at first-year postgraduates or workers in industrial research laboratories wishing to gain insights into organic solid state materials. Molecular Crystals is also suitable for special topics in final year undergraduate courses in chemistry, physics and electronic engineering.

Magnetoelectric Interaction Phenomena in Crystals

As example the weak ferromagnetic crystal in iron borate is considerate. The split
of the ground term S by the spin-orbit interaction with higher states is determined.
The energy of a magnetic anisotropy and its change at external electric field is ...

Magnetoelectric Interaction Phenomena in Crystals

In the quest for higher data density in information technology manipulation of magnetization by other means than magnetic fields has become an important challenge. This lead to a startling revival of the magnetoelectric effect, which characterizes induction of a polarization by a magnetic field or of a magnetization by an electric field. The magnetoelectric crosslink of material properties opens just those degrees of freedom which are needed for the mutual control of magnetic and electric states. The book gives a state-of-the-art review on magnetoelectrics research, classifies current research tendencies, and points out possible future trends. Novel compounds and growth techniques and new theoretical concepts for the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling phenomena are introduced. Highlights are the discovery of "gigantic" magnetoelectric effects which are strong enough to trigger electric or magnetic phase transitions; the concept of magnetochirality; and development "structural" magnetoelectric effects in artificial multiphase compounds. The book is addressed to condensed-matter physicists with a particular focus on experts in highly correlated systems.

Liquid Crystals In Complex Geometries

Crystals. Confined. to. Curved. Geometries. From freely suspended droplets to
flat-panel displays G. P. CRAWFORD and S. ZUMER Interest in liquid crystalline
materials confined to curved geometries has expanded greatly in recent years ...

Liquid Crystals In Complex Geometries

Focusing on the applied and basic aspects of confined liquid crystals, this book provides a current treatise of the subject matter and places it in the broader context of electrooptic applications. The book takes an interdisciplinary approach to the

Thermotropic Liquid Crystals

QUAN LI* AND LANFANG LI Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent,
OH 44242, USA E-mail: [email protected] 1. INTRODUCTION Photoconducting
discotic liquid crystals (DLCs) as a relatively new class of photo- conductors are ...

Thermotropic Liquid Crystals

This book covers developments in the field of thermotropic liquid crystals and their functional importance. It also presents advances related to different sub-areas pertinent to this interdisciplinary area of research. This text brings together research from synthetic scientists and spectroscopists and attempts to bridge the gaps between these areas. New physical techniques that are powerful in characterizing these materials are discussed.

Liquid Crystals

Smectic liquid crystals 5 . 1 Classification of the smectic phases Present
classification of smectic liquid crystals is based largely on the optical and
miscibility studies of Sackmann and Demus . ( 1 ) The miscibility criterion relies
on the postulate ...

Liquid Crystals

This is a new and greatly revised edition of Professor Chandrasekhar's classic book Liquid Crystals, first published in 1977. The subject of liquid crystals has grown into an exciting interdisciplinary research field with important practical applications. This book presents a systematic and self-contained treatment of the physics of the different types of thermotropic liquid crystals - the three classical types, nematic, cholesteric and smectic, and the newly discovered discotic type. Included is a description of the structures of these four main types and their polymorphic modifications, their thermodynamical, optical and mechanical properties and their behaviour under external fields. The basic principles underlying the major applications of liquid crystals in display technology and in thermography are also discussed. This book will be of great value to advanced students and researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, materials science and technology with an interest in the physics, chemistry and applications of liquid crystals.