English Mechanic and World of Science

With which are Incorporated "the Mechanic", "Scientific Opinion," and the "British and Foreign Mechanic."

English Mechanic and World of Science


Continuum Mechanics Through the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Historical Perspectives from John Bernoulli (1727) to Ernst Hellinger (1914)

Continuum Mechanics Through the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Conceived as a series of more or less autonomous essays, the present book critically exposes the initial developments of continuum thermo-mechanics in a post Newtonian period extending from the creative works of the Bernoullis to the First World war, i.e., roughly during first the “Age of reason” and next the “Birth of the modern world”. The emphasis is rightly placed on the original contributions from the “Continental” scientists (the Bernoulli family, Euler, d’Alembert, Lagrange, Cauchy, Piola, Duhamel, Neumann, Clebsch, Kirchhoff, Helmholtz, Saint-Venant, Boussinesq, the Cosserat brothers, Caratheodory) in competition with their British peers (Green, Kelvin, Stokes, Maxwell, Rayleigh, Love,..). It underlines the main breakthroughs as well as the secondary ones. It highlights the role of scientists who left essential prints in this history of scientific ideas. The book shows how the formidable developments that blossomed in the twentieth century (and perused in a previous book of the author in the same Springer Series: “Continuum Mechanics through the Twentieth Century”, Springer 2013) found rich compost in the constructive foundational achievements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The pre-WWI situation is well summarized by a thorough analysis of treatises (Appell, Hellinger) published at that time. English translations by the author of most critical texts in French or German are given to the benefit of the readers.

The Science of Mechanics

The Science of Mechanics

THE SCIENCE OF MECHANICS A CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF ITS DEVELOPMENT DR. ERNST MACH PROFESSOR OF TE HISTORY AND THEORY OF INDUCTIVE SCIENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN BY THOMAS J. McCORMACK VITir TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY CUTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS FOURTH EDITION CHICAGO LONDON THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 1919 PROFESSOR ERXST MACH IS S-lOKi TRANSLATORS PREFACE TO THE SECOND ENGLISH EDITION. SINCE the appearance of the first edition of the present translation of Machs Mechanics, the views which Professor Mach has advanced on the philoso phy of science have found wide and steadily increas ing acceptance. Many fruitful and elucidative con troversies have sprung from his discussions of the historical, logical, and psychological foundations of physical science, and in consideration of the great ideal success which his works have latterly met with in Continental Europe, the time seems ripe for a still wider dissemination of his views in English-speaking countries. The study of the history and theory of science is finding fuller and fuller recognition In our universities, and it Is to be hoped that the present ex emplary treatment of the simplest and most typical branch of physics will stimulate further progress in this direction, The text of the present edition, which contains the extensive additions made by the author to the Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwickelung historisch-kritisch dargesiellt. Von Dr. Ernst Mach, Professor an der Universitat zu Wien. Mit 257 Abbildungen. First German edition, 1883. Fourth German edition, 1901. First edition of the English translation, Chicago, The Open Court Publishing Co., 1893. vi TRANS LA TOR S PREFA CM. latest Germaneditions, has been thoroughly revised by the translator. All errors, either of substance or typography, so far as they have come to the trans lators notice, have been removed, and in many cases the phraseology has been altered. The sub-title of the work has, in compliance with certain criticisms, also been changed, to accord more with the wording of the original title and to bring out the idea that the work treats of the principles of mechanics predomi nantly under the aspect of their development Entwicke lung. To avoid confusion in the matter of references, the main title stands as in the first edition. The authors additions, which are considerable, have been relegated to the Appendix. This course has been deemed preferable to that of incorporating them in the text, first, because the numerous refer ences in other works to the pages of the first edition thus hold good for the present edition also, and sec ondly, because with few exceptions the additions are either supplementary in character, or in answer to criticisms. A list of the subjects treated in these ad ditions is given in the Table of Contents, under the heading Appendix on page xix. Special reference, however, must be made to the additions referring to Hertzs Mechanics pp. 548-555, and to the history of the development of Professor Machs own philosophical and scientific views, notably to his criticisms of the concepts of mass, inertia, ab solute motion, etc., on pp. 542-547, 555574, and 579 TJtANSLA TORS PREFA CE. vii - 583. The remarks here made will be found highly elucidative, while the references given to the rich lit erature dealing with the history and philosophy of science will also be found helpful. As for the rest, the text of the present edition of the translation is the same as that of the first. It has had the sanction of the author and the advantage of revision by Mr. C. S. Peirce, well known for his studies both of analytical mechanics and of the his tory and logic of physics. Mr. Peirce read the proofs of the first edition and rewrote Sec. 8 in the chapter on Units and Measures, where the original was in applicable to the system commonly taught in this county. THOMAS J. McCoRMACK. LA SALLE, ILL., February, 1902. AUTHORS PREFACE TO THE TRANS LATION...

Machines as the Measure of Men

Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance

Machines as the Measure of Men

Over the past five centuries, advances in Western understanding of and control over the material world have strongly influenced European responses to non-Western peoples and cultures. In Machines as the Measure of Men, Michael Adas explores the ways in which European perceptions of their scientific and technological superiority shaped their interactions with people overseas. Adopting a broad, comparative perspective, he analyzes European responses to the cultures of sub-Saharan Africa, India, and China, cultures that they judged to represent lower levels of material mastery and social organization. Beginning with the early decades of overseas expansion in the sixteenth century, Adas traces the impact of scientific and technological advances on European attitudes toward Asians and Africans and on their policies for dealing with colonized societies. He concentrates on British and French thinking in the nineteenth century, when, he maintains, scientific and technological measures of human worth played a critical role in shaping arguments for the notion of racial supremacy and the "civilizing mission" ideology which were used to justify Europe's domination of the globe. Finally, he examines the reasons why many Europeans grew dissatisfied with and even rejected this gauge of human worth after World War I, and explains why it has remained important to Americans. Showing how the scientific and industrial revolutions contributed to the development of European imperialist ideologies, Machines as the Measure of Men highlights the cultural factors that have nurtured disdain for non-Western accomplishments and value systems. It also indicates how these attitudes, in shaping policies that restricted the diffusion of scientific knowledge, have perpetuated themselves, and contributed significantly to chronic underdevelopment throughout the developing world. Adas's far-reaching and provocative book will be compelling reading for all who are concerned about the history of Western imperialism and its legacies. First published to wide acclaim in 1989, Machines as the Measure of Men is now available in a new edition that features a preface by the author that discusses how subsequent developments in gender and race studies, as well as global technology and politics, enter into conversation with his original arguments.

A History and Philosophy of Fluid Mechanics

A History and Philosophy of Fluid Mechanics

Through the centuries, the intricacies of fluid mechanics — the study of the laws of motion and fluids in motion — have occupied many of history's greatest minds. In this pioneering account, a distinguished aeronautical scientist presents a history of fluid mechanics focusing on the achievements of the pioneering scientists and thinkers whose inspirations and experiments lay behind the evolution of such disparate devices as irrigation lifts, ocean liners, windmills, fireworks and spacecraft. The author first presents the basics of fluid mechanics, then explores the advances made through the work of such gifted thinkers as Plato, Aristotle, da Vinci, Galileo, Pascal, Newton, Bernoulli, Euler, Lagrange, Ernst Mach and other scientists of the 20th century. Especially important for its illuminating comparison of the development of fluid mechanics in the former Soviet Union with that in the West, the book concludes with studies of transsonic compressibility and aerodynamics, supersonic fluid mechanics, hypersonic gas dynamics and the universal matter-energy continuity. Professor G. A. Tokaty has headed the prestigious Aeronautical Research Laboratory at the Zhukovsky Academy of Aeronautics in Moscow, and has taught at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is Emeritus Professor of Aeronautics and Space Technology, The City University, London. 161 illustrations. Preface.

Mechanics and Mathematics of Crystals

Selected Papers of J. L. Ericksen

Mechanics and Mathematics of Crystals

This book is a unique and comprehensive collection of pioneeringcontributions to the mechanics of crystals by J L Ericksen, aprominent and leading contributor to the study of the mechanics andmathematics of crystalline solids over the past 35 years.