Elementary Exploration Seismology

ELEMENTARY EXPLORATION SEISMOLOGY CLARENCE S. CLAY ELEMENTARY EXPLORATION SEISMOLOGY offers a comprehensive view of seismic geophysics . Designed to give students a solid background , this text first defines and develops the three basic ...

Elementary Exploration Seismology


Numerical Methods of Exploration Seismology

Elementary. Migration. Methods. In exploration seismology, migration refers to a multichannel processing step that attempts to spatially reposition events and improve focusing. The term is essentially synonymous with imaging (though the ...

Numerical Methods of Exploration Seismology

Exploration seismology uses seismic imaging to form detailed images of the Earth's interior, enabling the location of likely petroleum targets. Due to the size of seismic datasets, sophisticated numerical algorithms are required. This book provides a technical guide to the essential algorithms and computational aspects of data processing, covering the theory and methods of seismic imaging. The first part introduces an extensive online library of MATLAB® seismic data processing codes maintained by the CREWES project at the University of Calgary. Later chapters then focus on digital signal theory and relevant aspects of wave propagation and seismic modelling, followed by deconvolution and seismic migration methods. Presenting a rigorous explanation of how to construct seismic images, it provides readers with practical tools and codes to pursue research projects and analyses. It is ideal for advanced students and researchers in applied geophysics, and for practicing exploration geoscientists in the oil and gas industry.

Exploration Seismology

Gardner,L.W 1947. Vertical velocities from reflection shooting. Geophysics, 12: 221–8. Levin, F. K. 1971. Apparent velocity from dipping interface reflections. Geophysics, 36: 510–16. Richter, C.F. 1958. Elementary Seismology.

Exploration Seismology

This is the completely updated revision of the highly regarded book Exploration Seismology. Available now in one volume, this textbook provides a complete and systematic discussion of exploration seismology. The first part of the book looks at the history of exploration seismology and the theory - developed from the first principles of physics. All aspects of seismic acquisition are then described. The second part of the book goes on to discuss data-processing and interpretation. Applications of seismic exploration to groundwater, environmental and reservoir geophysics are also included. The book is designed to give a comprehensive up-to-date picture of the applications of seismology. Exploration Seismology's comprehensiveness makes it suitable as a text for undergraduate courses for geologists, geophysicists and engineers, as well as a guide and reference work for practising professionals.

Mathematical and Computational Methods in Seismic Exploration and Reservoir Modeling

One or more of these reflection coefficient símay vanish , so an elementary layer is not necessarily separated from its ... F ( z ) MN n 777 n + 1 cn In + 1 Figure 1 The normal incidence seismic model in terms of n elementary layers of ...

Mathematical and Computational Methods in Seismic Exploration and Reservoir Modeling


Tau p a plane wave approach to the analysis of seismic data

In exploration seismology, data are acquired at multiple source and receiver posi tions along a profile line. These data are subsequently processed and interpreted.

Tau p  a plane wave approach to the analysis of seismic data

In exploration seismology, data are acquired at multiple source and receiver posi tions along a profile line. These data are subsequently processed and interpreted. The primary result of this process is a subsurface image of the exploration target. As part of this procedure, additional information is also obtained about the subsurface material properties, e.g., seismic velocities. The methods that are employed in the acquisition and processing of exploration seismic data are internally consistent. That is, principally near vertical incidence seismic waves are generated, recorded and subsequently imaged. The data processing methods commonly used are based upon a small angle of incidence approximation, thus making the imaging problem tractable for existing data processing technology. Although tremendously successful, the limitations of this method are generally recognized. Current and future exploration goals will likely require the use of additional seismic waves, i.e., both compressional and shear precritical and postcritical reflections and refractions. Also, in addition to making better use of seismic travel times, recent efforts to directly incorporate seismic amplitude variations show that the approach may lead to a better understanding of subsurface rock properties. In response to more demanding exploration goals, recent data acquisition techniques have improved significantly by increasing the spatial aperture and incorporating a large number of closely spaced receivers. The need for better subsurface resolution in depth and position has encouraged the use of 240, 512, and even 1024 recorded data channels with receiver separations of 5 to 25 m.

Seismic Hydrocarbon Exploration

Richter, C. F., 1958, Elementary Seismology, Freeman and Company Inc., 768p. Robinson, E. A., 1954, Predictive deconvolutionof time series with applications to seismic exploration. Cambridge, MIT, Geophysical Analysis Report no.

Seismic Hydrocarbon Exploration

This book presents the essential principles and applications of seismic oil-exploration techniques. It concisely covers all stages in exploration activities (data field acquisition, data processing and interpretation), supplementing the main text with a wealth of (>350) illustrations and figures. The book concentrates on the physics of the applied principles, avoiding intricate mathematical treatment and lengthy theoretical reasoning. A further prominent feature is the inclusion of a separate chapter on 3D surveying techniques and another, equally important chapter on seismic digital signals and the aliasing problem, which is presented in an accessible form. The book is designed to meet the needs of both the academic and industrial worlds. University students and employees of oil-exploration companies alike will find the book to be a valuable resource.

Seismic Exploration

8, Kronecker delta AA small area Ahn thickness of the layer n AT, AT, normal moveout (nmo) of a reflection arrival (= T. — To) ... defined as a limiting value of a force acting on an elementary area which is diminishing to zero, thus: .

Seismic Exploration


Seismic Data Interpretation and Evaluation for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production

This book introduces readers to the field of seismic data interpretation and evaluation, covering themes such as petroleum exploration and high resolution seismic data.

Seismic Data Interpretation and Evaluation for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production

This book introduces readers to the field of seismic data interpretation and evaluation, covering themes such as petroleum exploration and high resolution seismic data. It helps geoscientists and engineers who are practitioners in this area to both understand and to avoid the potential pitfalls of interpreting and evaluating such data, especially the over-reliance on sophisticated software packages and workstations alongside a lack of grasp on the elementary principles of geology and geophysics. Chapters elaborate on the necessary principles, from topics like seismic wave propagation and rock-fluid parameters to seismic modeling and inversions, explaining the need to understand geological implications. The difference between interpretation of data and its evaluation is highlighted and the author encourages imaginative, logical and practical application of knowledge. Readers will appreciate the exquisite illustrations included with the accessibly written text, which simplify the process of learning about interpretation of seismic data. This multidisciplinary, integrated and practical approach to data evaluation will prove to be a valuable tool for students and young professionals, especially those connected with oil companies.

Seismology

Seismology

Seismology is an important branch of earth science and geophysics, providing most of our knowledge of the structure of the Earth and is used in investigations of the sub-surface, being essential in the modern exploration for oil and gas, an area In which most seismotegists are employed. The study of earthquakes is a fascinating subject both for the professional and the fayperson, and has increasing importance as populations expand and spread. Seismology continues to grow and become more sophisticated with the development of better instruments and surveys, and the impact of the computer. Providing an introduction to the subject, this volume looks at general seismology, seismic waves, earthquakes and their effects, the structure of the Earth, and exploration seismology, in particular hydrocarbon exploration. This highly illustrated book includes a survey of principles and applications with a non-mathematical approach, together with an historical section and a large reference list. Suitable for students, geologists, geophysicists, and the layperson, this volume provides an up-to-date overview of general and exploration seismology.

Digital Imaging and Deconvolution

The ABCs of Seismic Exploration and Processing Enders A. Robinson, Sven Treitel. (c) 0.16 0.24Z 0.71Z2 0.6Z3 Z4. ... Clay, C. S., 1990, Elementary exploration seismology: Prentice Hall. Cooley, J. W., and J. W. Tukey, 1965, An algorithm ...

Digital Imaging and Deconvolution

Covers the basic ideas and methods used in seismic processing, concentrating on the fundamentals of seismic imaging and deconvolution. Many of the seismic methods in popular use today go back to the work of some of the great scientists of past centuries. The ideas are developed from the ground up. Most chapters in the book are followed by problem sets. Some exercises are designed to supplement the material presented in the text; others are meant to stimulate classroom discussions. There are few industrial-grade illustrations. Instead, both the text and the exercises deal mostly with simple examples that often can be solved with nothing more than a pencil and paper. Each chapter is as self-contained as possible to make it easier for a reader to concentrate on topics of particular interest. The book covers such basic topics as wave motion; digital imaging; digital filtering; various visualization aspects of the seismic reflection method; sampling theory; the frequency spectrum; synthetic seismograms; wavelets and wavelet processing; deconvolution; the need for continuing interaction between the seismic interpreter and the computer; seismic attributes; phase rotation; and seismic attenuation. The last of the 15 chapters gives a detailed mathematical overview. Digital Imaging and Deconvolution, nominated for the Association of Earth Science Editors award for the best geoscience publication of 2008-2009, will be of interest to professional geophysicists as well as graduate students and upper-level undergraduates in geophysics. The book also will be helpful to scientists and engineers in other disciplines who use digital signal processing to analyze and image wave-motion data in remote-detection applications. In particular, the methods described in this book are important in optical imaging, video imaging, medical and biological imaging, acoustical analysis, radar, and sonar.

Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography

Aki, K.; and P. G. Richards, Quantative Seismology Theory and Methods, Vols. 1 and 2; W. H. Freeman and Company; San Francisco (1980). ... Clay, C. S. Elementary Exploration Seismology; Prentice-Hall; Englewood Cilffs, ...

Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography

The developments in the field of ocean acoustics over recent years make this book an important reference for specialists in acoustics, oceanography, marine biology, and related fields. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography also encourages a new generation of scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to apply the modern methods of acoustical physics to probe the unknown sea. The book is an authoritative, modern text with examples and exercises. It contains techniques to solve the direct problems, solutions of inverse problems, and an extensive bibliography from the earliest use of sound in the sea to present references. Written by internationally recognized scientists, the book provides background to measure ocean parameters and processes, find life and objects in the sea, communicate underwater, and survey the boundaries of the sea. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography explains principles of underwater sound propagation, and describes how both actively probing sonars and passively listening hydrophones can reveal what the eye cannot see over vast ranges of the turbid ocean. This book demonstrates how to use acoustical remote sensing, variations in sound transmission, in situ acoustical measurements, and computer and laboratory models to identify the physical and biological parameters and processes in the sea. * Offers an integrated, modern approach to passive and active underwater acoustics * Contains many examples of laboratory scale models of ocean-acoustic environments, as well as descriptions of experiments at sea * Covers remote sensing of marine life and the seafloor * Includes signal processing of ocean sounds, physical and biological noises at sea, and inversions * resents sound sources, receivers, and calibration * Explains high intensities; explosive waves, parametric sources, cavitation, shock waves, and streaming * Covers microbubbles from breaking waves, rainfall, dispersion, and attenuation * Describes sound propagation along ray paths and caustics * Presents sound transmissions and normal mode methods in ocean waveguides

Wave Propagation in Drilling Well Logging and Reservoir Applications

Clay, C.S., Elementary Exploration Seismology, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1990. Coultrip, R.L., “High Accuracy Wavefront Tracing Traveltime Calculation,” Geophysics, Vol. 58, No. 2, Feb. 1993, pp. 284–292.

Wave Propagation in Drilling  Well Logging and Reservoir Applications

Wave propagation is central to all areas of petroleum engineering, e.g., drilling vibrations, MWD mud pulse telemetry, swab-surge, geophysical ray tracing, ocean and current interactions, electromagnetic wave and sonic applications in the borehole, but rarely treated rigorously or described in truly scientific terms, even for a single discipline. Wilson Chin, an MIT and Caltech educated scientist who has consulted internationally, provides an integrated, comprehensive, yet readable exposition covering all of the cited topics, offering insights, algorithms and validated methods never before published. A must on every petroleum engineering bookshelf! In particular, the book: Delivers drillstring vibrations models coupling axial, torsional and lateral motions that predict rate-of-penetration, bit bounce and stick-slip as they depend on rock-bit interaction and bottomhole assembly properties, Explains why catastrophic lateral vibrations at the neutral point cannot be observed from the surface even in vertical wells, but providing a proven method to avoid them, Demonstrates why Fermat's "principle of least time" (used in geophysics) applies to non-dissipative media only, but using the "kinematic wave theory" developed at MIT, derives powerful methods applicable to general attenuative inhomogeneous media, Develops new approaches to mud acoustics and applying them to MWD telemetry modeling and strong transients in modern swab-surge applicagtions, Derives new algorithms for borehole geophysics interpretation, e.g., Rh and Rv in electromagnetic wave and permeability in Stoneley waveform analysis, and Outlines many more applications, e.g., wave loadings on offshore platforms, classical problems in wave propagation, and extensions to modern kinematic wave theory. These disciplines, important to all field-oriented activities, are not treated as finite element applications that are simply gridded, "number-crunched" and displayed, but as scientific disciplines deserving of clear explanation. General results are carefully motivated, derived and applied to real-world problems, with results demonstrating the importance and predictive capabilities of the new methods.

Seismic Waves and Rays in Elastic Media

... (2002) Encyclopedic dictionary of applied geophysics: Society of Exploration Geophysicists Sheriff, R.E., and Geldart, L.P., (1982) Exploration seismology: Cambridge University Press Shilov, G.E., (1974/1996) Elementary functional ...

Seismic Waves and Rays in Elastic Media

This book seeks to explore seismic phenomena in elastic media and emphasizes the interdependence of mathematical formulation and physical meaning. The purpose of this title - which is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as scientists interested in quantitative seismology - is to use aspects of continuum mechanics, wave theory and ray theory to describe phenomena resulting from the propagation of waves. The book is divided into three parts: Elastic continua, Waves and rays, and Variational formulation of rays. In Part I, continuum mechanics are used to describe the material through which seismic waves propagate, and to formulate a system of equations to study the behaviour of such material. In Part II, these equations are used to identify the types of body waves propagating in elastic continua as well as to express their velocities and displacements in terms of the properties of these continua. To solve the equations of motion in anisotropic inhomogeneous continua, the high-frequency approximation is used and establishes the concept of a ray. In Part III, it is shown that in elastic continua a ray is tantamount to a trajectory along which a seismic signal propagates in accordance with the variational principle of stationary travel time.

Water resources Investigations Report

Berryhill , H.L. , Jr. , 1963 , Geology and coal resources of Belmont County , Ohio : U.S. Geological Survey Professional ... Clay , C. S. , 1990 , Elementary exploration seismology : Englewood Cliffs , N.J. , Prentice - Hall , 346 p .

Water resources Investigations Report


Detection of Underground Voids in Ohio by Use of Geophysical Methods

Berryhill , H.L. , Jr. , 1963 , Geology and coal resources of Belmont County , Ohio : U.S. Geological Survey Professional ... Clay , C. S. , 1990 , Elementary exploration seismology : Englewood Cliffs , N.J. , Prentice - Hall , 346 p .

Detection of Underground Voids in Ohio by Use of Geophysical Methods

Results of ground-penetrating radar surveys at three highway sites indicate that subsurface penetration varies widely with geologic material type and amount of cultural interference. Two highway sites were chosen over abandoned underground coal mines in eastern Ohio. A third site in western Ohio was chosen in an area known to be underlain by naturally occurring voids in limestone.

Modern Global Seismology

However, the principles underlying elastic-wave propagation, seismic instrumentation, and techniques for extracting Earth structure and source information from seismograms are common to applications in exploration seismology, ...

Modern Global Seismology

Intended as an introduction to the field, Modern Global Seismology is a complete, self-contained primer on seismology. It features extensive coverage of all related aspects, from observational data through prediction, emphasizing the fundamental theories and physics governing seismic waves--both natural and anthropogenic. Based on thoroughly class-tested material, the text provides a unique perspective on the earths large-scale internal structure and dynamic processes, particularly earthquake sources, and on the application of theory to the dynamic processes of the earths upper skin. Authored by two experts in the field of geophysics. this insightful text is designed for the first-year graduate course in seismology. Exploration seismologists will also find it an invaluable resource on topics such as elastic-wave propagation, seismicinstrumentation, and seismogram analysis useful in interpreting their high-resolution images of structure for oil and mineral resource exploration. More than 400 illustrations, many from recent research articles, help readers visualize mathematical relationships 49 Boxed Features explain advanced topics Provides readers with the most in-depth presentation of earthquake physics available Contains incisive treatments of seismic waves, waveform evaluation and modeling, and seismotectonics Provides quantitative treatment of earthquake source mechanics Contains numerous examples of modern broadband seismic recordings Fully covers current seismic instruments and networks Demonstrates modern waveform inversion methods Includes extensive references for further reading

Sounds in the Sea

Theory of Seismic Head Waves . Toronto : University of Toronto Press . Chernov , L. A. ( 1960 ) . Wave Propagation in a Random Medium . New York : McGraw - Hill . Clay , C. S. ( 1990 ) . Elementary Exploration Seismology .

Sounds in the Sea

Publisher Description

Seismic Data Interpretation and Evaluation for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production

Over these ensuing years, my work association with young seismic interpreters and feedback from several readers encouraged me to cover fresh ground which may seem elementary but I believe is essential for seismic analysts to become more ...

Seismic Data Interpretation and Evaluation for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production

This book is meant for geoscientists and engineers who are beginners, and introduces them to the field of seismic data interpretation and evaluation. The exquisite seismic illustrations and real case examples interspersed in the text help the readers appreciate the interpretation of seismic data in a simple way, and at the same time, emphasize the multidisciplinary, integrated practical approach to data evaluation. A concerted effort has been made for the readers to realize that mindless interpretation of seismic data using sophisticated software packages, without having a grasp on the elementary principles of geology and geophysics, and coupled with their over-reliance on workstations to provide solutions can have appalling results all too very often.