Developments in Polymer Characterisation 4

This volume includes reviews on tackling polymer characterisation problems and on developing specific characterisation techniques.

Developments in Polymer Characterisation   4

This volume includes reviews on tackling polymer characterisation problems and on developing specific characterisation techniques. The first two chapters and the last chapter describe progress in providing character isation information for polymers containing long-chain branching, for polymer blends, and for polymers having preferred orientation. The remaining chapters review progress in individual techniques, showing with examples the characterisation results which may be obtained. It is recognised that the degree of chain branching which can evolve in some polymerisation processes can have a marked effect on the flow properties of a polymer, and therefore on polymer processing behaviour. In the first chapter the characterisation of long-chain branching from measurements of the molecular size and molar mass of a polymer in dilute solution is outlined. It is indicated that a complete characterisation of branching requires the combined use of several techniques, emphasising in particular recent developments involving gel permeation chromatography. Thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy are widely used techniques in polymer characterisation. Both techniques can provide, very quickly, significant results with readily available instrumentation. This is illustrated by the review of the characterisation of polymer blends by thermal analysis in Chapter 2. An assessment of blend morphology, which influences the behaviour of a material consisting of two or more polymers, is presented in terms of transition temperatures. Conventional infrared spectroscopy involves dispersive spectrometers which do not always provide accurate information on composition and structure for complex polymeric materials.

Developments in Polymer Characterisation

The policy adopted in Volume 1 of this series of including a relatively small number of topics for detailed review has been continued here. The techniques selected have received considerable attention in recent years.

Developments in Polymer Characterisation

The policy adopted in Volume 1 of this series of including a relatively small number of topics for detailed review has been continued here. The techniques selected have received considerable attention in recent years. F or this reason and because of the significance of the characterisation data, further coverage of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and small angle neutron scattering is given in the first two chapters. In Chapter I a large part of the review describes the determination of monomer sequence distributions and configurational sequences in copolymers formed from more than one polymerisable monomer. The review on neutron scattering (Chapter 2) is directed towards the determination of the chain conformation in semi-crystaIIine polymers, which has provided important results for the interpretation of chain folding and morphology in crystaIIisable polymers. Laser Raman spectroscopy has also been used for morphological studies, and this application together with a description of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the technique is given in Chapter 3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy because of its extreme sensitivity to surface characteristics has provided information on polymeric solids that could not be obtained by other techniques. The principles and practice of this ESCA technique, including its use for simple elemental analysis, structural elucidation and depth profiling, are described in Chapter 4. The final two chapters are mainly concerned with the chain conformation of polymers in dilute solution. Ultrasonic techniques (Chapter 5) show pmmise for observing the dynamics of conformational changes.

Developments in Polymer Characterisation 1

(3), (4) and (9) that high speed and resolution are only obtained simultaneously by minimising w and a . The major development in recent years has been the production of high efficiency small columns containing microparticulate packings ...

Developments in Polymer Characterisation   1

Over two decades ago, !he term characterisation covered just those techniques which measured the properties of polymers in solution in order to determine molecular weight and size. The discoveries of stereoregular polymers and polymer crystals created the need for new and advanced techniques for characterising chain structures and bulk properties. Further demands for new and improved characterisation methods for bulk polymers have resulted from the recent development and exploitation of multi phase polymeric systems, such as polymer blends, block and graft copolymers, and polymer composites. Today, therefore, characterisation is a very important part of polymer science. The polymer chemist must know the chain length, chain microstructure and chain conformation of the polymers he or she has prepared, i. e. the determination of molecular properties. The scientist involved in exploiting polymers in such applications as plastics, elastomers, fibres, surface coatings and adhesives must be informed on the morphology and physical and mechanical behaviour of his or her products, i. e. the determination of bulk and surface properties and their dependence on molecular properties. The techniques required for these determinations now cover an extremely wide field. Our aim has been to review a number of techniques critically and in sufficient depth so that the present state and future potential of each technique may be judged by the reader. Three criteria were used in the selection of techniques. First, we wished to present new methods which have been developed actively in the polymer field during the past five years.

Molecular Characterization of Polymers

... in polymers, in: Developments in Polymer Characterisation4, Springer, 1983, , pp. 1–37. [10] J.F. Douglas, J. Roovers, K.F. Freed, Characterization of branching architecture through" universal" ratios of polymer solution properties ...

Molecular Characterization of Polymers

Molecular Characterization of Polymers presents a range of advanced and cutting-edge methods for the characterization of polymers at the molecular level, guiding the reader through theory, fundamentals, instrumentation, and applications, and supporting the end goal of efficient material selection and improved material performance. Each chapter focuses on a specific technique or family of techniques, including the different areas of chromatography, field flow fractionation, long chain branching, static and dynamic light scattering, mass spectrometry, NMR, X-Ray and neutron scattering, polymer dilute solution viscometry, microscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy. In each case, in-depth coverage explains how to successfully implement and utilize the technique. This practical resource is highly valuable to researchers and advanced students in polymer science, materials science, and engineering, and to those from other disciplines and industries who are unfamiliar with polymer characterization techniques. Introduces a range of advanced characterization methods, covering aspects such as molecular weight, polydispersity, branching, composition, and tacticity Enables the reader to understand and to compare the available technique, and implement the selected technique(s), with a view to improving properties of the polymeric material Establishes a strong link between basic principles, characterization techniques, and real-life applications

Ullmann s Polymers and Plastics 4 Volume Set

Characterisation of Macromolecular Structure, National Academy of Sciences, Washington 1968. J. V. Dawkins (ed.): Developments in Polymer Characterisation, Appl. Science Publishers, London 1982.

Ullmann s Polymers and Plastics  4 Volume Set

Your personal Ullmann's: Chemical and physical characteristics, production processes and production figures, main applications, toxicology and safety information are all to be found here in one single resource - bringing the vast knowledge of the Ullmann's Encyclopedia to the desks of industrial chemists and chemical engineers. The ULLMANN’S perspective on polymers and plastics brings reliable information on more than 1500 compounds and products straight to your desktop Carefully selected “best of” compilation of 61 topical articles from the Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry on economically important polymers provide a wealth of chemical, physical and economic data on more than 1000 different polymers and hundreds of modifications Contains a wealth of information on the production and use of all industrially relevant polymers and plastics, including organic and inorganic polymers, fibers, foams and resins Extensively updated: more than 30% of the content has been added or updated since the launch of the 7th edition of the Ullmann’s encyclopedia in 2011 and is now available in print for the first time 4 Volumes

Developments in Polymer Analysis and Characterisation

Gel Permeation Chromatography ( GPC ) This molecular weight characterisation technique can be used to obtain data on both ... of 82 74 66 68 60 % Transmittance 42 26 1 Paper 4 , Page 3 Developments in Polymer Analysis and Characterisation.

Developments in Polymer Analysis and Characterisation


Block Copolymers

Developments in Polymer Characterisation — 2 . London : Applied Science , 1980 , pp 183–206 . 2. RA Pethrick . Ultrasonic Characterization of solid polymers . In : JV Davkins , ed . Developments in Polymer Characterisation4 .

Block Copolymers

A summary of block copolymer chemical structures and synthesis. It discusses physical methods of characterization such as computer simulation, microhardness, dielectric spectroscopy, thermal mechanical relaxation, ultrasonic characterization, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray scattering, and NMR, among others. It also outlines rheological and processing parameters in the multiphase polymer systems with stable microstructures.

Neutron Scattering

4, p. 81; (c) J. S. Higgins, Chap. 14, p. 349. . J. S. Higgins, in “Developments in Polymer Characterisation 4” (J. V. Dawkins, ed.), p. 131. Appl. Sci., London, 1983. E. W. Fischer, J. W. Wendroff, M. Dettenmaier, G. Lieser, ...

Neutron Scattering

Neutron Scattering

Polymer Characterisation

In Developments in Polymer Characterization—I, J. V. Dawkins (ed.), Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London, ... 4. F. P. Warner (1975). Ph.D. Thesis, Loughborough University of Technology, UK. 5. E. Lauritzen and J. I. Passaglia (1967).

Polymer Characterisation

Polymers continue to play an ever increasing role in the modern world. In fact it is quite inconceivable to most people that we could ever have existed of the increased volume and variety of materials without them. As a result currently available, and the diversity of their application, characterisation has become an essential requirement of industrial and academic laboratories in volved with polymeric materials. On the one hand requirements may come from polymer specialists involved in the design and synthesis of new materials who require a detailed understanding of the relationship between the precise molecular architecture and the properties of the polymer in order to improve its capabilities and range of applications. On the other hand, many analysts who are not polymer specialists are faced with the problems of analysing and testing a wide range of polymeric materials for quality control or material specification purposes. We hope this book will be a useful reference for all scientists and techno or industrial laboratories, logists involved with polymers, whether in academic and irrespective of their scientific discipline. We have attempted to include in one volume all of the most important techniques. Obviously it is not possible to do this in any great depth but we have encouraged the use of specific examples to illustrate the range of possibilities. In addition numerous references are given to more detailed texts on specific subjects, to direct the reader where appropriate. The book is divided into II chapters.

Deformation and Flow of Polymeric Materials

Table 2.8 b 1⁄4 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi hs2i=P p for polymers in the solid and molten state and in ... Chem Phys 17:1301 Scholte TG (1986) In: Dawkinss JV (ed) Developments in Polymer Characterisation4, Elsevier London, ...

Deformation and Flow of Polymeric Materials

This book describes the properties of single polymer molecules and polymeric materials and the methods how to characterize them. Molar masses, molar mass distributions and branching structure are discussed in detail. These properties are decisive for a deeper understanding of structure/properties relationships of polymeric materials. This book therefore describes and discusses them in detail. The mechanical behavior as a function of time and temperature is a key subject of the book. The authors present it on the basis of many original results they have obtained in their long research careers. They present the temperature dependence of mechanical properties of various polymeric materials in a wide temperature range: from cryogenic temperatures to the melt. Besides an extensive data collection on the transitions of various different polymeric materials, they also carefully present the physical explanations of the observed phenomena. Glass transition and melting temperatures are discussed, particularly, with their relevance for applications. A comprehensive part of the book deals with properties of polymers in the molten state and their decisive influence on the processing of the materials. The book presents and discusses viscous and elastic properties in detail as a function of molar mass, polydispersity, and branching. This book addresses students of polymer and materials science, as well as other natural sciences. Besides this educational value, it will also serve as a valuable monograph for everyone dealing with polymers and polymeric materials, from research, over development, to applications.

Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers

Inc .; Rockland Technologies Inc. A literature review is presented which covers fundamental developments in size exclusion ... University The previously described microgel synthesis in which living poly ( 4 - tert - butylstyrene ) was ...

Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers

The report comprises a state-of-the-art overview of the subject of molecular c099 characterisation, supported by an extensive, indexed bibliography. The current methodology for GPC is described along with its use in combination with other techniques such as light scattering and viscosity c094. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

Cyclic Polymers

Maconnachie, A. and Richards, R. W., Polymer, 19 (1978) 739. . Higgins, J. S., In: Developments in Polymer Characterisation4 (ed. J. V. Dawkins), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London, 1983, pp. 131–76. Van Hove, L., Phys.

Cyclic Polymers

Synthetic polymers based on long chain molecules have been investigated intensively for over 50 years. They have found important applications as plastics, fibres, rubbers and other materials. The chain molecules may be simple linear structures or they may be branched or cross-linked. During the past decade, sharp fractions of the first synthetic cyclic polymer have been prepared. These fractions of cyclic poly(dimethyl siloxane) consist of ring molecules containing hundreds of skeletal bonds. Some of their properties have been found to be quite different from those of the corresponding linear polymers. Synthetic cyclic polymers, including cyclic polystyrene, have joined the naturally occurring circular DNAs as examples of substantially large ring molecules. This book aims to review current knowledge of cyclic polymers and biological ring macromolecules. In addition, it discusses theories of cyclic macromolecules and describes cyclization processes involving long chain molecules. Since 1865, when Kekule proposed a simple ring structure for benzene, larger and larger ring molecules have been synthesized in the laboratory and discovered in nature. Many more examples are to be expected in the future. In time, large ring molecules should take their proper place alongside long chain molecules as one of the two possible constituent structural units of polymers.

Size Exclusion Chromatography

Th. G. Scholte, in Developments in Polymer Characterisation4, ed. J.W. Dawkins, ElsevierApplied Science (1983). 25. D. Constantin, Eur. Polym. J. 11 (1972) 907. 26. B. Zimm and W.H. Stockmayer, J. Chem. Phys. 17 (1949) 1301. 27.

Size Exclusion Chromatography

There is a large and increasing variety of polymers currently in use both for domestic and industrial applications. The properties of polymers are deter mined not only by their chemical type, but also by their molecular mass and molecular mass distributions. However, while the chemical type of polymers can be determined relatively easily, the average molecular masses and molecular mass distributions are more difficult to measure. The molecular mass averages of a polymer are measured by specialized and complex techniques such as light scattering (for weight average) and osmometry (for number average). Thus, complete characterization of the molecular mass distribution of a polymer by such means requires separating the sample into many fractions which can then be examined individually. Since size exclusion chromatography was introduced as a rapid and straightforward technique for the characterization of polymer molecular mass distributions, there have been tremendous increases in development and applications, and it was felt appropriate to bring together into a single volume the information required by scientists from many disciplines who wish to use the technique. This book should be useful to existing users, those who are new to the technique, and those who may be familiar with the basic technique and now wish to extend their capabilities to more complex applications (or to consider the potential of a number of related techniques). The book will also be of general interest to the experienced liquid chromatographer.

Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics

24 , No.2 , Mid - Feb.1984 , p.70-8 RECENT ADVANCES IN THEORY OF POLYMERIC ALLOYS Noolandi J XEROX RESEARCH CENTRE ... CANADA Copyquest order no.239765 Item 481 Developments in Polymer Characterisation - 4 Barking , 112 References and ...

Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics


Handbook of Polymer Science and Technology

H. Kawai and S. Nomura , in Developments in Polymer Characterisation , Vol . 4 ( J. V. Dawkins , ed . ) , Applied Science Publishers , London ( 1983 ) . 77. B. E. Read , in Structure and Properties of Oriented Polymers ( I. M. Ward ...

Handbook of Polymer Science and Technology


Macromolecular Chemistry

Questions of chain folding in crystalline polymers have recently focused attention on the higher-angle scattering patterns where local molecular conformation ... 1% J. S. Higgins, in “Developments in Polymer Characterisation4', ed.

Macromolecular Chemistry

Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage of progress in the major areas of chemical research. Written by experts in their specialist fields the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, supplying regular critical in-depth accounts of progress in particular areas of chemistry. For over 80 years the Royal Society of Chemistry and its predecessor, the Chemical Society, have been publishing reports charting developments in chemistry, which originally took the form of Annual Reports. However, by 1967 the whole spectrum of chemistry could no longer be contained within one volume and the series Specialist Periodical Reports was born. The Annual Reports themselves still existed but were divided into two, and subsequently three, volumes covering Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry. For more general coverage of the highlights in chemistry they remain a 'must'. Since that time the SPR series has altered according to the fluctuating degree of activity in various fields of chemistry. Some titles have remained unchanged, while others have altered their emphasis along with their titles; some have been combined under a new name whereas others have had to be discontinued. The current list of Specialist Periodical Reports can be seen on the inside flap of this volume.

Methodology for Structural Analysis of Polysaccharides

307–345). Hoboken: Wiley. Scholte, T. G. (1983). Characterization of long-chain branching in polymers. In J. V. Dawkins (Ed.), Developments in polymer characterisation (Vol. 4). UK: Applied Science, Barking. Wang, W.-J., Kharchenko, S., ...

Methodology for Structural Analysis of Polysaccharides

Written by an academic and industry insider, this book provides an informed study on polysaccharide structural analysis and characterization. Specifically focused on analytical techniques, methodologies, and interpretation of data, featured topics include: monosaccharide composition; methylation analysis; 1D & 2D NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and MALDI-TOF- (MS) Mas spectrometry. This book is aimed at advanced undergraduates, academic and industrial researchers and professionals studying or using biobased polymers.

Recent Advances in Polymer Nanocomposites Synthesis and Characterisation

synthetic methodologies involved as well as many different physical characterization methods used. ... Nevertheless, physicists and engineers are also not lagging behind and they are also into development of these materials.

Recent Advances in Polymer Nanocomposites  Synthesis and Characterisation

This book examines the current state of the art, new challenges, opportunities, and applications in the area of polymer nanocomposites. Special attention has been paid to the processing-morphology-structure-property relationship of the system. Various unresolved issues and new challenges in the field of polymer nanocompostes are discussed. The influence of preparation techniques (processing) on the generation of morphologies and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of the system are treated in detail. This book also illustrates different techniques used for the characterization of polymer nanocomposites. The handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors across the globe make this survey an outstanding resource reference for anyone involved in the field of polymer nanocompostes for advanced technologies.

Thermal Analysis of Polymers

Preprints 26 , No.1 , April 1985 , p.12 THERMAL ANALYSIS AND POLYMER CRYSTALLISATION Mandelkern L ; Alamo ... Kamm A Item 374 Developments in Polymer Characterisation - 4 Barking , Applied Science Publishers Ltd. , 1983 , p.39-90 .

Thermal Analysis of Polymers

The techniques which are particularly relevant to polymer characterisation are evaluated in this new report. For each technique the author describes the method of operation and the output obtained, and then considers its application to polymer characterisation. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.