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Mathematical Theory of Democracy

Author: Andranik Tangian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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The mathematical theory of democracy deals with selection of representatives who make decisions on behalf of the whole society. In this book, the notion of representativeness is operationalized with the index of popularity (the average percentage of the population whose opinion is represented on a number of issues) and the index of universality (the frequency of cases when the opinion of a majority is represented). These indices are applied to evaluate and study the properties of single representatives (e.g. president) and representative bodies (e.g. parliament, magistrate, cabinet, jury, coalition). To bridge representative and direct democracy, an election method is proposed that is based not on voting but on indexing candidates with respect to the electorate’s political profile. In addition, societal and non-societal applications are considered.


Legitimacy Gap

Author: Vincent Depaigne
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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This book provides an account and explanation of a fundamental dilemma facing secular states: the 'legitimacy gap' left by the withdrawal of religion as a source of legitimacy. Legitimacy represents a particular problem for the secular state. The 'secular' in all its manifestations is very much linked to the historical rise of the modern state. It should not be seen as a category that separates culture and religion from politics, but rather as one that links these different dimensions. In the first part of the book, Depaigne explains how modern constitutional law has moved away from a 'substantive' legitimacy, based in particular on natural law, towards a 'procedural' legitimacy based on popular sovereignty and human rights. Depaigne examines three case studies of constitutional responses to legitimacy challenges which articulate the three main sources of 'procedural' legitimacy (people, rights, and culture) in different ways: the 'neutral model' (constitutions based on the 'displacement of culture'); the 'multicultural model' (constitutions based on diversity and pluralism); and the 'asymmetric model' (constitutions based on tradition). Even if secularization can be considered European in its origin, it is best seen today as a global phenomenon, which needs to be approached by taking into account the particular cultural dimension in which it is rooted. Depaigne's detailed study shows how secularization has moved either towards 'nationalization' linked to a particular national identity (as in France and, to some extent, in India)-or towards 'de-secularization', whereby secularism is displaced by particular cultural norms, as in Malaysia.


Emotion and Conflict

Author: Evelin Lindner
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
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A social psychologist based at Columbia University, Lindner takes us across history and into nations worldwide to show how emotion spurs hierarchies of domination and therefore causes subjugation, human rights violations, abuse, conflict, and fighting. She spotlights results ranging from the binding and subsequent deforming of Chinese women's feet, to periods of slavery, bondage, feudalism, apartheid, and other unjust events across time. Related actions from political domination internationally, to spousal or child abuse on the homefront are addressed. Lindner looks at how widely divergent societies - from the Japan of Samurais, to the Meso America of Aztecs, up to the modern Iraq at war - are driven by hierarchies of emotionally-fueled control with rigid domination.


Poverty and the Millennium Development Goals

Author: Alberto Cimadamore
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
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As the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) pass their 2015 deadline and the international community begins to discuss the future of UN development policy, Poverty and the Millennium Development Goals brings together leading economists from both the global North and South to provide a much needed critique of the prevailing development agenda. By examining current development efforts, goals and policies, it exposes the structurally flawed and misleading measurements of poverty and hunger on which these efforts have been based, and which have led official sources to routinely underestimate the scale of world poverty even as the global distribution of wealth becomes ever more imbalanced.


Free Riders and Rent Seekers

Author: ARTUR SOARES
Publisher: AuthorHouse
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In every country of Europe and America, there is a remarkable fraction of the adult population (sometimes near 50 per cent) whose needs are met with taxpayers’ money. This situation is so common, and we are so used to it that nobody dares to propose an alternative. On the other hand, the State creates unproductive jobs for certain classes of people and makes itself the protector of specific sectors of the economy when companies risk insolvency. We are talking about the transfer of wealth from the people who create it to pure consumers of resources. The later ones we call free-riders. This book treats this matter in connection with the electoral process, the abusive stretching of well-established political concepts, the use of pseudoscience, and the alliance between free-riders and rent-seekers. For sure, it is doubtful that it will be possible to feed such a sizeable inactive population for a long time. However, the author abstains himself of any proposal for a change. His only aim is to explain how we arrived at the present situation and where the foundations of the current equilibrium stay.


Better Regulation in Europe Better Regulation in Europe France 2010

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
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This report maps and analyses the core issues which together make up effective regulatory management for France, laying down a framework of what should be driving regulatory policy and reform in the future.


The Public Debt Problem

Author: P. Lemieux
Publisher: Springer
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The European public debt problem was in the making long before the 2007-2009 recession, as budget deficits had become endemic. A similar crisis is now developing in America, where the same fundamental causes have been at work. The Public Debt Problem analyzes the situation of public debts in America and reviews official forecasts for the federal government. The author carefully explains the main concepts (budget deficit, public debt, etc.) and analytical tools (discounting, government accounting, Treasury securities, bonds, yields, etc.) necessary to understand the issues.


International Labour Review

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Models of Regional Governance for the Pacific

Author: Kennedy Graham
Publisher: University of Canterbury
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Exploring the challenges facing the vulnerable, small Pacific Island countries in the 21st century—and the alternative models of regional governance available to meet those challenges—this review of the development of Pacific regionalism surveys models of governance for other regions, especially the European Union integration movement, and considers the merits of the contemporary Pacific Plan. Offering reflections of the nexus between the traditional customs and values of indigenous peoples of the region and the prevailing values and political methods of the dominant West, this authoritative analysis concludes with insights into how these separate and distinct cultural-political approaches to international politics might be synthesized for the common regional interest.


Philosophy of Nonviolence

Author: Chibli Mallat
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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In 2011, the Middle East saw more people peacefully protesting long entrenched dictatorships than at any time in its history. The dictators of Tunisia, Egypt, and Yemen were deposed in a matter of weeks by nonviolent marches. Imprecisely described as 'the Arab Spring', the revolution has been convulsing the whole region ever since. Beyond an uneven course in different countries, Philosophy of Nonviolence examines how 2011 may have ushered in a fundamental break in world history. The break, the book argues, is animated by nonviolence as the new spirit of the philosophy of history. Philosophy of Nonviolence maps out a system articulating nonviolence in the revolution, the rule of constitutional law it yearns for, and the demand for accountability that inspired the revolution in the first place. Part One--Revolution, provides modern context to the generational revolt, probes the depth of Middle Eastern-Islamic humanism, and addresses the paradox posed by nonviolence to the 'perpetual peace' ideal. Part Two--Constitutionalism, explores the reconfiguration of legal norms and power structures, mechanisms of institutional change and constitution-making processes in pursuit of the nonviolent anima. Part Three--Justice, covers the broadening concept of dictatorship as crime against humanity, an essential part of the philosophy of nonviolence. It follows its frustrated emergence in the French revolution, its development in the Middle East since 1860 through the trials of Arab dictators, the pyramid of accountability post-dictatorship, and the scope of foreign intervention in nonviolent revolutions. Throughout the text, Professor Mallat maintains thoroughly abstract and philosophical arguments, while substantiating those arguments in historical context enriched by a close participation in the ongoing Middle East revolution.