Fire Retardancy of Polymers

This book will appeal to professionals, materials scientists and engineers looking for novel ways to eliminate fire hazards and improve flame retardancy of materials, with a special interest in sustainable development.

Fire Retardancy of Polymers

The use of polymers is restricted by their flammability - they may indeed initiate or propagate fire. Fire Retardancy of Polymers focuses on mineral additives from either micro- or nano-composites for application in fire retardants. With the use of fire retardant additives containing halogen or phosphorus compounds in decline, the need for other systems is evident. The major materials that are used are alumina trihydrate or magnesium hydroxide which account for more than 50% by weight of the world-wide sales of fire retardants. Recent works have shown that such halogen-free compounds may give enhanced fire retardancy to polymeric materials when used in low levels, alone, or in synergistic mixtures. The corresponding fire performance depends on the dispersion of the mineral filler, with micrometer-scale dispersion leading to the best performances. Specialists discuss these new applications of mineral fillers with particular emphasis on action mechanisms, new materials including textiles, toxicology and hazards. With extensive references, this book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date view of these applications. This book will appeal to professionals, materials scientists and engineers looking for novel ways to eliminate fire hazards and improve flame retardancy of materials, with a special interest in sustainable development.

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials Second Edition

More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth ...

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials  Second Edition

When dealing with challenges such as providing fire protection while considering cost, mechanical and thermal performance and simultaneously addressing increasing regulations that deal with composition of matter and life cycle issues, there are no quick, one-size-fits-all answers. Packed with comprehensive coverage, scientific approach, step-by-step directions, and a distillation of technical knowledge, the first edition of Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials broke new ground. It supplied a one-stop resource for the development of new fire safe materials. The editors have expanded the second edition to echo the multidisciplinary approach inherent in current flame retardancy technology and put it in a revised, more user-friendly format. More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth phenomena The book introduces flame retardants polymer-by-polymer, supplemented by a brief overview of mode of action and interaction, and all the other ancillary issues involved in this applied field of materials science. The book delineates what, why, and how to do it, covering the fundamentals of polymer burning/combustion and how to apply these systems and chemistries to specific materials classes. It also provides suggested formulations, discusses why certain materials are preferred for particular uses or applications, and offers a starting point from which to develop fire-safe materials.

Fire Retardancy of Polymers

Covers the following topics: Strategies; Intumescence: Mechanism studies; New intumescent polymetric materials; Flame retarded intumescent textiles; Intumescence - an environmentally friendly process?

Fire Retardancy of Polymers

Covers the following topics: Strategies; Intumescence: Mechanism studies; New intumescent polymetric materials; Flame retarded intumescent textiles; Intumescence - an environmentally friendly process?

Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

This is part of the important trend toward a safer environment and sets a pattern for future example.

Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

Flammability has been recognized as an increasingly important social and scientific problem. Fire statistics in the United States (Report of the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control, "America Burning," 1973) emphasized the vast devastation to life and property--12,OOO lives lost annually due to fire, and these deaths are usually caused by inhaling smoke or toxic gases; 300,000 fire injuries; 11.4 billion dollars in fire cost at which 2.7 billion dollars is related to property loss; a billion dollars to burn injury treatment; and 3.3 billion dollars in productivity loss. It is obvious that much human and economic misery can be attributed to fire situations. In relation to this, polymer flammability has been recognized as an in creasingly important social and scientific problem. The development of flame-retardant polymeric materials is a current example where the initia tive for major scientific and technological developments is motivated by sociological pressure and legislation. This is part of the important trend toward a safer environment and sets a pattern for future example. Flame retardancy deals with our basic everyday life situations-housing, work areas, transportation, clothing and so forth-the "macroenvironment" capsule within which "homosapiens" live. As a result, flame-retardant polymers are now emerging as a specific class of materials leading to new and diversified scientific and technological ventures.

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials

This volume addresses the state of the art in fire retardancy studies and the need for fire retardant chemicals and fire-retarded polymers, while considering the interrelationship among polymer degradation, fire retardant efficacy, fire ...

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials

This volume addresses the state of the art in fire retardancy studies and the need for fire retardant chemicals and fire-retarded polymers, while considering the interrelationship among polymer degradation, fire retardant efficacy, fire testing and environmental concerns. The work examines the principles of polymer science with respect to fire retardancy.

Fire Retardancy of Polymers

This book covers the latest developments in new fire retardancy systems for engineers needing to use fire safe materials in their projects.

Fire Retardancy of Polymers

The latest developments in fire retardancy of polymeric materials, including new systems, formulations and test-methods are detailed in this book.

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials

More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth ...

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials


Towards Bio based Flame Retardant Polymers

Sustainable development has become a great concern in modern society.

Towards Bio based Flame Retardant Polymers

Sustainable development has become a great concern in modern society. The authors of this brief describe how one strategy to reach this objective is to replace oil-based materials with bio-based materials. They emphasize the great efforts that have been made to synthesize new bio-based polymers or additives or to replace glass fibers by natural fibers in composites. Flame retardancy is one of the most desired properties for many applications in wires and cables, building, transport, electric and electronic devices. The authors of this fascinating and timely brief summarize this important field in three parts. The flame retardancy of biobased polymers, the flame retardancy of natural fibers composites, and the synthesis and efficiency of biobased flame retardants.

Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

This is part of the important trend toward a safer environment and sets a pattern for future example.

Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

Flammability has been recognized as an increasingly important social and scientific problem. Fire statistics in the United States (Report of the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control. "America Burning:' 1973) emphasized the vast devastation to life and property--12.000 lives lost annually due to fire. and these deaths are usually caused by inhaling smoke or toxic gases: 300.000 fire injuries: 11.4 billion dollars in fire cost at which 2.7 billion dollars is related to property loss: a billion dollars to burn injury treatment: and 3.3 billion dollars in productivity loss. It is obvious that much human and economic misery can be attributed to fire situations. In relation to this. polymer flammability has been recognized as an in creasingly important social and scientific problem. The development of flame-retardant polymeric materials is a current example where the initia tive for major scientific and technological developments is motivated by sociological pressure and legislation. This is part of the important trend toward a safer environment and sets a pattern for future example. Flame retardancy deals with our basic everyday life situations-housing. work areas. transportation. clothing and so forth-the "macroenvironment" capsule within which "homosapiens" live. As a result. flame-retardant polymers are now emerging as a specific class of materials leading to new and diversified scientific and technological ventures.

Novel Fire Retardant Polymers and Composite Materials

This book includes the latest developments in fire retardant technologies for different polymeric material systems, such as PU, PP, PE, PLA, epoxy, rubber, textile, phenol resin, and PA, etc.

Novel Fire Retardant Polymers and Composite Materials

"Novel Fire Retardant Polymers and Composite Materials "reviews the latest scientific developments and technological advances in the design and manufacture of fire retardant polymers and composite materials. Fire retardant polymeric materials are used in a broad range of applications in fields such as aviation, automotive, computer, construction, electronics, and telecommunications. It is essential to have a better understanding of the scientific technology used in the design and manufacture of fire-resistant materials and their end products. This book includes the latest developments in fire retardant technologies for different polymeric material systems, such as PU, PP, PE, PLA, epoxy, rubber, textile, phenol resin, and PA, etc. Provides cutting-edge research in flame retardant materials, relevant to both scientific and industrial applicationsPresents the latest and most up-to-date fire retardant technologiesDiscusses the most popular fire retardant polymer systemsIncludes the latest developments in fire retardant technologies for different polymeric material systems, such as PU, PP, PE, PLA, epoxy, rubber, textile, phenol resin, and PA

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

The book has practical examples from literature, patents, and existing commercial products. Readers can design new work based upon the material in the book or use it as a handy reference for interpreting existing work and results.

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites takes a comprehensive look at polymer nanocomposites for flame retardancy applications and includes nanocomposite fundamentals (theory, design, synthesis, characterization) as well as polymer flammability fundamentals with emphasis on how nanocomposites affect flammability. The book has practical examples from literature, patents, and existing commercial products. Readers can design new work based upon the material in the book or use it as a handy reference for interpreting existing work and results.

Fire Retardant Materials

The book discusses the fundamental issues that determine whether or not a material is flammable and how flame retardancy may be conferred both mechanistically and by means of established flame retardant systems and explores emerging methods ...

Fire Retardant Materials

The editors and contributors provide a comprehensive source of information on all aspects of fire retardancy, emphasizing the burning behavior and flame retarding properties of polymetric materials. They combine combustion, flame retardants, smoke and toxic products and material-specific aspects of combustion in relation to textiles, composites, and bulk polymers. The contributors include the latest research in the nanocomposites, making it an essential source for anyone working with, studying, and developing fire retardant materials. The text considers material properties first; why materials may need to be fire retarded; how this may be undertaken; and the consequences. It highlights the juxtaposition of increased demands for safety and increased concerns about the risks to health and the environment caused by using flame retardants and fire retardant materials. The book discusses the fundamental issues that determine whether or not a material is flammable and how flame retardancy may be conferred both mechanistically and by means of established flame retardant systems and explores emerging methods and anticipated changes for performance-based tests.

Fire and Polymers V

This volume addresses recent advances in fire retardancy and examines progress that has been made in controlling fires.

Fire and Polymers V

This volume addresses recent advances in fire retardancy and examines progress that has been made in controlling fires.

Fire Retardancy Behavior of Polymer Clay Nanocomposites

M. Hirschler, Fire performance of organic polymers, thermal decomposition, and chemical composition. in Fire and Polymers: ... 1–30 M.M. Hirschler, Chemical aspects of thermal decomposition of polymeric materials, in Fire Retardancy Of ...

Fire Retardancy Behavior of Polymer Clay Nanocomposites

This thesis investigates the early ignition behavior of polymer/clay nanocomposites, which are perceived as potential eco-friendly flame retardant systems. It examines the correlation between clay structural chemistry and high-temperature transformations with clay-assisted decomposition of organic macromolecules. In particular, it investigates the unique effects of metal ions like Mg2+, Al3+ and Fe3+ that are inherent in clays (smectite) on the combustion and thermo-oxidative decomposition of polyamide 6. The results indicate that metal ions present on/in montmorillonite platelets have preferential reactivity towards peroxy/alkoxy groups during polyamide 6 thermal decomposition. Lastly, a simple solution in the form of a physical coating on clay surface is proposed, based on the role of polymer–clay interfacial interaction.

Advances in Fire Retardant Materials

This important book provides a comprehensive account of the advances that have occurred in fire science in relation to a broad range of materials.

Advances in Fire Retardant Materials

This important book provides a comprehensive account of the advances that have occurred in fire science in relation to a broad range of materials. The manufacture of fire retardant materials is an active area of research, the understanding of which can improve safety as well as the marketability of a product. The first part of the book reviews the advances that have occurred in improving the fire retardancy of specific materials, ranging from developments in phosphorus and halogen-free flame retardants to the use of nanocomposites as novel flame retardant systems. Key environmental issues are also addressed. The second group of chapters examines fire testing issues and regulations. A final group of chapters addresses the application of fire retardant materials in such areas as composites, automotive materials, military fabrics and aviation materials. With its distinguished editors and array of international contributors, this book is an essential reference for producers, manufacturers, retailers and all those wishing to improve fire retardancy in materials. It is also suitable for researchers in industry or academia. Reviews advances in improving the retardancy of materials Addresses key environmental issues Examines fire testing issues and regulations and the challenges involved

Modern Polymer Flame Retardancy

The aim of this volume in the book series New Concepts in Polymer Science is to provide a general overview of the nature, mechanism of action, use and environmental hazards for a number of flame-retardants.

Modern Polymer Flame Retardancy

There are obvious benefits in using flame-retardants, as many human lives and property are saved from fire. A large number of compounds have been identified as being used as flame-retardants. At present, knowledge of long-term effects resulting from exposure to flame retardants and their breakdown products is limited. The aim of this volume in the book series New Concepts in Polymer Science is to provide a general overview of the nature, mechanism of action, use and environmental hazards for a number of flame-retardants. This monograph (together with the book by the same authors, Ecological Aspects of Polymer Flame Retardancy (1999) will valuable to anyone interested in the field of flame-retardant chemicals.

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

Lewin, M. Physical and chemical mechanisms of flame retarding of polymers, in: M. Le Bras, G. Camino, S. Bourbigot, and R. Delobel, Eds., Fire Retardancy of Polymers: The Use of Intumescence. Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1998, ...

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites takes a comprehensive look at polymer nanocomposites for flame retardancy applications and includes nanocomposite fundamentals (theory, design, synthesis, characterization) as well as polymer flammability fundamentals with emphasis on how nanocomposites affect flammability. The book has practical examples from literature, patents, and existing commercial products. Readers can design new work based upon the material in the book or use it as a handy reference for interpreting existing work and results.