Fiscal Aspects of Evolving Federations

Fiscal Aspects of Evolving Federations

These essays on the economics of fiscal federalism contains original research by experts in North America and Europe on a timely topic. Reform of fiscal relations between central and subnational governments is an urgent priority in many countries since increased economic integration within and among countries means that goods, services, capital, and human resources can flow across political boundaries more easily than before. The structure of intergovernmental transfers, tax competition, and the fiscal implications of labor migration are analyzed for audiences in economics, political science, and public policy.

Federations

The Political Dynamics of Cooperation

Federations

Why would states ever give up their independence to join federations? While federation can provide more wealth or security than self-sufficiency, states can in principle get those benefits more easily by cooperating through international organizations such as alliances or customs unions. Chad Rector develops a new theory that states federate when their leaders expect benefits from closer military or economic cooperation but also expect that cooperation via an international organization would put some of the states in a vulnerable position, open to extortion from their erstwhile partners. The potentially vulnerable states hold out, refusing to join alliances or customs unions, and only agreeing to military and economic cooperation under a federal constitution. Rector examines several historical cases: the making of a federal Australia and the eventual exclusion of New Zealand from the union, the decisions made within Buenos Aires and Prussia to build Argentina and Germany largely through federal contracts rather than conquests, and the failures of postindependence unions in East Africa and the Caribbean.

Compounded Representation in West European Federations

Compounded Representation in West European Federations

These papers resulted from a research project entitled "Federalism and Compounded Representation in Western Europe". They place analytical emphasis on theoretical and contextual issues of representation, and tend to analyze the complexities of representation within federal systems by focusing on issues of social identity, multiple territorial bases of governance, and policy-making institutions such as interest groups, corporatism, and the European Union. Specific countries examined include Germany, Austria and Spain.

Federalism beyond Federations

Asymmetry and Processes of Resymmetrisation in Europe

Federalism beyond Federations

Since the end of the Second World War, a set of democratic European countries have established a decentralized system of government based on federal or regional patterns. Some of these systems initially displayed an asymmetrical trend, however, some democracies have implemented a subsequent process of re-symmetrization that changes the structure and the legitimization of the previous political agreements. Charting the evolution of decentralization processes and asymmetries implemented in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Ukraine and the United Kingdom, leading international scholars illustrate which countries have evolved more symmetrically, why this is so and what the role of political actors in these processes have been. In doing so, each case study: – Examines the causes of the legal and constitutional asymmetries and the main political cleavages. – Analyses the main institutions, actors and factors that influence the political dynamics of the territorial debate. – Questions whether there is such a process of re-symmetrization – Presents the main actors in favour of the process of re-symmetrization and of maintaining the constitutional and legal asymmetries Written accessibly and contributing to key debates on federalism and asymmetry, Federalism beyond Federations appeals to academics, politicians, decision-makers and all those interested in the political problems facing modern democracies.

Multinational Federations

Multinational Federations

This is the first comparative volume available on multinational federations, bringing together an international range of experts on federalism. Multinational federations are federal states intended to provide a framework that can accommodate, manage and resolve some of the most intractable political conflicts of our time that emerge from identity politics: those that stem from competing national visions, whether within or between established states. Featuring key experts in the field such as Michael Burgess, Alain Gagnon and Ronald Watts, this unique book draws on a wide geographical range of country studies including Belgium, Canada, India, Malaysia, Spain, Russia, Cyprus, India, Switzerland and the EU in order to illustrate the pivotal relationship between federalism and nationalism. In so doing, it addresses the practical relevance of federalism to the new political recognition of difference and diversity in the specific form of national minoritarianism. Multinational Federations will be of strong interest to students and researchers of federalism, democracy and nationalism.

Recognition and Redistribution in Multinational Federations

Recognition and Redistribution in Multinational Federations

World’s leading theorists of multinational justice on sub-state national minority groups Almost without exception, multinational states across the West are facing existential crises precipitated by the resurgence of sub-state national minority groups. This edited volume brings together many of the world’s leading theorists of multinational justice in order to analyse two of the most frequent areas of debate and dispute in multinational federations: recognition and redistribution. The authors address questions such as the following: What are the most appropriate forms of institutional recognition for sub-state national groups? How is the concept of redistributive justice affected by the presence of federal institutions and autonomous sub-state nationalities? And what are the potential sources of stability that fractious federations can call upon? As well as extensive theoretical analyses, the book is peppered throughout with examples drawn from actual multinational states including Canada, Belgium, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Contributors Jean-François Grégoire (KU Leuven), Michael Jewkes (KU Leuven), Helder De Schutter (KU Leuven), Antoon Vandevelde (KU Leuven), Alain-G Gagnon (Université du Québec à Montréal), Geneviève Nootens (Université du Québec à Chicoutimi), Philippe Van Parijs (Université Catholique de Louvain), François Boucher (University of Montreal), Jocelyn Maclure (Université Laval), Andrew Shorten (University of Limerick), David Robichaud (University of Ottawa), Ferran Requejo (Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Marc Sanjaume (Université du Québec à Montréal).

Minority Nations in Multinational Federations

A comparative study of Quebec and Wallonia

Minority Nations in Multinational Federations

Multinational federations rest on the coexistence of two or more nations within a single polity. Within these federations, minority nations play a significant role as their character differs from the other building blocks of the federation. This edited volume offers a comprehensive comparison of two such minority nations - Quebec in Canada and Wallonia in Belgium - which exemplifies many dimensions, themes and issues highly resonant to the study of federalism and regionalism across the globe. Quebec and Wallonia have experienced several decades of federal dynamics where both regions have had to find their way as a minority nation in a multinational federation. For those studying federalism and regionalism their importance lies in a number of characteristics, but principally in the fact of these minority nations have transformed into mini-states with fully fledged legislative powers within their federation. This book seeks to study the specific dynamics within these small worlds and between them and the rest of the federation. This text will be of key interest to students and scholars of federalism, nationalism and regionalism, comparative politics and policies, political ideas and social movements.

Characterisation in Federations: Six Countries Compared

Characterisation in Federations: Six Countries Compared

In this work Dr. Taylor surveys the federal countries of the world and asks how they divide power among the constituent units of the federation. In so doing, he considers not only the formal constitutional text, but, far more importantly, the case law that has grown up around it as the Courts develop approaches to interpreting provisions for the distribution of powers. This enables conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of various structural and interpretative approaches to the distribution of powers within federations.