Discourse Markers

The core of the book is a comparative analysis of markers within conversational discourse collected by Dr Schiffrin during sociolinguistic fieldwork.

Discourse Markers

Discourse markers - the particles oh, well, now, then, you know and I mean, and the connectives so, because, and, but and or - perform important functions in conversation. Dr Schiffrin's approach is firmly interdisciplinary, within linguistics and sociology, and her rigourous analysis clearly demonstrates that neither the markers, nor the discourse within which they function, can be understood from one point of view alone, but only as an integration of structural, semantic, pragmatic, and social factors. The core of the book is a comparative analysis of markers within conversational discourse collected by Dr Schiffrin during sociolinguistic fieldwork. The study concludes that markers provide contextual coordinates which aid in the production and interpretation of coherent conversation at both local and global levels of organization. It raises a wide range of theoretical and methodological issues important to discourse analysis - including the relationship between meaning and use, the role of qualitative and quantitative analyses - and the insights it offers will be of particular value to readers confronting the very substantial problems presented by the search for a model of discourse which is based on what people actually say, mean, and do with words in everyday social interaction.

Discourse Markers in Native and Non native English Discourse

Commonly assumed features of discourse markers will be dealt with later in this chapter . Descriptions of other scholars ' results for individual markers will follow in the relevant chapters . 1.2.2 Properties of discourse markers For ...

Discourse Markers in Native and Non native English Discourse

While discourse markers have been examined in some detail, little is known about their usage by non-native speakers. This book provides valuable insights into the functions of four discourse markers (so, well, you know and like) in native and non-native English discourse, adding to both discourse marker literature and to studies in the pragmatics of learner language. It presents a thorough analysis on the basis of a substantial parallel corpus of spoken language. In this corpus, American students who are native speakers of English and German non-native speakers of English retell and discuss a silent movie. Each of the main chapters of the book is dedicated to one discourse marker, giving a detailed analysis of the functions this discourse marker fulfills in the corpus and a quantitative comparison between the two speaker groups. The book also develops a two-level model of discourse marker functions comprising a textual and an interactional level.

Discourse Markers

The analysis of discourse markers is part of the more general analysis of discourse coherence – how speakers and hearers jointly integrate forms, meanings, and actions to make overall sense out of what is said (see Chapter 1).

Discourse Markers

Discourse markers - the particles oh, well, now, then, you know and I mean, and the connectives so, because, and, but and or - perform important functions in conversation. Dr Schiffrin's approach is firmly interdisciplinary, within linguistics and sociology, and her rigourous analysis clearly demonstrates that neither the markers, nor the discourse within which they function, can be understood from one point of view alone, but only as an integration of structural, semantic, pragmatic, and social factors. The core of the book is a comparative analysis of markers within conversational discourse collected by Dr Schiffrin during sociolinguistic fieldwork. The study concludes that markers provide contextual coordinates which aid in the production and interpretation of coherent conversation at both local and global levels of organization. It raises a wide range of theoretical and methodological issues important to discourse analysis - including the relationship between meaning and use, the role of qualitative and quantitative analyses - and the insights it offers will be of particular value to readers confronting the very substantial problems presented by the search for a model of discourse which is based on what people actually say, mean, and do with words in everyday social interaction.

Discourse Markers

I can offer no precise definition of what qualifies as a contrastive discourse marker, and I have selected the term ... I appeal to your intuitions that each of the contrastive discourse markers in (3) signals a "contrastive" ...

Discourse Markers

A collection of papers on discourse markers in different languages, presented at the fifth conference of the International Pragmatics Association, Me×ico, in the summer of 1996.

Discourse Markers

Correspondingly, definitions of the discourse marker category are often an ad hoc mixture of non truth-conditionality, functional features – such as Schiffrin's or Fraser's – and formal features (short words or fixed phrases, adverbs, ...

Discourse Markers

In our everyday speech we represent events and situations, but we also provide commentary on these representations, situating ourselves and others relative to what we have to say and situating what we say in larger contexts. The present volume examines this activity of discourse marking from an enunciative perspective, providing the first English-language study of the highly influential Theory of Enunciative and Predicative Operations. This semantic/pragmatic theory is popular among academics who specialize in linguistics, discourse analysis, translation studies and didactics in France, but has not yet been widely adopted elsewhere. The tools of this theory are applied to a variety of specific discourse markers in contemporary English and semantic hypotheses are tested using the data-based approach of corpus linguistics. This book therefore provides an English-speaking readership with the keys to understand the theory underlying the author’s analysis of a selection of markers (‘anyway’, ‘indeed’, ‘in fact’, ‘yet’, ‘still’, ‘like’ and 'I think'). This book will provide a valuable resource for students and researchers in linguistics with an interest in discourse markers, natural language argumentation, formal semantics, the interfaces between syntax, semantics and pragmatics, linguistic theorisation and French – or “poststructural” – models of discourse analysis.

Ojibwe Discourse Markers

Elements that do not relate some segment with some prior segment would not be considered discourse markers by Fraser. Therefore, expressions such as frankly, obviously, and stupidly are not counted as discourse markers, since they do ...

Ojibwe Discourse Markers

Published through the Recovering Languages and Literacies of the Americas initiative, supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Brendan Fairbanks examines the challenging subject of discourse markers in Ojibwe, one of the many indigenous languages in the Algonquian family. Mille Lacs elder Jim Clark once described the discourse markers as “little bugs that are holding on for dear life.” For example, discourse markers such as mii and gosha exist only on the periphery of sentences to provide either cohesion or nuance to utterances. Fairbanks focuses on the discourse markers that are the most ubiquitous and that exist most commonly within Ojibwe texts. Much of the research on Algonquian languages has concentrated primarily on the core morphological and syntactical characteristics of their sentence structure. Fairbanks restricts his study to markers that are far more elusive and difficult in terms of semantic ambiguity and their contribution to sentences and Ojibwe discourse. Ojibwe Discourse Markers is a remarkable study that interprets and describes the Ojibwe language in its broader theoretical concerns in the field of linguistics. With a scholarly and pedagogical introductory chapter and a glossary of technical terms, this book will be useful to instructors and students of Ojibwe as a second language in language revival and maintenance programs.

Discourse Markers in Early Modern English

If one abandons the idea of a fixed inventory of discourse markers, one may like Lewis (2006:44) come to the conclusion that “[i]n English, discourse marker refers to a range of form-function mappings, rather than to a closed set of ...

Discourse Markers in Early Modern English

This volume provides new insights into the nature of the Early Modern English discourse markers marry, well and why through the analysis of three corpora (A Corpus of English Dialogues, 1560-1760, the Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence, and the Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Early Modern English). By combining both quantitative and qualitative approaches in the study of pragmatic markers, innovative findings are reached about their distribution throughout the period 1500-1760, their attestation in different speech-related text types as well as similarities and differences in their functions. Additionally, this work engages in a sociopragmatic study, based on the sociopragmatically annotated Drama Corpus of almost a quarter of a million words, to enhance our understanding about their use by characters of different social status and gender. This volume therefore constitutes an essential piece of the puzzle in our attempt to gain a full picture of discourse marker use.

Pragmatic Markers Discourse Markers and Modal Particles

On the other hand, loydat of Excerpt 6, line 108 as well as loydat of Excerpt 7, line 245 are non-prototypical discourse markers. They both fulfill the semantic requirement for discourse markerhood, functioning metalingually (the former ...

Pragmatic Markers  Discourse Markers and Modal Particles

This book offers new perspectives into the description of the form, meaning and function of Pragmatic Markers, Discourse Markers and Modal Particles in a number of different languages, along with new methods for identifying their ‘prototypical’ instances in situated language contexts, often based on cross-linguistic comparisons. The papers collected in this volume also discuss different factors at play in processes of grammaticalization and pragmaticalization, which include contact-induced change and pragmatic borrowing, socio-interactional functional pressures and sociopragmatic indexicalities, constraints of cognitive processing, together with regularities in semantic change. Putting the traditional issues concerning the status, delimitation and categorization of Pragmatic Markers, Discourse Markers and Modal Particles somewhat off the stage, the eighteen articles collected in this volume deal instead with general questions concerning the development and use of such procedural elements, explored from different approaches, both formal and functional, and from a variety of perspectives – including corpus-based, sociolinguistic, and contrastive perspectives – and offering language-specific synchronic and diachronic studies.

Discourse Markers and Beyond

1.1 Contrastive Approaches to Discourse Markers As mentioned in the previous chapter, a recent trend in discourse marker research has been the exponential growth of detailed analyses of a variety of items in a wide range of languages as ...

Discourse Markers and Beyond

This book explores the use of discourse markers - lexical items where drawing a distinction between propositional and non-propositional, syntactically-semantically integrated and discourse-pragmatic uses is especially relevant. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, descriptive and critical (CDA) perspectives, and manual annotation and automatized analyses, the author argues that Discourse Markers (DMs) cannot be effectively studied in isolation, but must instead be contextualised with reference to other discourse-pragmatic devices and their language and genre backgrounds. This book will be of interest to students and academics working in the fields of DM research and critical discourse studies, and will also appeal to scholars working in areas such as genre studies, second language acquisition (SLA), literary analysis, contemporary cinematography, Tolkien scholarship, and Bible studies.

The Syntax and Semantics of Discourse Markers

2 The study of discourse markers from a sociolinguistic and discourse analysis point of view has been very extensive. Among others we can cite those who have conducted quite general studies: Schiffrin [1987] and Brinton [1996] on ...

The Syntax and Semantics of Discourse Markers

Examining the syntax and semantics of discourse markers, this book employs a syntactic approach to describe discourse markers in Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), relevant in a theory of discourse because it provides a framework in which all levels of grammar can be integrated. Since discourse markers operate at discourse level, a well developed discourse theory is required - in this case, Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT) is adopted. During the course of the book, Minimal Recourse Semantics is explained as it provides an integration of HPSG and SDRT. The approach described is exemplified with an analysis of 'anyway'. This book provides a detailed overview of research on discourse markers covering different areas of linguistics: from a discourse analysis point of view, to a Relevance Theory perspective going through a computational linguistics approach. Containing a precise summary of HPSG and the recently developed SDRT, it will be of great interest to researchers in semantics, pragmatics, grammar and discourse analysis.

Discourse Markers and Modal Particles

Some modal particles in German and French derive from discourse markers that have developed (inter)subjective meanings along with their occurrence becoming restricted to a specific sentential position: the middle field in German and the ...

Discourse Markers and Modal Particles

Discourse markers and modal particles are fuzzy linguistic categories that are difficult to describe. The contributions in this volume go beyond this statement. They discuss the intersection between modal particles and discourse markers and examine whether or not it is possible to draw a line between these two types of linguistic expressions. On the basis of new synchronic and diachronic data, from speech and writing, from European and Asian languages or cross-linguistically, the authors answer the question whether discourse markers and modal particles are distinct categories, whether they form a cline, or whether modal particles are a subcategory of discourse markers. This common question shows up throughout all chapters, which makes the book to a coherent whole. By disentangling the complexity of categorizing multifunctional expressions, this book also sheds new light on the processes of meaning extension. The traditional discourse and modal functions are complemented by interactional and textual ones. A must read for functional linguists.

Discourse Markers Across Languages

A Contrastive Study of Second-level Discourse Markers in Native and Non-native Text with Implications for General and Pedagogic Lexicography Dirk Siepmann. demic text . It is therefore not necessary for the corpora to be fully ...

Discourse Markers Across Languages

This book offers a corpus-based comparative study of an almost entirely unexplored set of multi-word lexical items serving pragmatic or text-structuring functions. Part One provides a descriptive account of multi-word discourse markers in written English, French and German, focussing on dicussion of interlingual equivalence. Part Two examines the use of multi-word markers by non-native speakers of English and discusses lexicographical and pedagogical implications.

The Rise of Discourse Markers

Bilingual discourse markers: Evidence from Croatian–English codeswitching. Journal of Pragmatics 38: 1870–900. Hooper, Joan B. 1975. On assertive predicates. In John Kimball (ed.), Syntax and Semantics IV. New York: Academic Press.

The Rise of Discourse Markers

Discourse markers constitute an important part of linguistic communication, and research on this phenomenon has been a thriving field of study over the past three decades. However, a problem that has plagued this research is that these markers exhibit a number of structural characteristics that are hard to interpret based on existing methodologies, such as grammaticalization. This study argues that it is possible to explain such characteristics in a meaningful way. It presents a cross-linguistic survey of the development of discourse markers, their important role in communication, and their relation to the wider context of sociocultural behaviour, with the goal of explaining their similarities and differences across a typologically wide range of languages. By giving a clear definition of discourse markers, it aims to provide a guide for future research, making it essential reading for students and researchers in linguistics, and anyone interested in exploring this fascinating linguistic phenomenon.

Discourse Markers and Dis fluency

In the perspective of “cleaning” transcriptions, they provide a three-step annotation, covering (1) “non-sentence elements” (filled pause, explicit editing term, discourse marker, coordinating conjunction, aside), (2) “slash-units” ...

Discourse Markers and  Dis fluency

Spoken language is characterized by the occurrence of linguistic devices such as discourse markers (e.g. so, well, you know, I mean) and other so-called “disfluent” phenomena, which reflect the temporal nature of the cognitive mechanisms underlying speech production and comprehension. The purpose of this book is to distinguish between strategic vs. symptomatic uses of these markers on the basis of their combination, function and distribution across several registers in English and French. Through deep quantitative and qualitative analyses of manually annotated features in the new DisFrEn corpus, this usage-based study provides (i) an exhaustive portrait of discourse markers in English and French and (ii) a scale of (dis)fluency against which different configurations of discourse markers can be diagnosed as rather fluent or disfluent. By bringing together discourse markers and (dis)fluency under one coherent framework, this book is a unique contribution to corpus-based pragmatics, discourse analysis and crosslinguistic fluency research.

Discourse Markers in Native and Non native English Discourse

This book provides valuable insights into the functions of four discourse markers (so, well, you know and like) in native and non-native English discourse, adding to both discourse marker literature and to studies in the pragmatics of ...

Discourse Markers in Native and Non native English Discourse

While discourse markers have been examined in some detail, little is known about their usage by non-native speakers. This book provides valuable insights into the functions of four discourse markers (so, well, you know and like) in native and non-native English discourse, adding to both discourse marker literature and to studies in the pragmatics of learner language. It presents a thorough analysis on the basis of a substantial parallel corpus of spoken language. In this corpus, American students who are native speakers of English and German non-native speakers of English retell and discuss a silent movie. Each of the main chapters of the book is dedicated to one discourse marker, giving a detailed analysis of the functions this discourse marker fulfills in the corpus and a quantitative comparison between the two speaker groups. The book also develops a two-level model of discourse marker functions comprising a textual and an interactional level.

Pragmatic Markers in Oral Narrative

The study of discourse markers as lexical devices that integrate form , meaning , and function is embodied in Schiffrin's pioneering work Discourse Markers ( 1987a ) : " The analysis of discourse markers is part of the more general ...

Pragmatic Markers in Oral Narrative

This book presents the multifunctional nature of pragmatic discourse markers in English and Catalan oral narratives from the point of view of text linguistics and contrastive analysis. It is argued that English and Catalan markers are distributed and operate differently at four different levels in the varied discourse structures of the text, i.e. at the ideational, the rhetorical, the sequential, and the inferential levels. The results confirm the distinctions in functional-systemic levels, and indicate that the nature of the two languages has a direct influence on the presence and nature of markers in the texts. The study is built up on a corpus of English and Catalan elicited narratives of native speakers, adopting the sociolinguistic "Labovian" framework adapted to the situation of educated adults.The study results in a better understanding of the contribution of pragmatic markers to the organization and the interpretation of oral texts, bringing insights from relevance and cognitive approaches to text structure, and moving from descriptive to theoretical levels of analysis and discussion.

Discourse markers

This work will focus on 'now' and 'nun' as discourse markers, but will not ignore their original (propositional) meaning and – if applicable – non-propositional meanings besides their function as discourse markers.

Discourse markers

Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of Augsburg (Lehrstuhl für Englische Sprachwissenschaft), course: Pragmatics and Understanding, language: English, abstract: This paper will deal with the English lexical item 'now' and its German counterpart 'nun'. Its aim is to investigate what functions they can perform in spoken discourse classified as conversation, casting light on the ways they can be used to indicate discourse structures, and to work out similarities and differences between these equivalents from the two languages. This work will focus on 'now' and 'nun' as discourse markers, but will not ignore their original (propositional) meaning and – if applicable – non-propositional meanings besides their function as discourse markers. The analysis of the two items will be based on authentic material: for English, the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English will be used; the source for instances of German 'nun' will be the Freiburg Corpus (Grundstrukturen: Freiburger Korpus). This paper can only draw on parts of the corpora; consequently, the search has been restricted to two parts of the London-Lund Corpus (cf. chapter 3.1.2.) and those elements of the Freiburg Corpus labelled conversation (cf. chapter 3.2.2.). On the grounds that this material is so limited, the investigation into the different uses of 'now' and 'nun' can only be exemplary and by no means exhaustive. The paper will be structured as follows: the first part is concerned with defining the term discourse marker and classifying discourse marker functions into different types of functions, aiming at a language-independent description. The results will be used as a theoretical basis for the empirical part, which will first deal with English 'now' and then tackle 'nun'. Both of these sections will be organised in the same way: there will first be a language-specific discussion on different (discourse marker and other) functions of the respective lexical item; then criteria for distinguishing the different uses will be established. The second part will briefly demonstrate instances of 'now'/'nun' carrying their propositional meaning – for 'nun', there will also be a chapter on its use as a modal particle – before it concentrates on the two items having discourse marker status; in this section, different functions will be discussed and examples will be given from the respective corpus. As already mentioned, this analysis will have to remain of a merely exemplary kind. Finally, the results from these analyses will be contrasted, working out both differences and similarities between the lexical counterparts in the two languages.

Ojibwe Discourse Markers

Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- 1. Introduction and background -- 2. What is a discourse marker? -- 3. Ojibwe discourse markers -- 4. Conjunct order as a discourse- marking device -- 5.

Ojibwe Discourse Markers

Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- 1. Introduction and background -- 2. What is a discourse marker? -- 3. Ojibwe discourse markers -- 4. Conjunct order as a discourse- marking device -- 5. Conclusion -- Notes -- Glossary -- References -- Index

English Discourse Markers of Reformulation

This book deals with the notion of reformulation and more specifically with a group of lexico-grammatical units which help codify and signal the activity of reformulation in English.

English Discourse Markers of Reformulation

This book deals with the notion of reformulation and more specifically with a group of lexico-grammatical units which help codify and signal the activity of reformulation in English. While discourse markers in English have been described in detail, the area of reformulation is a relatively unexplored area in comparison with languages such as French or Spanish. In this respect, this book has been conceived as a contribution to the field of Discourse Markers and in particular to the markers that help display the function of reformulation in English. First of all, a definition of the notion of reformulation is provided as a necessary precondition for the elaboration of a taxonomy of English reformulators. These are grouped into different classes and sub-classes on the basis of the type of reformulation effected. Thus, four main types are identified: Expansion, Modification, Reassessment and Compression. After an inductive and interpretive analysis of examples taken from the British National Corpus (BNC), the syntactic and distributional properties of these units, as well as their environments of use are described and discussed.