Explaining the Evidence

One recurring theme is the triumph of explaining over evaluating: while we are adept at generating models to explain evidence, we are less capable at evaluating these models against the evidence. We can reason from evidence, ...

Explaining the Evidence

This book explores how we investigate the world and make sense of complex evidence, revealing both our strengths and flaws.

Evidence Explained

Thus, Evidence Explained has two principal uses: it provides citation models for most historical sources especially original materials not covered by classic citation guides such as The Chicago Manual of Style.

Evidence Explained

Evidence Explained is a guide to the citation and analysis of historical sources. It begins with a simple question: Why do we invest so much of our energy into the citation of sources? Followed by the answer: Because all sources are not created equal. As a citation guide, Evidence Explained is built on this simple question and answer. According to the author, there are no historical resources we can trust at face value. Records simply offer evidence, and their assertions may or may not be true. To decide what actually happened, we must understand those records. To analyze that evidence and judge what to believe, we also need particular facts about those records. Thus, Evidence Explained has two principal uses: it provides citation models for most historical sources especially original materials not covered by classic citation guides such as The Chicago Manual of Style. Beyond that it can help us understand each type of record and identify each in such detail that we and our readers will know not only where to go to find our source, but, equally important, the nature of that source so that the evidence can be better interpreted and the accuracy of our conclusions properly appraised. Covers all contemporary and electronic sources not discussed in traditional style manuals, including digital, audio, and video sources. Explains citation principals and includes more than 1,000 citation models for virtually every source type. Shows readers where to go to find their sources and how to describe them and evaluate them. Teaches readers to separate facts from assertions and theory from proof in the evaluation of evidence. Most importantly, Evidence Explained discusses source citations for every known class of records, including microfilm and microfiche, and records created by the new digital media.

Explaining Individual Differences in Reading

In this volume, the authors of 11 chapters report on a wide array of current research topics, examining the scope, limits and implications of a phonological theory. The chapters are organized in four sections.

Explaining Individual Differences in Reading

Research into reading development and reading disabilities has been dominated by phonologically guided theories for several decades. In this volume, the authors of 11 chapters report on a wide array of current research topics, examining the scope, limits and implications of a phonological theory. The chapters are organized in four sections. The first concerns the nature of the relations between script and speech that make reading possible, considering how different theories of phonology may illuminate the implication of these relations for reading development and skill. The second set of chapters focuses on phonological factors in reading acquisition that pertain to early language development, effects of dialect, the role of instruction, and orthographic learning. The third section identifies factors beyond the phonological that may influence success in learning to read by examining cognitive limitations that are sometimes co-morbid with reading disabilities, contrasting the profiles of specific language impairment and dyslexia, and considering the impact of particular languages and orthographies on language acquisition. Finally, in the fourth section, behavioral-genetic and neurological methods are used to further develop explanations of reading differences and early literacy development. The volume is an essential resource for researchers interested in the cognitive foundations of reading and literacy, language and communication disorders, or psycholinguistics; and those working in reading disabilities, learning disabilities, special education, and the teaching of reading.

Legal Knowledge and Information Systems

(Saarbr ̈ucken/Wadern, Germany), pp. 315–332, Schloss Dagstuhl, 2013. N. Pennington and R. Hastie, “Explaining the evidence: Tests of the story model for juror decision making,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 62, no.

Legal Knowledge and Information Systems

In the same way that it has become part of all our lives, computer technology is now integral to the work of the legal profession. The JURIX Foundation has been organizing annual international conferences in the area of computer science and law since 1988, and continues to support cutting-edge research and applications at the interface between law and computer technology. This book contains the 16 full papers and 6 short papers presented at the 26th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (JURIX 2013), held in December 2013 in Bologna, Italy. The papers cover a wide range of research topics and application areas concerning the advanced management of legal information and knowledge, including computational techniques for: classifying and extracting information from, and detecting conflicts in, regulatory texts; modeling legal argumentation and representing case narratives; improving the retrieval of legal information and extracting information from legal case texts; conducting e-discovery; and, applications involving intellectual property and IP licensing, online dispute resolution, delivering legal aid to the public and organizing the administration of local law and regulations. The book will be of interest to all those associated with the legal profession whose work involves the use of computer technology.

Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Louisiana

of defendant , were stolen by him , may be overcome by evidence explaining the possession ; any such evidence legitimately tending to explain the possession should be received and considered . " He throws the burden of proof on ...

Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Louisiana


An Index of the Cases Overruled Reversed Denied Doubted Modified Limited Explained and Distinguished by the Courts of America England and Ireland

1 Greenleaf , Evidence , $ 397 . Greenman v . Pattison , 8 Blackf . 465 ( 1847 ) . See Charleston Gas Light Co. v . Charles- Overruled . Thompson v . Davis , 29 Ind . ton , 9 Rich . 342 , 351 ( 1856 ) . 264 , 266 ( 1868 ) .

An Index of the Cases Overruled  Reversed  Denied  Doubted  Modified  Limited  Explained  and Distinguished by the Courts of America  England  and Ireland


Explaining Coalitions

This is a Ph.D. dissertation.

Explaining Coalitions

This is a Ph.D. dissertation. Why do Social Democratic parties and Conservative parties only align in a government coalition on very rare occasions? Why are minority governments more common in some parliamentary systems rather than others? Why do some par

Rape Trials in England and Wales

41(5) rules about rebutting or explaining prosecution evidence. This was interpreted so widely that Section 41 was effectively undermined, even where the aim of the evidence was to impugn the survivor's character, which is strongly ...

Rape Trials in England and Wales

In light of ongoing concerns about the treatment of survivors, Rape Trials in England and Wales critically examines court responses to rape and sexual assault. Using new data from an in-depth observational study of rape trials, this book asks why attempts to improve survivor experiences at court have not been fully effective. In doing so, Smith identifies deep-rooted barriers to survivor justice and, crucially, introduces potential avenues for more effective reform. This book provides a comprehensive examination of the practicalities of court, use of rape myths and sexual history evidence, underlying principles of adversarial justice and the impact of inequalities embedded within English and Welsh legal culture. This engaging and highly significant study is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the criminal courts and their responses to rape, including practitioners and students of criminology, sociology, and law.

An Analytical Digest of the Law and Practice of the Courts of Common Law Divorce Probate Admiralty and Bankruptcy and of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal of England

162 ; 17 L. J. , Exch . 119 . and was taken to be so , and assented to as such by the parties ; parol evidence of the As to parol evidence explaining or varying terms of the contract is , therefore , admissible writing , -see this title ...

An Analytical Digest of the Law and Practice of the Courts of Common Law  Divorce  Probate  Admiralty and Bankruptcy  and of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal of England


Research Issues in Learning Disabilities

It is notuncommon among researchers and cliniciansto hear or read about someone explaining away evidence that runs counterto a particular theoretical position or clinical conclusion ...

Research Issues in Learning Disabilities

In this chapter, we described issues in conducting intervention research with students with learning disabilities on the secondary level. We main tained that interventions should be well-grounded in theories of learning as well as characterizations of learning disabilities (Pressley, Scruggs, & Mastropieri, 1989); that they should first be conducted in a series of highly controlled, laboratory-like experiments to carefully assess the potential utility of the intervention; and that, if the intervention is suc cessful in highly controlled settings, it should then be evaluated in class room applications. We maintained that research designs should evolve as the research questions become more applied, and that the results of laboratory research should be used to support the findings of classroom applications. Finally, we described several research designs that we have found useful in conducting classroom intervention research. There is a great deal more to conducting intervention research, of course, than experimental or quasi-experimental design. Intervention strategies likely to be effective must be identified, relevant literature must be reviewed, experimental materials must be developed, and cooperative schools, teachers, parents, and students must be located. Nevertheless, inadequate research designs can invalidate the best and most successful efforts in all of these areas, while effective and practical research designs can do much to document the best practices and advance our knowledge of effective interventions with students with learning disabilities. References Brigham, F. J. , Scruggs, T. E. , & Mastropieri, M. A. (1992).

Priorities for Health Promotion and Public Health

This is a core text for those studying health promotion or public health, and a supplementary text for students of healthcare and social care.

Priorities for Health Promotion and Public Health

Priorities for Health Promotion and Public Health brings together the evidence behind the UK’s public health priorities into one comprehensible textbook. Taking one theme per chapter, the book examines the social and environmental influences that shape people’s health; health inequalities; poverty and health; mental, emotional and spiritual health; sexual health; physical inactivity; diet; tobacco; alcohol; drugs; weight; cardiovascular disease; cancer; diabetes and dementia. The book takes a holistic approach, combining scientific and epidemiological evidence with the subjective experiences of those who undergo these health journeys. Each chapter explains the causes of poor health and the evidence behind the recommendations for good health and ends by demonstrating the health benefits of positive action. This is a core text for those studying health promotion or public health, and a supplementary text for students of healthcare and social care. The book focusses on adults’ health in the UK, with examples from the four nations, and provides some contextual international information where relevant. Priorities for Health Promotion and Public Health is an ideal companion for busy practitioners who work across the wider sectors that support people’s health and wellbeing. It is also an essential textbook for students new to health promotion and public health.

Assembly Bill

Hearsay evidence may be 37 used for the purpose of supplementing or explaining 38 other evidence but shall not be sufficient in itself to 39 support a finding unless it would be admissible over 40 objection in civil actions .

Assembly Bill


Explaining Resistance to Change

Jan Philipp Krugel examines the circumstances under which employees are more accepting of change with a laboratory experiment.

Explaining Resistance to Change

Many organisational changes fail because of resistance to change by employees. Changes require new ways of thinking, and the general uncertainty that surrounds them tends to make people uncomfortable. Jan Philipp Krugel examines the circumstances under which employees are more accepting of change with a laboratory experiment. His findings suggest that if employees are treated well by their employer in the first place, they are also more willing to help implement changes. The general uncertainty about the outcome of change, however, does not necessarily lead to strong resistance. Jan Philipp Krugel is currently working as a research assistant for the chair of behavioural economics at Helmut-Schmidt-University in Hamburg. His research focuses on experimental economics, game theory and behavioural economics.

West s Encyclopedia of American Law

BURDEN OF GOING FORWARD The onus on a party to refute or to explain evidence presented in a case . ... evidence of the defendant's possession of such goods , the defense bears the burden of refuting or explaining the evidence .

West s Encyclopedia of American Law

Provides current information on more than 5,000 legal topics. Includes completely revised articles covering important issues, biographies, definitions of legal terms and more. Covers such high-profile topics as the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, and physician-assisted suicide.

Reporting Elections

That involves being willing, more than at present, to weigh, interpret and explain the statistical evidence and, ... The BBC, the report added, 'needs to get better and braver in interpreting and explaining rival statistics and guiding ...

Reporting Elections

How elections are reported has important implications for the health of democracy and informed citizenship. But, how informative are the news media during campaigns? What kind of logic do they follow? How well do they serve citizens?e Based on original research as well as the most comprehensive assessment of election studies to date, Cushion and Thomas examine how campaigns are reported in many advanced Western democracies. In doing so, they engage with debates about the mediatization of politics, media systems, information environments, media ownership, regulation, political news, horserace journalism, objectivity, impartiality, agenda-setting, and the relationship between media and democracy more generally. Focusing on the most recent US and UK election campaigns, they consider how the logic of election coverage could be rethought in ways that better serve the democratic needs of citizens. Above all, they argue that election reporting should be driven by a public logic, where the agenda of voters takes centre stage in the campaign and the policies of respective political parties receive more airtime and independent scrutiny. The book is essential reading for scholars and students in political communication and journalism studies, political science, media and communication studies.

The Victorian Reports

... opportunity of explaining circumstances of a suspicious nature ] . The objection as to concealing the gas agreement is not sustained , there being no intention to defraud shown . The evidence does not support the other objections .

The Victorian Reports


Climates and Weather Explained

All such evidence needs careful evaluation. Most of the techniques listed in Table 15.3 are only indirect and inaccurate, and even instrument measurements before about 1900 warrant caution because of differences of equipment and site.

Climates and Weather Explained

Climates and Weather Explained is a comprehensive introduction to the study of the atmosphere integrating climatology and meteorology. Clear explanations of basic principles, concepts and processes are supported by a wealth of highly informative illustrations and a vast array of case studies demonstrating the relevance of weather and climate to everyday life. Focusing particularly on the Southern hemisphere the authors provide fresh insights into topical environmental concerns from global warming and natural hazards to sustainable global population. The textbook is supplemented by a unique interactive Student CD-ROM containing entirely additional material, for practical work and more advanced study. Closely related to each chapter of the book, the Student CD-ROM features: * Over 170 extra 'Notes', 40 illustrations and tables. * Multiple choice, self-assessment and practical exercises. * Extended glossary and key word searching * Hypertext presentation and extensive cross-referencing * A gallery of meteorological photographs in full colour A special Instructors' Resource Pack is also available containing an additional Instuctors'CD-ROM. For further information visit: website address here

Brief Making and the Use of Law Books

Deed, proof of circumstances attending execution to explain ambiguity. 3- 940. Letter, parol evidence of circumstances to prove genuineness of. 9-981. Wills, evidence of circumstances attending execution of, to show testator's intention ...

Brief Making and the Use of Law Books