Black Pioneers of the North American Soccer League 1968 84

Ade Coker, fortunate to have played, black pioneer! ... (67 games, 12 assists) Totals: 95 games, 13 assists Englishman Clive Charles, a black pioneer who started his football career at the age of twelve in 1963 with West Ham United, ...

Black Pioneers of the North American Soccer League  1968 84

They are the Forgotten Figures! They came from Africa, the Caribbean, the Americas, and the United Kingdom and showed America how to play soccer. They exhibited highly technical skills of the game, taught the youths in communities across the USA and Canada, and were their role models. They crusaded the game’s uniqueness and its beauty. They were the black pioneers of the (original) North American Soccer League (1968–’84). Among them were the first MVPs of the league and the very first NASL Rookie of the Year; they were among the leading scorers and led their teams to NASL titles. In the process, they played a significant role in making the NASL a world-respected league, which led to the 1994 World Cup in the USA and now the successful MLS. Their efforts made soccer an American sport, and among them were Alberto, Archibald, Auguste, Best, Cannon, Charles, Coker, Cole, Cubillas, Cummings, David, De Leon, Eusebio, Evans, Fowles, Gamaldo, Grell, Horne, Horton, Ingram, Kapengwe, Knight, Lamptey, Largie, Lewis, Lichaba, Lindsay, Mathieu, Mfum, Mokgojoa, Motaung, Mwila, Ntsoelengoe, Odoi, Pearce, Phillips, Sanon, Scott, Sono, St. Lot, St. Vil, St. Vil, Steadman, Valentine, Welch, Welch, Whalen, and Pele. It all started with them; now they will be forgotten no more. This book is their tribute!

Fritz Pollard

Allan H. Spear , Black Chicago : The Making of a Negro Ghetto , 18901920 ( Chicago , 1967 ) ; and St. Clair Drake and ... Jack W. Berryman , “ Early Black Leadership in Collegiate Football : Massachusetts as a Pioneer , ” Historical ...

Fritz Pollard

This is the inspiring story of an African American whose athletic and entrepreneurial achievements -- from being the first black quarterback and head coach in the National Football League to founding one of the first all-black investment securities companies -- were equaled by his courage in confronting racial barriers.

African American Culture An Encyclopedia of People Traditions and Customs 3 volumes

The first black pioneer in white professional football was Charles Follis. From 1902 until 1906, Follis played running back for the Shelby, Ohio Athletic Club, where one of his teammates was Branch Rickey, who later, as president of the ...

African American Culture  An Encyclopedia of People  Traditions  and Customs  3 volumes

Covering everything from sports to art, religion, music, and entrepreneurship, this book documents the vast array of African American cultural expressions and discusses their impact on the culture of the United States. According to the latest census data, less than 13 percent of the U.S. population identifies as African American; African Americans are still very much a minority group. Yet African American cultural expression and strong influences from African American culture are common across mainstream American culture—in music, the arts, and entertainment; in education and religion; in sports; and in politics and business. African American Culture: An Encyclopedia of People, Traditions, and Customs covers virtually every aspect of African American cultural expression, addressing subject matter that ranges from how African culture was preserved during slavery hundreds of years ago to the richness and complexity of African American culture in the post-Obama era. The most comprehensive reference work on African American culture to date, the book covers topics such as black contributions to literature and the arts, music and entertainment, religion, and professional sports. It also provides coverage of less-commonly addressed subjects, such as African American fashion practices and beauty culture, the development of jazz music across different eras, and African American business. • Identifies influential aspects of African American culture through entries on topics such as African Americans in sports, in musical genres such as blues, gospel, hip hop, and jazz, and in religions such as Christianity, Islam, and Yoruba • Makes clear the numerous ways African Americans have produced, maintained, and evolved their culture in the United States • Enables readers to truly comprehend what "diversity" is by gaining substantive knowledge of how a particular group of persecuted people has learned to thrive artistically and culturally in the United States

Sports and Their Fans

J. Horrigan, “Charles Follis Led Early Black Pioneers in Pro Football,” Pro Football Hall of Fame, reprinted by author permission from the Pro Football ResearchersAssociation An- nual, accessed 26 December 2007 from http:// ...

Sports and Their Fans

Though Americans spend more than $25 billion a year on sports and sporting events, this book argues that the influence of sports on our lives is even more profound than this huge figure would seem to suggest. Exploring such topics as the role of sports in the creation of mass culture, cheating, the abuse of illegal drugs, the strange and fascinating role that numbers play in sporting events, and the future of spectator sport, this book surveys the outsized impact that sports have on American culture. The author draws from new work in such fields as history, economics, politics, sociology, psychology, and ethics to support his claims. Instructors considering this book for use in a course may request an examination copy here.

Bowled Over

[52] The typical reticence, even silence, in the coverage of SEC football's black pioneers was not possible in the face of this tragedy, and the eulogizing of Page, not surprisingly, pushed the “good Negro” to its limits.

Bowled Over

In this compellingly argued and deeply personal book, respected sports historian Michael Oriard--who was himself a former second-team All-American at Notre Dame--explores a wide range of trends that have changed the face of big-time college football and transformed the role of the student-athlete. Oriard considers such issues as the politicization of football in the 1960s and the implications of the integration of college football. The heart of the book examines a handful of decisions by the NCAA in the early seventies--to make freshmen eligible to play, to lower admission standards, and, most critically, to replace four-year athletic scholarships with one-year renewable scholarships--that helped transform student-athletes into athlete-students and turned the college game into a virtual farm league for professional football. Oriard then traces the subsequent history of the sport as it has tried to grapple with the fundamental contradiction of college football as both extracurricular activity and multi-billion-dollar mass entertainment. The relentless necessity to pursue revenue, Oriard argues, undermines attempts to maintain academic standards, and it fosters a football culture in which athletes are both excessively entitled and exploited .As a former college football player, Oriard brings a unique perspective to his topic, and his sympathies are always with the players and for the game. This original and compelling study will interest everyone concerned about the future of college football.

The Britannica Guide to Football

A separate and decidedly unequal black football world first emerged in the 1890s as part of the larger expansion of college ... FRiTz PoLLARD The routine indignities facing the black pioneers on 24 7 The Britannica Guide to Football 7.

The Britannica Guide to Football

Presents the history of football, describes the rules of the game, and profiles notable players and coaches from the National Football League throughout history.

Australia s Blackest Sporting Moments

"black bastard or black drunk or jackie or nigger boy" Lloyd McDermott Football's black pioneers maintain rage / Legends differ on how to deal with racist abuse. By JOHN MacDONALD. 3 May 1997 The Australian Aboriginal sporting pioneers ...

Australia s Blackest Sporting Moments

In this collection of incidents of racism in Australian sports, the author is honest in his condemnation of the offenders, sporting administrators and government officials who continue to deny that there is a problem of racism in sport.

Race and Sport

... career at Akron can best be followed in the Akron Beacon Journal, 1919–21. Also see Barry interview with Pollard, July 1970. 8. On African Americans in early professional football, see Joe Horrigan, “Follis Led Early Black Pioneers ...

Race and Sport

Even before the desegregation of the military and public education and before blacks had full legal access to voting, racial barriers had begun to fall in American sports. This collection of essays shows that for many African Americans it was the world of athletics that first opened an avenue to equality and democratic involvement. Race and Sport showcases African Americans as key figures making football, baseball, basketball, and boxing internationally popular, though inequalities still exist today. Among the early notables discussed is Fritz Pollard, an African American who played professional football before the National Football League established a controversial color barrier. Another, the boxer Sugar Ray Robinson, exemplifies the black American athlete as an international celebrity. African American women also played an important role in bringing down the barriers, especially in the early development of women's basketball. In baseball, both African American and Hispanic players faced down obstacles and entered the sports mainstream after World War II. One essay discusses the international spread of American imperialism through sport. Another shows how mass media images of African American athletes continue to shape public perceptions. Although each of these six essays explores a different facet of sports in America, together they comprise an analytical examination of African American society's tumultuous struggle for full participation both on and off the athletic field.

Replays Rivalries and Rumbles

The AAFC, along with the first United States Football League (USFL), which never materialized, also proclaimed that race ... of what Harding supposedly said over a montage of pictures of professional football's early black pioneers.

Replays  Rivalries  and Rumbles

What were the iconic sports moments of the last century? In Replays, Rivalries, and Rumbles , a team of sports aficionados climb onto their bar stools to address that never-solved but essential question. Triumphs and turning points, rivalries and record-setters ”each chapter tracks down the real story behind the epic moments and legendary careers sports fans love to debate. Topics include Abner Doubleday and the origins of baseball; the era-defining 1979 duel between Larry Bird and Magic Johnson; how Denver and Cleveland relive The Drive; the myths surrounding the Ali-Foreman Rumble in the Jungle; Billie Jean King's schooling of Bobby Riggs; the Miracle on Ice; and ESPN's conquest of the sports world. Filled with eye-opening lore and analysis, Replays, Rivalries, and Rumbles is an entertaining look at what we think we know about sports.

Pigskin

The number of black players in pro football increased—but very slowly—over the next several seasons. ... spotlight on the black pioneers in football, but they were besieged by the same vocal and physical abuse Robinson encountered.

Pigskin

If the National Football League is now a mammoth billion-dollar enterprise, it was certainly born into more humble circumstances. Indeed, it began in 1920 in an automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio, when a car dealer called together some owners of teams, mostly in the Midwest, to form a league. Unlike the lavish boardrooms in which NFL owners meet today, on this occasion the owners sat on the running boards of cars in the showroom and drank beer from buckets. A membership fee of $100 was set, but no one came up with any money. (As one of those present, George Halas, the legendary owner of the Chicago Bears, said, "I doubt that there was a hundred bucks in the room.") From such modest beginnings, pro football became far and away the most popular spectator sport in America. In Pigskin, Robert W. Peterson presents a lively and informative overview of the early years of pro football--from the late 1880s to the beginning of the television era. Peterson describes the colorful beginnings of the pro game and its outstanding teams (the Green Bay Packers, the New York Giants, the Chicago Bears, the Baltimore Colts), and the great games they played. Profiles of the most famous players of the era--including Pudge Heffelfinger (the first certifiable professional), Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, Bronko Nagurski, and Fritz Pollard (the NFL's first black star)--bring the history of the game to life. Peterson also takes us back to the roots of the pro game, showing how professionalism began when some stars for Yale, Harvard, and Princeton took money--under the table, of course--for their services to alma mater. By 1895, the money makers--still unacknowledged--had moved to amateur athletic associations in western Pennsylvania and subsequently into Ohio. After the NFL formed in 1920, pro football's popularity grew gradually but steadily. It burst into national prominence with the Bears-Redskins championship game of 1940. As one sportswriter put it: "The weather was perfect. So were the Bears." The final score was 73-0. Peterson shows how, after World War II, the newly-created All America Football Conference challenged the NFL. Though dominated by a gritty Cleveland team, the AAFC was never viewed by NFL teams as much of a threat. That is, not until 1950 when the two leagues merged, bringing about the Cleveland Browns-Philadelphia Eagles game in which the Browns buried the Eagles 35-10. An elegy to a time when, for many players, the game was at least as important as the money it brought them (which wasn't much), Pigskin takes readers up to the 1958 championship game when the Baltimore Colts beat the New York Giants in overtime. By that time, the great popularity of the game had moved from newspapers and radio to television, and pro football had finally arrived as a major sport.

Football s Most Wanted

nlike major-league baseball, professional football did not initially ban black athletes. ... The following ten athletes paved the way for future black stars. 1. ... 69 Football's Jackie Robinsons: African-American football pioneers.

Football s Most Wanted

In 1920, the University of Texas Longhorns ate their mascot at a postseason banquet. In 1940, Turk Edwards of the Washington Redskins suffered a career-ending knee injury during the pre-game coin toss. In 1969, Clive Rush was nearly electrocuted while being introduced as the new coach of the Boston Patriots. During the 1893 Army-Navy game, a general punched a heckling admiral and challenged him to a duel, which resulted in President Grover Cleveland suspending the game for six years. Football’s Most Wanted™ features the worst players, the most inept teams, the strangest plays, the most bizarre nicknames, the most fantastic finishes, the dirtiest players, the oddest injures, the greatest upsets, and the most boneheaded calls in both professional and college football. Many of these 700 anecdotes, arranged in 70 top-ten lists, are published here for the first time. Football’s Most Wanted™ features the worst players, the most inept teams, the strangest plays, the most bizarre nicknames, the most fantastic finishes, the dirtiest players, the oddest injures, the greatest upsets, and the most boneheaded calls in both professional and college football. Many of these 700 anecdotes, arranged in 70 top-ten lists, are published here for the first time.

Outside the Lines

who played football at white colleges, which were the recruiting grounds for professional teams. Beyond that, most black players had to achieve All-America status just to be considered by the pro teams.

Outside the Lines

Outside the Lines traces how sports laid a foundation for social change long before the judicial system formally recognized the inequalities of racial separation. Integrating sports teams to include white and black athletes alike, the National Football League served as a microcosmic fishbowl of the highs and lows, the trials and triumphs, of racial integration. Watching a football game on a Sunday evening, most sports fans do not realize the profound impact the National Football League had on the civil rights movement. Similarly, in a sport where seven out of ten players are black, few are fully aware of the history and contributions of their athletic forebears. Among the touchdowns and tackles lies a rich history of African American life and the struggle to achieve equal rights. Although the Supreme Court did not reverse their 1896 decision of "separate but equal" in the Plessy v Ferguson case until more than fifty years later, sports laid a foundation for social change long before our judicial system formally recognized the inequalities of racial separation. Integrating sports teams to include white and black athletes alike, the National Football League served as a microcosmic fishbowl of the highs and lows, the trials and triumphs, of racial integration. In this chronicle of black NFL athletes, Charles K. Ross has given us the story of the Jackie Robinsons of American football.

Football

African Americans ( Professional ) 5 FBS football programs had a black head the color barrier stretched across ... in which Afri- Other African American pioneers who can Americans were banned from Major predated the National Football ...

Football

"...provides a detailed look at America's pastime through the lens of pop culture, [an] A-to-Z inventory of how certain aspects of the game affect and reflect broader society."--from publisher description.

Duke Slater

Pioneering Black NFL Player and Judge Neal Rozendaal. Lahman, Sean. The Pro Football Historical Abstract: A Hardcore Fan's Guide to All-Time Player Rankings. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2008. Lamb, Dick, and Bert McGrane.

Duke Slater

Fred “Duke” Slater was the greatest African American football player of the first half of the 20th century. Born into poverty, he developed into a two-time All-American tackle at the University of Iowa from 1918 to 1921. When the College Football Hall of Fame opened decades later, Duke was the only African American elected in the inaugural class. He then became the first black lineman in National Football League history in 1922, embarking on a remarkable ten-year career in the NFL. Incredibly, Slater was the only African American in the entire NFL for most of the late 1920s, yet he was widely recognized as one of the League’s best linemen. But his pioneering influence extended beyond the gridiron. After retirement, he broke ground in the legal field as just the second black judge in Chicago history. On the field or on the bench, the inspirational life of Judge Duke Slater is a true American success story.

The Black Experience in America

A separate and decidedly unequal black football world first emerged in the 1890s as part Of the larger expansion Of ... The routine indignities facing the black pioneers on predominantly white teams and campuses became com— pounded when ...

The Black Experience in America

The outlawing of desegregation and attainment of equal rights facilitated a new era of possibility throughout American society. This book details the historic deeds that redefined the American landscape since the 1940s, examining the explosion of creativity that ensued in the areas of literature, music, and sports as African Americans explore new opportunities and prospects.

Africana

The first known African American to play professional football was running back Charles Follis, who signed with the ... Their presence in professional football owes much to the courage and fortitude of several early black pioneers.

Africana

In this newly expanded edition, more than 4,000 articles cover prominent African and African American individuals, events, trends, places, political movements, art forms, businesses, religions, ethnic groups, organizations, countries, and more.

Anti Racism in European Football

An award was presented to black pioneers to recognize their achievements in the face Of adversity—Cyrille Regis, Luther Blissett and Paul Elliott picked up this award. A second award was given to Chris Powell, Martin Keown and Darren ...

Anti Racism in European Football

European societies have long been tarnished by racial discrimination, and the game of football is no exception. With immigrants arriving from former colonies, European Union member-states, and third-world countries, integration in these two societies has been ascribed significance across the continent. Considering that the conduct of football fans in stadiums reflects_to a certain extent_society as a whole, this book examines the impact of racism upon the popular game. Anti-Racism in European Football provides a critical assessment of the campaigns and related policies of organizations that work to understand racism in football. It explores what has been achieved by the organizations' campaigns, the problems they encountered, and how these were overcome. In its focus on the work that anti-racism organizations carry out, this book's original contributions should appeal to professionals in football-related NGOs, and students and scholars working in social science fields related to racism and sport.

Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture 4 volumes

Two decades following the first college football game, William Henry Lewis and William Tecumseh Sherman, a running back, ... and attended law school during the 1920s, he was not the first black pioneer into white professional football.

Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture  4 volumes

This four-volume encyclopedia contains compelling and comprehensive information on African American popular culture that will be valuable to high school students and undergraduates, college instructors, researchers, and general readers. • Contains writings from 100 contributing authors, all identified in a separate listing • Includes a chronology placing pivotal events—such as the beginning of black baseball, the modern Civil Rights Movement, and the Harlem Renaissance—in historical context • Depicts key places, events, and people through photographs as well as words • Provides a list of black radio programs and movies

The Blizzard The Football Quarterly Issue Seven

In the first half of the twentieth century, when the community was predominantly a working-class one, several pioneers emerged. Like the black pioneers of the 1970s and 1980s they were held up as an example of integration.

The Blizzard   The Football Quarterly  Issue Seven

The Blizzard is a quarterly football publication, put together by a cooperative of journalists and authors, its main aim to provide a platform for top-class writers from across the globe to enjoy the space and the freedom to write what they like about the football stories that matter to them. Issue Seven Contents ---------------- El Dorado ---------------- * The Ball and the Gun, by Carl Worswick—After a political rival was murdered, the Colombian government set up the world's richest league * The Blond Giant, by Stany Sirutis—Among the influx of foreign players to El Dorado was the Lithuanian goalkeeper Vytausas Krisciunas ---------------- Interview ---------------- * Ivica Osim — The great Bosnian coach reflects on the war, Japan and Alan Mullery's lack of fair play ----------------------------- The Victorian Age ----------------------------- * The First Columnist, by Paul Brown—How an early journalist for the Northern Echo helped shape the modern game * Stiffy the Goalkeeper, by John Harding—Lazy, drunken and corruptible, the first footballing hero of the stage could hardly have been less heroic * Out with a League Team, by Henry Leach—A journalist, writing in 1900, describes his experiences travelling the country reporting on Notts County ------------ Theory ------------ * Don Leo's Odyssey, by Joachim Barbier—From Amsterdam to Madrid to Gaudalajara to Budapest, Leo Beenhakker has never stopped learning * The English Spaniard, by Philippe Auclair—Roberto Martínez discusses his conception of football and the difficulties of addapting to the dark nights of Lancashire ------------------------ The Vanishing ------------------------ * The Strange Disappearing of Leslie Goldberg, by Anthony Clavane—How the right back who became Les Gaunt encapsulated the experiences of many 1930s Jewish footballers * Ten Past Ten and Ten Pastis, by Gunnar Persson—Gunnar Andersson's journey from Marseille legend to homeless alcoholic * End of the Road, by Richard Winton—Gretna's rise was a romantic fairy tale, their collapse provides grimly real lessons for all of Scottish football * Safe as Houses, by Paolo Bandini—Espen Baardsen was a Norway international but at 25 he gave up football to work in finance ---------------- Polemics ---------------- * Breaking the Mould, by Zac Lee Rigg—Last year Johnny Saelua became the first transgender person to play in World Cup qualifying * In Arsene We Trust, by Zach Slaton—However frustrating this season, the numbers suggest Arsenal would be worse off without Arsene Wenger * Dictionary of Received Ideas, by Brian Phillips—A guide to what pundits really mean when they use certain terms * Follow the Money, by Elliot Turner—How Nicaragua's national stadium highlights the problems with Fifa's Goal project * The Third Party, by Sergio Levinsky—A tax avoidance scandal in Argentina could have ramifications across the globe ------------- Fiction ------------- * The Limping God, part 2, by David Ashton—His football career ended by injury, John Brodie's life is going nowhere until he is sucked into the world of crime --------------------------- Greatest Games --------------------------- * Lazio 4-2 Ipswich Town", by Dominic Bliss—Uefa Cup, second round, second leg, Stadio Olimpico, Rome, 7 November 1973 --------------------- Seven Bells --------------------- * Fouls and Fisticuffs, by Scott Murray—A selection of unsavoury incidents we're supposed to condemn

Race Ethnicity and Football

As one black pioneer Kopite put it, 'You belong more with your blackness than your Liverpool accent, because you don't have a sense of belonging to the framework defined by your accent' (cited in Hill 1989: 78).

Race  Ethnicity and Football

Elucidating the linkages between race, ethnicity, gender and masculinity in football, this volume addresses topics such as the experience of Muslim players, recruitment of African players, devolution and national identities, minority ethnic clubs, "mixed-race" players, sectarianism, and foreign club ownership.