Schering Symposium on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in Early Mammalian Development Venice April 20 to 23 1970

This book is comprised of 33 chapters and begins with an overview of the oocyte and the egg, touching on subjects such as electron microscopy of the primary and secondary oocyte; experimental early parthenogenesis in mammals; and ...

Schering Symposium on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in Early Mammalian Development  Venice  April 20 to 23  1970

Advances in the Biosciences 6: Schering Symposium on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in Early Mammalian Development, Venice, April 20 to 23, 1970 is a collection of papers presented at the Schering Symposium on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in Early Mammalian Development, held in Venice, Italy, on April 20-23, 1970. Contributors explore intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms underlying early development in mammals and cover topics ranging from transmission of maternal proteins into oocytes to normal and abnormal fertilization in mammals; experimental early parthenogenesis in mammals; and nutrient requirements for the culture of preimplantation embryos in vitro. This book is comprised of 33 chapters and begins with an overview of the oocyte and the egg, touching on subjects such as electron microscopy of the primary and secondary oocyte; experimental early parthenogenesis in mammals; and laparoscopic recovery of pre-ovulatory human oocytes after priming of the ovaries with gonadotrophins. The next section is devoted to intrinsic and extrinsic influence on the metabolism of preimplantation embryos and includes chapters dealing with the composition of oviductal and uterine fluids; the role of uterine proteins in embryonic development; sex chromosome markers as indicators in embryonic development; and manipulations of the blastocyst. The remaining chapters examine placental and fetal physiology, immunology and teratology, and differentiation of tissues. This monograph will be of interest to biologists and physiologists.

Role of the STAR Proteins in Early Mammalian Development and Pluripotency

The molecular basis that sustain embryonic stem cell (ESCs) pluripotency and theirdifferentiation in all the types of somatic cells is subject of intensive research.

Role of the STAR Proteins in Early Mammalian Development and Pluripotency

The molecular basis that sustain embryonic stem cell (ESCs) pluripotency and theirdifferentiation in all the types of somatic cells is subject of intensive research. Recently,the potential involvement of RNA Binding Proteins (RBPs) in this process started to gainhigh interest for many researchers. RBPs can shuttle between the cytoplasm and thenucleus to associate with nascent RNAs and regulate their fate at different posttranscriptional levels (splicing & maturation, nuclear export and transport, translation,stability, storage and degradation). The signal transduction and activation of RNA(STAR) is a family of RBPs that consists of 5 members that are evolutionally conservedand share a common structural domain. With this PhD project, we aim at understandingthe role of two members of the STAR protein family, namely Sam68 and Quaking, inboth mESCs pluripotency and differentiation in particular toward the cardiomyocytelineage.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation in Early Mammalian Development

All the cells in the body contain the same genome yet showcase drastically different phenotypes. This is the result of different transcriptional programs, which are partly controlled by epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation in Early Mammalian Development

All the cells in the body contain the same genome yet showcase drastically different phenotypes. This is the result of different transcriptional programs, which are partly controlled by epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation. In this thesis, I analyze genome-scale DNA methylation profiles across pre-implantation development to identify the targets and characterize the dynamics of global demethylation that lead to totipotency and the subsequent changes to embryonic specification. In Chapter 1, I validate and refine the decades old model for DNA methylation in mouse embryogenesis, identify many retrotransposons with active DNA methylation signatures at fertilization, and discover many, novel differentially methylated regions between the gametes that exist transiently during early development. Notably, the majority of epigenetic events unique to mammalian pre-implantation development are characterized in mouse. In Chapter 2, 1 describe the DNA methylation dynamics in human preimplantation development and show that the regulatory principles that operate in mouse are conserved, though some of their targets are species-specific and define regions of local divergence. Finally, in Chapter 3, I compare DNA methylation dynamics of fertilization to an artificial reprogramming process, somatic cell nuclear transfer, in mouse, and find that most dynamics are conserved but occur at a smaller magnitude after artificial reprogramming. I conclude this thesis with a summary of the chapters and a brief discussion of ongoing and future work.

Cell Signaling During Mammalian Early Embryo Development

This volume is the first to address this issue by describing the current state of knowledge on cell signaling during mammalian early embryo development and highlighting priority areas for research.

Cell Signaling During Mammalian Early Embryo Development

The book considers signaling events from the zygote embryo through to the blastocyst with relevant data from embryonic stem (ES) cells, including dialogue with the extracellular environment and with the maternal tract during the implantation process. Application of the knowledge described to improve the success of human and animal assisted conception is considered where appropriate, but the focus is largely on fundamental rather than applied cell/molecular biology, as this is the area that has historically been neglected. While the general features of metabolism during preimplantation development are well established, especially in terms of nutrient requirements, uptake and fate, remarkably little is known about early embryo signaling events, intracellular or intercellular, between individual embryos in vitro or with the female reproductive tract in vivo. This contrasts with the wealth of information on cell signaling in somatic cells and tissues, as a glance at any textbook of biochemistry illustrates. This lack of information is such that our understanding of the molecular cell biology of early embryos -- a prerequisite to defining the mechanisms which regulate development at this critical stage of the life cycle -- is seriously incomplete. This volume is the first to address this issue by describing the current state of knowledge on cell signaling during mammalian early embryo development and highlighting priority areas for research.