By contrast, Timothy O'Connor's biography of the electrical engineer L.B. Krasin (
1870–1926) focuses on his political importance as a leading Bolshevik who
became the first People's Commissar for Foreign Trade and, in effect, Soviet ...
Author: Anthony Heywood
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book is the first substantial study in any language of one of revolutionary Russia's most distinguished and controversial engineers - Iurii Vladimirovich Lomonosov (1876-1952). Not only does it provide an outline of his remarkable life and career, it also explores the relationship between science, technology and transport that developed in late tsarist and early Soviet Russia. Lomonosov's importance extends well beyond his scientific and engineering achievements thanks to the rich variety and public prominence of his professional and political activities. His generation - Lenin's generation - was inevitably at the forefront of Russian life from the 1910s to the 1930s, and Lomonosov took his place there as one of the country's best known and ultimately notorious engineers. As well as an innovative engineer who campaigned to enhance the role of science, he played a major role in shaping and administering the Russian railways, and undertook several diplomatic and scientific missions to the West during the early years of the Revolution. Falling from political favour during an assignment in Germany (1923-1927), he achieved notoriety in Russia as a 'non-returner' by apparently declining to return home. Thereby escaping probable arrest and execution, he began a new life abroad (1927-1952) which included a research post at the California Institute of Technology in 1929-1930, collaborative projects with the famous physicist P.L. Kapitsa in Cambridge, a long-time association with the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in London, and work for the British War Office during the Second World War. From Marxist revolutionary to American academic, this study reveals Lomonosov's extraordinary life. Drawing on a wide variety of official Russian sources, as well as Lomonosov's own diaries and memoirs, a vivid portrait of his life is presented, offering a better understanding of how science, technology and politics interacted in early-twentieth-century Russia.
The story of a man whose gifts and character set him in the path of history, The Ghost of the Executed Engineer is also a cautionary tale about the fate of an engineering that disregards social and human issues.
Author: Loren Graham
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
Stalin ordered his execution, but here Peter Palchinsky has the last word. As if rising from an uneasy grave, Palchinsky’s ghost leads us through the miasma of Soviet technology and industry, pointing out the mistakes he condemned in his time, the corruption and collapse he predicted, the ultimate price paid for silencing those who were not afraid to speak out. The story of this visionary engineer’s life and work, as Loren Graham relates it, is also the story of the Soviet Union’s industrial promise and failure. We meet Palchinsky in pre-Revolutionary Russia, immersed in protests against the miserable lot of laborers in the tsarist state, protests destined to echo ironically during the Soviet worker’s paradise. Exiled from the country, pardoned and welcomed back at the outbreak of World War I, the engineer joined the ranks of the Revolutionary government, only to find it no more open to criticism than the previous regime. His turbulent career offers us a window on debates over industrialization. Graham highlights the harsh irrationalities built into the Soviet system—the world’s most inefficient steel mill in Magnitogorsk, the gigantic and ill-conceived hydroelectric plant on the Dnieper River, the infamously cruel and mislocated construction of the White Sea Canal. Time and again, we see the effects of policies that ignore not only the workers’ and consumers’ needs but also sound management and engineering precepts. And we see Palchinsky’s criticism and advice, persistently given, consistently ignored, continue to haunt the Soviet Union right up to its dissolution in 1991. The story of a man whose gifts and character set him in the path of history, The Ghost of the Executed Engineer is also a cautionary tale about the fate of an engineering that disregards social and human issues.
Release on 1992-03-22 | by Timothy Edward O'connor
Scholarly theoretical endeavors failed to interest him ; he expressed pride in his
occupation and his role in the revolutionary movement . Leonid Borisovich
thought that revolutionary Russia would have just as much need for engineers
Author: Timothy Edward O'connor
Publisher: Westview Press
This is the first Western biography of L. B. Krasin, a leader of the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party, commissar of foreign trade in the Soviet government in the 1920s, and one of the foremost Soviet diplomats of his era. This meticulously documented book is based on extensive research in Soviet and Western archives and libraries as well as on Krasin's personal unpublished letters. It reviews Krasin's revolutionary conduct, including his technical organization of V. I. Lenin's "expropriations"--robberies of Tsarist banks and post offices by secret Bolshevik "fighting squads". Krasin's revolutionary activities were quite remarkable, considering his prominent position in Russian society. By the 1905 Revolution he had become one of the leading engineers in the country and had acquired an international reputation for his expertise in chemical and electrical engineering. This biography examines Krasin's significant role in consolidating the Soviet government through the recruitment of technical specialists, his pursuit of Western credits and loans for economic reconstruction and modernization, and his work to establish diplomatic relations between the new government and Western European governments during the first part of the 1920s. The book devotes considerable attention to the reasons for his staunch defense of the Soviet monopoly of foreign trade. There is also careful treatment of Krasin's ideology of a technological utopia--a socialist technocracy--in Soviet Russia.
In 1813, Sievers was appointed chief engineer of the main Russian army, as well
as chef of the newly established Sapper Regiment on 1 March 1813. He took part
in the battles at Bautzen, Lutzen, and Dresden, and commanded the siege ...
Author: Alexander Mikaberidze
Publisher: Savas Beatie
Presented here, for the first time in any language, are more than 800 detailed biographies of the senior Russian officers who commanded troops in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, together with 440 b&x portraits. This amazing study spans the critical years of 1792 to 1815, but also includes those officers whose service fell before and after this period. Dr. Mikaberidze's The Russian Officer Corps is based upon years of research in Russian archives. Each biography includes the subjects place of birth, family history, educational background, a detailed description of his military service, his awards and promotions, wounds, transfers, commands, and other related information, including the date and place of his death and internment, if known. In addition to the biographies is an introductory chapter setting forth in meticulous detail the organization of the Russian military, how it was trained, the educational and cultural background of the officer corps, its awards and their history and meaning, and much more. This outstanding overview is supported and enhanced by three dozen charts, tables, and graphics that illustrate the rich history of the Russian officer corps. This study also includes a Foreword by Dr. Donald H. Horward, and an annotated bibliography to help guide students of the period through the available Russian sources. Stunning in its scope and depth of coverage, The Russian Officer Corps will be of tremendous use to historians, scholars, genealogists, hobbyists, wargamers, and anyone working or studying late 18th and early 19th-century European history. Every student of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as well as every academic library, will find this impressive reference work absolutely indispensable. Serious readers of this momentous period of history cannot afford to be without this exceptional reference work. About the Author: Alexander Mikaberidze is an assistant professor of history at Mississippi State University. He holds a law degree from the Republic of Georgia and a Ph.D. in history from Florida State University, where he worked at the Institute on Napoleon and the French Revolution. He serves as president of the Napoleonic Society of Georgia. In addition to his numerous articles on various Napoleonic-related topics, Dr. Mikaberidze's publications include a biography of Napoleon in Georgian, two volumes on the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812, and the forthcoming Lion of the Russian Army: Life and Career of General Peter Bagration
Within a year , yet another innovation seemed to the traditionalists to challenge
everything they valued about zemstvo medicine : this was a new approach to
sanitary reform called sanitary engineering . ( Russians called it the " sanitary ...
Author: John F. Hutchinson
Publisher: Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press
" What these women witnessed and experienced, and what they were moved to describe, is part of the extraordinary portrait of life in revolutionary Russia presented in this book.
Author: Sheila Fitzpatrick
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Asked shortly after the revolution about how she viewed the new government, Tatiana Varsher replied, "With the wide-open eyes of a historian." Her countrywoman, Zinaida Zhemchuzhnaia, expressed a similar need to take note: "I want to write about the way those events were perceived and reflected in the humble and distant corner of Russia that was the Cossack town of Korenovskaia." What these women witnessed and experienced, and what they were moved to describe, is part of the extraordinary portrait of life in revolutionary Russia presented in this book. A collection of life stories of Russian women in the first half of the twentieth century, In the Shadow of Revolution brings together the testimony of Soviet citizens and émigrés, intellectuals of aristocratic birth and Soviet milkmaids, housewives and engineers, Bolshevik activists and dedicated opponents of the Soviet regime. In literary memoirs, oral interviews, personal dossiers, public speeches, and letters to the editor, these women document their diverse experience of the upheavals that reshaped Russia in the first half of this century. As is characteristic of twentieth-century Russian women's autobiographies, these life stories take their structure not so much from private events like childbirth or marriage as from great public events. Accordingly the collection is structured around the events these women see as touchstones: the Revolution of 1917 and the Civil War of 1918-20; the switch to the New Economic Policy in the 1920s and collectivization; and the Stalinist society of the 1930s, including the Great Terror. Edited by two preeminent historians of Russia and the Soviet Union, the volume includes introductions that investigate the social historical context of these women's lives as well as the structure of their autobiographical narratives.
When Lincoln Steffens visited revolutionary Russia in 1919, he was mightily
impressed. “I have been over into the future," he said to a friend, “and it works."
Whatever else can be said about the Soviet system today, it does not appear to
Author: Samuel C. Florman
Publisher: St. Martin's Griffin
Category: Technology & Engineering
Civil engineer Samuel C. Florman's The Civilized Engineer is aimed at both those observing and commenting externally on engineering, and the practicing engineer—to reveal something of the art behind great engineering achievements, and to stimulate debate upon the author's hypothesis that "in its moment of ascendance, engineering is faced with the trivialization of its purpose and the debasement of its practice."
Release on 1990 | by University of Toronto. Centre for Russian and East European Studies
Centre for Russian and East European Studies Susan Gross Solomon, John F.
Hutchinson. sanitary reforms . The new bureau , headed by an engineer and
employing geologists , hydrographers , and sanitary engineers , would carry out ...
Author: University of Toronto. Centre for Russian and East European Studies
But when Rumer agreed to work as an "engineer for Soviet power," he was sent
to work in the so-called Tupolevskaia sharaga — the system of special camps for
scientists and engineers involved in secret defense work94 — in a series of ...
Author: Paul R. Josephson
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Aided by personal documents and institutional archives that were closed for decades, this book recounts the development of physics—or, more aptly, science under stress—in Soviet Russia up to World War II. Focusing on Leningrad, center of Soviet physics until the late 1930s, Josephson discusses the impact of scientific, cultural, and political revolution on physicists' research and professional aspirations. Political and social revolution in Russia threatened to confound the scientific revolution. Physicists eager to investigate new concepts of space, energy, light, and motion were forced to accommodate dialectical materialism and subordinate their interests to those of the state. They ultimately faced Stalinist purges and the shift of physics leadership to Moscow. This account of scientists cut off from their Western colleagues reveals a little-known part of the history of modern physics.
For example the artist as engineer in revolutionary Russia was in fact a functional
and aesthetic necessity, whereas the constructivist engineering aesthetics forty
years later in the era of monopoly necessarily functions merely as art.
Author: Alexander Alberro
Publisher: MIT Press
"Compared to other avant-garde movements that emerged in the 1960s, conceptual art has received relatively little serious attention by art historians and critics of the past twenty-five years - in part because of the difficult, intellectual nature of the art." "This anthology collects for the first time the key historical documents that helped give definition and purpose to the movement. It also contains more recent memoirs by participants, as well as critical histories of the period by some of today's leading artists and art historians. A good portion of the exchange between artists, critics, and theorists took place in difficult-to-find limited-edition catalogs, small journals, and private correspondence. These influential documents are gathered here for the first time, along with a number of previously unpublished essays and interviews."--Contracubierta.
Release on 1986 | by Victor Jakovlevich Vinocuroff
... published in 1908 , makes the hero redeem the mistakes of his youth through
his inspired work as an engineer ; and Alexandr Isaevich Solzhenitsyn in his
latest work2 makes engineers the most positive people in pre - revolutionary Russia .
IV . sian Revolution was menaced by armed forces . He says : “ In case of
intervention in Russia ( against a revolutionary Russia ) then indeed the cry of
Vaillant , ' rather insurrection than war , ' would find an echo in every country . ”
This case ...
144 pp . Principles of scientific organization of labour of production workers , engineers , technicians and office workers . ... A symposium of 17 fundamental
works , published in pre - revolutionary Russia and in foreign editions in 1910–
45 on ...
A section on Russian engineering educatior by Mr. B. L. Goodlet comes next, in
which the history of Russian scientific ... French military schools were disbanded
as both pupils and teachers were suspected of counter-revolutionary tendencies.
As a result , Russian science and engineering , like other fields of Rus - sian
activity - agriculture , industry , transport ... of them who were engaged in revolutionary activities were opposed to the proletarian direction of the Russian Revolution .
As a result , Russian science and engineering , like other fields of Russian
activity - agriculture , industry , transport - suffered much during the catastrophic
years of revolution and civil war . The anxieties of the Russian scientists and engineers ...
Release on 1944 | by Research Bureau for Post-War Economics
Russia during the heyday of German - Russian economic collaboration prior to
the rise of Hitler to power in 1933 . ... methods rather than the west European
serial methods in which most pre - revolutionary Russian engineers were skilled .
It takes engineering skill to design. Et Cetera by Jon ... The other one , dated
November 7 , 1917 , ( or October 25 on the pre - revolutionary Russian calendar )
was labeled a red - herring and promptly discarded . The number of articles
Her father was in the Imperial Russian Baltic Navy, and was often sent on
missions abroad. ... He had been trained as a mechanical engineer and that was
quite a new discipline in those days because the fleet had onlyjust been
transferred to ...
Author: Anna Horsbrugh-Porter
Preserving the childhood memories of some of the last generation of White Russian women to experience the revolution first-hand, this poignant collection of interviews and photographs provides a unique record of life in Russia.