*This book describes the modern real-space approach to electronic structures and properties of crystalline and non-crystalline materials in a form readily accessible to undergraduates in materials science, physics, and chemistry.*

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# Electronic Structure of Materials

This book describes the modern real-space approach to electronic structures and properties of crystalline and non-crystalline materials in a form readily accessible to undergraduates in materials science, physics, and chemistry. - ;This book describes the modern real-space approach to electronic structures and properties of crystalline and non-crystalline materials in a form readily accessible to undergraduates in materials science, physics, and chemistry. -
# Electronic Structure of Materials

Most textbooks in the field are either too advanced for students or don't adequately cover current research topics. Bridging this gap, Electronic Structure of Materials helps advanced undergraduate and graduate students understand electronic structure methods and enables them to use these techniques in their work.Developed from the author's lecture
# Electronic Structure of Materials

This book is a short survey of magnetochemistry as a promising method for revealing the electronic structure of inorganic substances, particularly solid oxide materials. It is supported by five chapters that describe materials with various structures and applications, showing how the method of magnetic dilution with the aid of other physical methods (electron spin resonance, magnetization, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity), accompanied by thorough structural and quantum mechanical studies, may be used for describing the states of atoms and interatomic interactions in multicomponent oxide systems. The book will serve as a guide for researchers in the field of various oxide materials, since it shows the roots for selecting the best structures and qualitative and quantitative compositions of oxide materials on the basis of the knowledge about their electronic structure. It is devoted to some of the most popular structures of multicomponent oxides among modern materials—perovskites and pyrochlores—giving a unified approach to their chemical structure.
# Electronic Structure Methods for Complex Materials

Density functional theory (DFT) has blossomed in the past few decades into a powerful tool that is used by experimentalists and theoreticians alike. This book highlights the extensive contributions that the DFT-based OLCAO method has made to progress in this field, and it demonstrates its competitiveness for performing ab initio calculations on large and complex models of practical systems. A brief historical account and introduction to the elements of the theory set the stage for discussions on semiconductors, insulators, crystalline metals and alloys, complex crystals, non-crystalline solids and liquids, microstructure containing systems and those containing impurities, defects, and surfaces, biomolecular systems, and the technique of ab initio core level spectroscopy calculation.
# Electronic Structure

The study of the electronic structure of materials is at a momentous stage, with the emergence of computational methods and theoretical approaches. Many properties of materials can now be determined directly from the fundamental equations for the electrons, providing insights into critical problems in physics, chemistry, and materials science. This book provides a unified exposition of the basic theory and methods of electronic structure, together with instructive examples of practical computational methods and real-world applications. Appropriate for both graduate students and practising scientists, this book describes the approach most widely used today, density functional theory, with emphasis upon understanding the ideas, practical methods and limitations. Many references are provided to original papers, pertinent reviews, and widely available books. Included in each chapter is a short list of the most relevant references and a set of exercises that reveal salient points and challenge the reader.
# Electronic Structure and Electronic Transitions in Layered Materials

This new volume in the series Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures satisfies the need for a comprehensive review of the progress made in the decade 1972-1982 in the field of the electronic properties of layer compounds. Some recent theoretical and experimental developments are highlighted by authori tative physicists active in current research. The previous books of this series covering similar topics are volumes 3 and 4. The present review is mainly intended to fulfill the gap up to 1982 and part of 1983. I am indebted to all the authors for their friendly co-operation and continuous effort in preparing the contributions in their own fields of competence. I am sure that both the expertise scientists and the beginners in the field of the electronic properties of layered materials will find this book a valuable tool for their research work. Warm thanks are due to Prof. E. Mooser, General Editor of the series, for his constant and authoritative advice. * * * This book has been conceived as a tribute to Prof. Franco Bassani to whom the Italian tradition in the field of layer compounds, as well as in other fields of solid state physics, owes much. The authors of this review have all benefited at some time of their professional life from close cooperation with him. Istituto di Struttura della Materia, VINCENZO GRASSO Universitd di Messina IX V Grasso (ed.). Electronic Structure and Electronic Transitions in Layered Materials. ix.
# Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.
# Electronic Structure and Magnetism of Complex Materials

Recent developments in electronic structure theory have led to a new understanding of magnetic materials at the microscopic level. This enables a truly first-principles approach to investigations of technologically important magnetic materials. Among the advances treated here have been practical schemes for handling non-collinear magnetic systems, including relativity, and an understanding of the origins and role of orbital magnetism within band structure formalisms. This book provides deep theoretical insight into magnetism, mahneatic materials, and magnetic systems. It covers these recent developments with review articles by some of the main originators of these developments.
# Electronic Structure of Conjugated Materials and Their Effect on Organic Photovoltaics

The great tunability of structure and electronic properties of ?-conjugated organic molecules/polymers combined with other advantages such as light weight and flexibility etc., have made organic-based electronics the focus of an exciting still-growing field of physics and chemistry for more than half a century. The application of organic electronics has led to the appearance of wide range of organic electronic devices mainly including organic light emitting diodes (OLED), organic field effect transistors (OFET) and organic solar cells (OSC). The application of the organic electronic devices mainly is limited by two dominant parameters, i.e., their performance and stability. Up to date, OLED has been successfully commercialized in the market while the OSC are still on the way to commercialization hindered by low efficiency and inferior stability. Understanding the energy levels of organic materials and energy level alignment of the devices is crucial to control the efficiency and stability of the OSC. In this thesis, energy levels measured by different methods are studied to explore their relationship with device properties, and the strategies on how to design efficient and stable OSC based on energy level diagrams are provided. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) is a traditional and widely used method to probe the energy levels of organic materials, although there is little consensus on how to relate the oxidation/reduction potential ((Eox/Ered) to the vacuum level. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) can be used to directly detect vertical ionization potential (IP) of organic materials. In this thesis, a linear relationship of IP and Eox was found, with a slope equal to unity. The relationship provides for easy conversion of values obtained by the two techniques, enabling complementarily use in designing and fabricating efficient and stable OSC. A popular rule of thumb is that the offset between the LUMO levels of donor and acceptor should be 0.3 eV, according to which a binary solar cell with the minimum voltage losses around 0.49 V was designed here. Introduction of the ternary blend as active layer is an efficient way to improve both efficiency and stability of the OSC. Based on our studied energy-level diagram within the integer charge transfer (ICT) model, we designed ternary solar cells with enhanced open circuit voltage for the first time and improved thermal stability compared to reference binary ones. The ternary solar cell with minimum voltage losses was developed by combining two donor materials with same ionization potential and positive ICT energy while featuring complementary optical absorption. Furthermore, the fullerene acceptor was chosen so that the energy of the positive ICT state of the two donor polymers is equal to the energy of negative ICT state of the fullerene, which can enhance dissociation of all polymer donor and fullerene acceptor excitons and suppress bimolecular and trap-assistant recombination. Rapid development of non-fullerene acceptors in the last two years affords more recipes of designing both efficient and stabile OSC. We show in this thesis how non-fullerene acceptors successfully can be used to design ternary solar cells with both enhanced efficiency and thermal stability. Besides improving the efficiency of the devices, understanding of the stability and degradation mechanism is another key issue. The degradation of conjugated molecules/polymers often follow many complicated pathways and at the same time many factors for degradation are coupled with each other. Therefore, the degradation of non-fullerene acceptors was investigated in darkness by photoelectron spectroscopy in this thesis with the in-situ method of controlling exposure of O2 and water vapor separately.
# Electronic Structure of Materials

# Orbital Approach to the Electronic Structure of Solids

This book is aiming at filling the gap between the different languages of the physics and chemistry communities to understand the electronic structure of solids. How structure and properties of solids are related is illustrated by considering in detail a large number of real examples.
# Full Potential Electronic Structure Method

This is a book describing electronic structure theory and application within the framework of a methodology implemented in the computer code RSPt. In 1986, when the code that was to become RSPt was developed enough to be useful, it was one of the ?rst full-potential, all-electron, relativistic implem- tations of DFT (density functional theory). While RSPt was documented p- asitically in many publications describing the results of its application, it was many years before a publication explicitly describing aspects of the method appeared. In the meantime, several excellent all-electron, full-potential me- ods had been developed, published, and become available. So why a book about RSPt now? The code that became RSPt was initially developed as a personal research tool, rather than a collaborative e?ort or as a product. As such it required some knowledge of its inner workings to use, and as it was meant to be m- imally ?exible, the code required experience to be used e?ectively. These - tributes inhibited, but did not prevent, the spread of RSPt as a research tool. While applicable across the periodic table, the method is particularly useful in describing a wide range of materials, including heavier elements and c- pounds, and its ?exibility provides targeted accuracy and a convenient and accurate framework for implementing and assessing the e?ect of new models.
# Relativistic Electronic Structure Theory Fundamentals

The first volume of this two part series is concerned with the fundamental aspects of relativistic quantum theory, outlining the enormous progress made in the last twenty years in this field. The aim was to create a book such that researchers who become interested in this exciting new field find it useful as a textbook, and do not have to rely on a rather large number of specialized papers published in this area. · No title is currently available that deals with new developments in relativistic quantum electronic structure theory · Interesting and relevant to graduate students in chemistry and physics as well as to all researchers in the field of quantum chemistry · As treatment of heavy elements becomes more important, there will be a constant demand for this title
# The Electronic Structure of Complex Systems

We present here the transcripts of lectures and talks which were delivered at the NATO ADVANCED STUDY INSTITUTE "Electronic Structure of Complex Systems" held at the State University of Ghent, Belgium during the period July 12-23, 1982. The aim of these lectures was to highlight some of the current progress in our understanding of the electronic structure of com plex systems. A massive leap forward is obtained in bandstructure calculations with the advent of linear methods. The bandtheory also profitted tremendously from the recent developments in the density functional theories for the properties of the interacting electron gas in the presence of an external field of ions. The means of per forming fast bandstructure calculations and the confidence in the underlying potential functions have led in the past five years or so to a wealth of investigations into the electronic properties of elemental solids and compounds. The study of the trends of the electronic structure through families of materials provided invalu able insights for the prediction of new materials. The detailed study of the electronic structure of specific solids was not neglected and our present knowledge of d- and f-metals and metal hydrides was reviewed. For those systems we also investi gated the accuracy of the one electron potentials in fine detail and we complemented this with the study of small clusters of atoms where our calculations are amenable to comparison with the frontiers of quantum chemistry calculations.
# Electronic Structure Calculations on Graphics Processing Units

Electronic Structure Calculations on Graphics Processing Units: From Quantum Chemistry to Condensed Matter Physics provides an overview of computing on graphics processing units (GPUs), a brief introduction to GPU programming, and the latest examples of code developments and applications for the most widely used electronic structure methods. The book covers all commonly used basis sets including localized Gaussian and Slater type basis functions, plane waves, wavelets and real-space grid-based approaches. The chapters expose details on the calculation of two-electron integrals, exchange-correlation quadrature, Fock matrix formation, solution of the self-consistent field equations, calculation of nuclear gradients to obtain forces, and methods to treat excited states within DFT. Other chapters focus on semiempirical and correlated wave function methods including density fitted second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and both iterative and perturbative single- and multireference coupled cluster methods. Electronic Structure Calculations on Graphics Processing Units: From Quantum Chemistry to Condensed Matter Physics presents an accessible overview of the field for graduate students and senior researchers of theoretical and computational chemistry, condensed matter physics and materials science, as well as software developers looking for an entry point into the realm of GPU and hybrid GPU/CPU programming for electronic structure calculations.
# Electronic Structure of Metal Semiconductor Contacts

Interface and surface science have been important in the development of semicon ductor physics right from the beginning on. Modern device concepts are not only based on p-n junctions, which are interfaces between regions containing different types of dopants, but take advantage of the electronic properties of semiconductor insulator interfaces, heterojunctions between distinct semiconductors, and metal semiconductor contacts. The latter ones stood almost at the very beginning of semi conductor physics at the end of the last century. The rectifying properties of metal-semiconductor contacts were first described by Braun in 1874. A physically correct explanation of unilateral conduction, as this deviation from Ohm's law was called, could not be given at that time. A prerequisite was Wilson's quantum theory of electronic semi-conductors which he published in 1931. A few years later, in 1938, Schottky finally explained the rectification at metal-semiconductor contacts by a space-
# Electronic Structure

This book is the second volume in the Handbook of Surface Science series and deals with aspects of the electronic structure of surfaces as investigated by means of the experimental and theoretical methods of physics. The importance of understanding surface phenomena stems from the fact that for many physical and chemical phenomena, the surface plays a key role: in electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, in heterogenous catalysis, in epitaxial growth, and the application of protective coatings, for example. Therefore a better understanding and, ultimately, a predictive description of surface and interface properties is vital for the progress of modern technology. An investigation of surface electronic structure is also central to our understanding of all aspects of surfaces from a fundamental point of view. The chapters presented here review the goals achieved in the field and map out the challenges ahead, both in experiment and theory.
# Electronic Structure and Electronic Transitions in Layered Materials

# Electronic Structure Calculations of Materials

# Materials Science and Technology Electronic structure and properties of semiconductors

Materials Science and Technology A Comprehensive Treatment Edited by R.W. Cahn, P. Haasen, E.J. Kramer The 18-volume series ‘Materials Science and Technology' is the first in-depth, topic-oriented reference work devoted to this growing interdisciplinary field. A compendium of current, state-of-the-art information, it covers the most important classes of materials: metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, semiconductors, and composites, from the fundamentals of perfect semiconductors via the physics of defects, to "artifical" and amorphous semiconductors. Edited by internationally renowned figures in materials science, this series is sure to establish itself as a seminal work. Volume 4: This volume spans the field of semiconductor physics, with particular emphasis on concepts relevant to semiconductor technology. Topics included are: band theory applied to semiconductors • optical properties and charge transport • intrinsic point defects in semiconductors • deep centers in semiconductors • equilibria, nonequilibria, diffusion, and precipitation • dislocations • grain boundaries in semiconductors • interfaces • the hall effect in quantum wires • material properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon • high-temperature properties of three-dimensional transition elements in silicon.