Fire and Polymers II

Presents approaches to increasing the effectiveness of flame retardancy in polymers.

Fire and Polymers II

Presents approaches to increasing the effectiveness of flame retardancy in polymers. Discusses non-halogen flame retardants, including phosphorus, metals, and metal compounds. Describes the use of char forming materials and the effects of surface changes on flammability. Provides a discussion on the state-of-the-art of smoke and toxicity issues. Reviews the latest tools and models for fire performance assessment. Examines regulation, corrosivity, recycling, environmental questions, and real scale performance assessment issues in the U.S. and Europe.

Fire and Polymers

This text represents the state of the art in the field of fire and polymers, with specific emphasis on non-halogen approaches to flame retardancy, including additives and intrinsically fire-retardant polymers (fire-smart polymers).

Fire and Polymers

This text represents the state of the art in the field of fire and polymers, with specific emphasis on non-halogen approaches to flame retardancy, including additives and intrinsically fire-retardant polymers (fire-smart polymers). It is divided into six sections: noncomposites, fire-smart polymers, polyurethanes, non-halogen (ecofriendly) flame retardants, halogen flame retardants and assessment and performance of flame retardant polymers.

Flame Retardant and Thermally Insulating Polymers

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.94880 References Developments in flame retardant textiles–a review, Polymer ... [13] G.L. Nelson, Fire and polymers—an overview, in Fire and Polymers II (G. L. Nelson, Ed.), ACS Symposium Series ...

Flame Retardant and Thermally Insulating Polymers

Polymers have infiltrated almost every aspect of modern technology, as they have wide applications ranging from building insulation and firefighter uniforms to the Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft and electronics packaging. However, common polymers are flammable. Inflammability and thermal insulation properties in polymers are important for specific applications. This book discusses recent advances in developing eco-friendly, flame-retardant, and thermally insulative polymer-based materials. It not only focuses on developments of high-performance flame retardants, but also examines flame retardant behaviors in polymers. Eco-friendly polymers with superior flame retardancy, extraordinary thermal insulation, and excellent mechanical strength will provide new opportunities for existing and future applications.

Fire Retardancy of Polymers

J. Q. Wang and H. B. Tu, “Proceedings of the 2nd Beijing International Symposium - Exhibition on Flame Retardants”, Beijing, China, 1993. 3. J. Wang, H. Tu and Q. Jiang, J. Fire Sci., 1995,13, 261. J. Q. Wang, “Fire & Polymers II, ...

Fire Retardancy of Polymers

Covers the following topics: Strategies; Intumescence: Mechanism studies; New intumescent polymetric materials; Flame retarded intumescent textiles; Intumescence - an environmentally friendly process?

Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

This is part of the important trend toward a safer environment and sets a pattern for future example.

Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

Flammability has been recognized as an increasingly important social and scientific problem. Fire statistics in the United States (Report of the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control, "America Burning," 1973) emphasized the vast devastation to life and property--12,OOO lives lost annually due to fire, and these deaths are usually caused by inhaling smoke or toxic gases; 300,000 fire injuries; 11.4 billion dollars in fire cost at which 2.7 billion dollars is related to property loss; a billion dollars to burn injury treatment; and 3.3 billion dollars in productivity loss. It is obvious that much human and economic misery can be attributed to fire situations. In relation to this, polymer flammability has been recognized as an in creasingly important social and scientific problem. The development of flame-retardant polymeric materials is a current example where the initia tive for major scientific and technological developments is motivated by sociological pressure and legislation. This is part of the important trend toward a safer environment and sets a pattern for future example. Flame retardancy deals with our basic everyday life situations-housing, work areas, transportation, clothing and so forth-the "macroenvironment" capsule within which "homosapiens" live. As a result, flame-retardant polymers are now emerging as a specific class of materials leading to new and diversified scientific and technological ventures.

Novel Fire Retardant Polymers and Composite Materials

Polym Degrad Stab 2009;94:145–50. 3. Nelson GL. Fire and polymers II. In: Nelson GL, editor. Fire and polymers: an overview. ACS Symposium Series, vol. 599. 1995. p. 1–28. [Chapter 1]. Bolger B. Flame retardant minerals.

Novel Fire Retardant Polymers and Composite Materials

Novel Fire Retardant Polymers and Composite Materials reviews the latest scientific developments and technological advances in the design and manufacture of fire retardant polymers and composite materials. Fire retardant polymeric materials are used in a broad range of applications in fields such as aviation, automotive, computer, construction, electronics, and telecommunications. It is essential to have a better understanding of the scientific technology used in the design and manufacture of fire-resistant materials and their end products. This book includes the latest developments in fire retardant technologies for different polymeric material systems, such as PU, PP, PE, PLA, epoxy, rubber, textile, phenol resin, and PA, etc. Provides cutting-edge research in flame retardant materials, relevant to both scientific and industrial applications Presents the latest and most up-to-date fire retardant technologies Discusses the most popular fire retardant polymer systems Includes the latest developments in fire retardant technologies for different polymeric material systems, such as PU, PP, PE, PLA, epoxy, rubber, textile, phenol resin, and PA

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

J. Fire Sci. 1995, 13, 104–126. 59. Weil, E.D.; Zhu, W. Some practical and theoretical aspects of melamine as a flame retardant, in: G.L. Gordon, Ed., Fire and Polymers II: Materials and Tests for Hazard Prevention.

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites takes a comprehensive look at polymer nanocomposites for flame retardancy applications and includes nanocomposite fundamentals (theory, design, synthesis, characterization) as well as polymer flammability fundamentals with emphasis on how nanocomposites affect flammability. The book has practical examples from literature, patents, and existing commercial products. Readers can design new work based upon the material in the book or use it as a handy reference for interpreting existing work and results.

Applied Polymer Science 21st Century

Knauss, D. M.; McGrath, J. E.; Kashiwagi, T. in "Fire and Polymers II: Materials and Tests for Hazard Prevention"; Nelson, G., Ed.; American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., 1995, Chap. 3. Howell, B. A.; Uhl, F. M, Liu, C.; Johnston, ...

Applied Polymer Science  21st Century

The 75th Anniversary Celebration of the Division of Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering of the American Chemical Society, in 1999 sparked this third edition of Applied Polymer Science with emphasis on the developments of the last few years and a serious look at the challenges and expectations of the 21st Century. This book is divided into six sections, each with an Associate Editor responsible for the contents with the group of Associate Editors acting as a board to interweave and interconnect various topics and to insure complete coverage. These areas represent both traditional areas and emerging areas, but always with coverage that is timely. The areas and associated chapters represent vistas where PMSE and its members have made and are continuing to make vital contributions. The authors are leaders in their fields and have graciously donated their efforts to encourage the scientists of the next 75 years to further contribute to the well being of the society in which we all live. Synthesis, characterization, and application are three of the legs that hold up a steady table. The fourth is creativity. Each of the three strong legs are present in this book with creativity present as the authors were asked to look forward in predicting areas in need of work and potential applications. The book begins with an introductory history chapter introducing readers to PMSE. The second chapter introduces the very basic science, terms and concepts critical to polymer science and technology. Sections two, three and four focus on application areas emphasizing emerging trends and applications. Section five emphasizes the essential areas of characterization. Section six contains chapters focusing of the synthesis of the materials.

Halogen Free Flame Retardant Polymers

Next-generation Fillers for Polymer Nanocomposite Applications Suprakas Sinha Ray, Malkappa Kuruma. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. ... 108, 1810–1817 (2008) G. Moroi, C. Ciobanu, Aspects of polyesterurethane interaction with metallic ions: II.

Halogen Free Flame Retardant Polymers

This book presents an overview of recent academic and industrial research efforts concerning halogen-free flame-retardant (FR) polymers and their nanocomposites. It summarizes the synthesis methods for various types of halogen-free FR polymers and their nanocomposites, and critically reviews their flame-retardant behavior, toxic-gas evolution during combustion, and inhibition methods. In turn, the book discusses the importance of metal oxide nanoparticles, nanoclay, and graphene in flame inhibition and addresses the FR properties of various FR compounds containing polymers, their FR mechanisms, and fire toxicant releasing and inhibition methods in detail. It systematically covers the synergetic effects between different FR compounds, and explains the significance of thermal stability and melt dripping for polymers’ FR properties. The fundamental concepts described here are essential to understanding the FR behaviors of various polymers and their nanocomposites, and to developing efficient, environmentally friendly FR polymers and nanocomposites for a wide range of applications. This book is ideally suited for researchers in the fields of polymer science and engineering, and for graduate students in chemistry and materials science.

Polymers in Construction

136 . G . L . Nelson in Fire and Polymers II : Materials and Tests for Hazard Prevention , Ed . , G . L . Nelson , ACS Symposium Series No . 599 , ACS , Washington , DC , USA , 1995 , 1 . 137 . A . Tewarson , Journal of Fire Sciences ...

Polymers in Construction

This book is a good basic guide to the polymers that are used in the construction industry. The types of polymers that can be used are discussed and specific applications are also covered. There is also a very comprehensive section on the health and safety aspects of using polymers in buildings.

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials

Study of the mechanism of intumescence in fire retardant polymers : Part II — Mechanism of action in polypropylene - ammonium polyphosphate - pentaerythritol mixtures . Polym Degrad Stabil 7 : 25-31 , 1984 . 9.

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials

This volume addresses the state of the art in fire retardancy studies and the need for fire retardant chemicals and fire-retarded polymers, while considering the interrelationship among polymer degradation, fire retardant efficacy, fire testing and environmental concerns. The work examines the principles of polymer science with respect to fire retardancy.

Modern Polymer Flame Retardancy

R.E. Lyon , Pyrolysis Kinetics of Char Forming Polymers , Polymer Degradation and Stability , 61 ( 2 ) , pp . 201-210 , ( 1998 ) . Hirshler M.M. , Smoke Corrosivity : Technical Issues and Testing . In Fire and Polymers II , Materials ...

Modern Polymer Flame Retardancy

There are obvious benefits in using flame-retardants, as many human lives and property are saved from fire. A large number of compounds have been identified as being used as flame-retardants. At present, knowledge of long-term effects resulting from exposure to flame retardants and their breakdown products is limited. The aim of this volume in the book series New Concepts in Polymer Science is to provide a general overview of the nature, mechanism of action, use and environmental hazards for a number of flame-retardants.This monograph (together with the book by the same authors, Ecological Aspects of Polymer Flame Retardancy (1999) will valuable to anyone interested in the field of flame-retardant chemicals.

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials Second Edition

More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth ...

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials  Second Edition

When dealing with challenges such as providing fire protection while considering cost, mechanical and thermal performance and simultaneously addressing increasing regulations that deal with composition of matter and life cycle issues, there are no quick, one-size-fits-all answers. Packed with comprehensive coverage, scientific approach, step-by-step directions, and a distillation of technical knowledge, the first edition of Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials broke new ground. It supplied a one-stop resource for the development of new fire safe materials. The editors have expanded the second edition to echo the multidisciplinary approach inherent in current flame retardancy technology and put it in a revised, more user-friendly format. More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth phenomena The book introduces flame retardants polymer-by-polymer, supplemented by a brief overview of mode of action and interaction, and all the other ancillary issues involved in this applied field of materials science. The book delineates what, why, and how to do it, covering the fundamentals of polymer burning/combustion and how to apply these systems and chemistries to specific materials classes. It also provides suggested formulations, discusses why certain materials are preferred for particular uses or applications, and offers a starting point from which to develop fire-safe materials.

Fire and Polymers IV

This book presents the state of the art of fire retardancy of polymers in 2005.

Fire and Polymers IV

This book presents the state of the art of fire retardancy of polymers in 2005. Authors are international leaders in the field. There is extensive coverage of the fire retardancy due to polymer nanocomposites as well as other important areas.

Practical Guide to Smoke and Combustion Products from Burning Polymers

V. Babrauskas and J.F. Krasny in Fire Safety, Science and Engineering, Ed., T.Z. Harmathy, ASTM STP 882, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 1985, p.268. M.M. Hirschler in Fire and Polymers II: Materials and Tests for Hazard Prevention, Ed., ...

Practical Guide to Smoke and Combustion Products from Burning Polymers

This Practical Guide presents one of the most complete overviews of this important topic, covering smoke generation (including obscuration, toxicity, corrosivity), small and large scale smoke assessment, regulation of smoke, and methods of controlling smoke by plastics formulation. In particular this book focuses on the assessment of fire hazard and fire risks from combustion products and is an important book for plastics processors, regulatory personnel, and fire research and safety engineers. This book presents a state of the art overview of smoke formation from natural and synthetic polymeric materials. Also presented is a discussion on why different commercial polymers have different intrinsic tendencies to generate smoke and ways in which smoke generation can be assessed. Mechanisms and general approaches for decreasing smoke formation are examined.This book also gives an overview of flammability tests for measuring smoke formation. In particular, the criticality of assessing smoke formation in realistic scale is discussed. An overview is provided of regulations, codes and standards for critical application of polymeric materials where smoke generation is controlled. Common commercial approaches to decrease smoke formation in specific polymer systems and for specific applications are also presented. Finally, a balanced opinion on the controversial issue of smoke and associated combustion gases is given.

Ecological Aspects of Polymer Flame Retardancy

In Fire and Polymers II , Materials and Tests for Hazard Prevention , G.L. Nelson , ( Ed . ) , ASC Symp . , 21-25 August 1994 , Washington DC , Chapter 34 , pp . 553-578 , ACS , Washington DC ( 1995 ) . 59.

Ecological Aspects of Polymer Flame Retardancy

The negative environmental impact of some industrial flame retardants containing halogens, heavy metals, etc. has kindled the investigation into new opportunities of polymer flame retardation with a view to ecological protection. This new title deals with the ecological aspects of polymer flame retardation. The book opens with an introduction, describing the ecological concern of flame retardation applications. This is followed by some general concepts of polymer combustion. Subsequent chapters deal with the most important methods for estimating polymer flammability, the mode of action of modern flame retardants, ecological concerns of the most used halogenated flame retardants. The final chapter contains suggestions for and studies of new, ecologically friendly types of flame retardants, such as low melting glass systems, polymer nanocomposites, polymer blends, organic char formers, and silicon-inorganic systems.

Properties and Behavior of Polymers 2 Volume Set

Fabrication process, scratch behavior, 2:1024—1025 Facilitated polymer transport, mechanisms, 2:1344—1345 Failure ... 2:860 Firepoint, solid polymer flammability, 1:488—493 Fire products collector, fire and flammability testing, ...

Properties and Behavior of Polymers  2 Volume Set

The book provides comprehensive, up-to-date information on the physical properties of polymers including, viscoelasticity, flammability, miscibility, optical properties, surface properties and more. Containing carefully selected reprints from the Wiley's renowned Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, this reference features the same breadth and quality of coverage and clarity of presentation found in the original.

Flammability Handbook for Plastics

Briber, A. A., "Fire Tests for Surface Flammability", Proceedings of the International Conference on Fire Safety, Vol. ... D. J., Alarie, Y.C., "A Method to Determine the Potential Toxicity of Smoke from Burning Polymers: II.

Flammability Handbook for Plastics

FROM THE INTRODUCTION "Considerable effort has gone into the study of various aspects of flammability and of various plastic materials, so that these materials which are proving so useful to man will always be used in ways which will not compromise his safety. The task is a continuing one, because the family of plastics continues to grow, and, a

Progress in Polymer Degradation and Stability Research

This was indeed observed by LOI , where pure silica and alumina exerted no flame retardancy enhancing , as opposed to kaolin , zeolites and the catalyst – all ... Fire and Polymers II : Materials and Tests for Hazard Prevention .

Progress in Polymer Degradation and Stability Research

Polymer degradation is a change in the properties -- tensile strength, colour, shape, etc -- of a polymer or polymer based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals. These changes may be undesirable, such as changes during use, or desirable, as in biodegradation or deliberately lowering the molecular weight of a polymer. Such changes occur primarily because of the effect of these factors on the chemical composition of the polymer. In a finished product such a change is to be prevented or delayed. However, the degradation process can be useful from the view points of understanding the structure of a polymer or recycling/reusing the polymer waste to prevent or reduce environmental pollution. Polymers molecules are very large on the molecular scale which derive their unique and useful properties from their size.