Foundations for a Scientific Analysis of Value

Evidence of this is provided by the theory of value now presented in English translation, since no less a thinker than Rudolf Carnap had, originally at any rate, obeyed a very narrowly conceived criterion of sense and declared value ...

Foundations for a Scientific Analysis of Value

In English-speaking countries Victor Kraft is known principally for his account of the Vienna Circle. ! That group of thinkers has exercised in recent decades a significant influence not only on the philosophy of the western world, but also, at least indirectly, on that of the East, where there is now taking place a slow but clearly irresistible erosion of dogmatic Marxism by ways of think ing derived from a modem scientific conception of the world. Kraft's work as historian of the Vienna Circle has led to his being classed, without further qua1ification, as a neo-positivist philosopher. It is, however, only partially correct to count him as such. To be sure, he belonged to the group named, he took part in its meetings, and he drew from it suggestions central to his own work; but he did not belong to the hard core of the Circle and was a con scious opponent of certain radical tendencies espoused, at least from time to time, by some of its members. Evidence of this is provided by the theory of value now presented in English translation, since no less a thinker than Rudolf Carnap had, originally at any rate, obeyed a very narrowly conceived criterion of sense and declared value judgements to be senseless.

Science Rationality and Neoclassical Economics

But there have been very few studies that examine the theoretical foundations of the theory to determine whether the discipline needs a ... I also argue that any systematic study of economic behavior is necessarily value laden .

Science  Rationality  and Neoclassical Economics

This work examines the claim to scienific status made by supporters and practitioners of neoclassical economics. The approach taken is that of the history and philosophy of science. Analysis points to the conclusion that theories of economic choice are necessarily normative, essentially because of the nature of human behavior.

The Postmodern Significance of Max Weber s Legacy Disenchanting Disenchantment

In contrast to both positions, Weber argued that scientifically valid truth is expressed in the form of an objectively possible hypothesis—the validity of which can be established only after it is subject to further scientific analysis.

The Postmodern Significance of Max Weber   s Legacy  Disenchanting Disenchantment

One of Max Weber's contemporaries described him as 'a child of the Enlightenment born too late' whose work is a 'vitriolic attack on religion'. Subsequent Weber scholarship has largely affirmed this valuation of Weber and characterized his scholarship as a manifestation of the very disenchantment that Weber describes. In The Postmodern Significance of Max Weber's Legacy , Basit Koshul challenges this idea by showing Weber to be a postmodern thinker far ahead of his time.

Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports

Through a preliminary linear analysis , it is shown that the interface crack kinking ... a transition is observed between the value of the energetically most favorable kink angle predicted by the linear theory and a unique a ' nonlinear ...

Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports

Lists citations with abstracts for aerospace related reports obtained from world wide sources and announces documents that have recently been entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database.

Special behavioral studies foundations and corporations

As noted earlier , this study does not address such differences between foundation spending and that of the federal government : A dollar of health research support from either source is viewed the same . A more detailed examination of ...

Special behavioral studies  foundations  and corporations


Business Ethics as a Science

(Foundations of Economic Analysis, pp. 219–220) Samuelson approached welfare economics as a strictly positive science which explores the consequences of various value judgments without evaluating them. For Samuelson, value propositions ...

Business Ethics as a Science

The book considers how to make the methodology of business ethics more scientific, especially its normative branch. Storchevoy explores the attempts of economic theory to contribute to the scientific normative analysis of economic behavior, particularly the welfare economics of 1910-1950 and methodological discussions of economics and ethics from 1980-2015. He then examines the development of the methodological structure of business ethics in general since the 1980s and the scientific validity of normative business ethics, including stakeholder theory, the separation thesis, integral social contract theory, corporate social responsibility, virtue ethics and other frameworks. He concludes by suggesting an additional step to make business ethics a more systematic discipline by developing a typology of moral issues and dilemmas. Business Ethics as a Science will be a thought-provoking resource for students and practitioners of business ethics and economists alike.

Remaking Modernity

Weber argued that it would be analytically useful to begin all work by assuming instrumental micro - foundations . ... “ For the purposes of a typological scientific analysis it is convenient to treat all irrational , affectually ...

Remaking Modernity

DIVA sociology collection reviewing the state-of-historical-study in a wide range of areas while showcasing the use of poststructuralist approaches to studying family, gender, war, protest & revolution, state-making, social provisions, colonialism, trans/div

Earth Pressure

Research Area 315 “Conservation of historically significant structures” at the University of Karlsruhe, ... For example, the historical value of the Fleisch Bridge in Nuremberg (1596-1598) with its pile foundation (Lorenz & Kaiser, ...

Earth Pressure

The subject of earth pressure is one of the oldest and most extensive chapters in soil mechanics and foundation engineering and is one of the pillars of structural engineering. First the development of earth pressure theory is comprehensively described. The descriptions range from the first approaches to the determination of earth pressure through continuum mechanical earth pressure models to the integration of earth pressure research into the disciplinary structure of geotechnics. The main part of the book comprises a selection of current calculation basics. The aim is to provide a collection of working instructions for foundation and structural engineers in construction companies, consultants and in building supervision as well as students. In order to further theoretical understanding, the essential basics of the determination of earth pressure are first presented. Then the most important processes for active and passive earth pressure and at-rest earth pressure for practical application are dealt with, with spatial effects also being taken into account. The book sets out to provide brief information about rarely encountered questions with references to further literature. In recent years, the dependency of earth pressure on displacement has been paid ever more attention. This applies not just to the passive but also to the active case. Questions are repeatedly passed to the DIN committee "calculation processes". A selection of these is dealt with in the commentary to DIN 4085, which came out in September 2018. The history of earth pressure theory is supplemented by 40 selected short biographies of scientists and practical engineers, who have taken up the subject and further developed it over the years. The book also has two appendices with terms, formula symbols and indices as well as earth pressure tables.

Advances in Info Metrics

Howard, R.A. (1966). “Information Value Theory.” IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics, (SSC-2): 22–26. Jaynes,E.T.(1957a).“InformationTheoryandStatistical Mechanics.”PhysicsReview,106: 620–630. Jaynes, E. T. (1957b).

Advances in Info Metrics

Info-metrics is a framework for modeling, reasoning, and drawing inferences under conditions of noisy and insufficient information. It is an interdisciplinary framework situated at the intersection of information theory, statistical inference, and decision-making under uncertainty. In Advances in Info-Metrics, Min Chen, J. Michael Dunn, Amos Golan, and Aman Ullah bring together a group of thirty experts to expand the study of info-metrics across the sciences and demonstrate how to solve problems using this interdisciplinary framework. Building on the theoretical underpinnings of info-metrics, the volume sheds new light on statistical inference, information, and general problem solving. The book explores the basis of information-theoretic inference and its mathematical and philosophical foundations. It emphasizes the interrelationship between information and inference and includes explanations of model building, theory creation, estimation, prediction, and decision making. Each of the nineteen chapters provides the necessary tools for using the info-metrics framework to solve a problem. The collection covers recent developments in the field, as well as many new cross-disciplinary case studies and examples. Designed to be accessible for researchers, graduate students, and practitioners across disciplines, this book provides a clear, hands-on experience for readers interested in solving problems when presented with incomplete and imperfect information.

Value and Virtue in Public Administration

The logical foundation of constitutional democracy requires that generalizations be applied to the specificities of time and place exigencies. Local knowledge is a necessary complement to the generalities that accrue from scientific ...

Value and Virtue in Public Administration

The aim of this book is to clarify the ground on which public service scholars, practitioners and advisers stand in relation to values and virtues in public administration. It explores assumptions, the unspoken and unexamined things that are taken for granted in the field of serving the public good. Accordingly, Value and Virtue in Public Administration gives an account of the recent developments and progress in public sector management and public service. It describes the progress made in the discipline of public administration, in theories related to public administration and in the practice of public administration in tackling the questions surrounding values and virtues. These trends, descriptions, theories and comparisons make it possible to answer the question of how administrative ethics vary and what this variance depends upon. Featuring contributions from scholars in several different disciplines and in-depth case studies, the book concludes that under New Public Management instrumental values and consequential ethics have become dominant and more fundamental values have been neglected. -- Cover.

Methodological Prospects for Scientific Research

... of Sen's economics and method' reviewed foundations to build a virtue-ethics approach functionally based on plural values of ethical and social importance and incorporating ethical evaluation into standard economic analysis.

Methodological Prospects for Scientific Research


Modern Political Economics

To prove this point he honed his theory of value in order to demonstrate as a scientific truth that a boost in wages ... take it too far: when they dress up a particular political agenda as the unique conclusion of scientific analysis.

Modern Political Economics

Once in a while the world astonishes itself. Anxious incredulity replaces intellectual torpor and a puzzled public strains its antennae in every possible direction, desperately seeking explanations for the causes and nature of what just hit it. 2008 was such a moment. Not only did the financial system collapse, and send the real economy into a tailspin, but it also revealed the great gulf separating economics from a very real capitalism. Modern Political Economics has a single aim: To help readers make sense of how 2008 came about and what the post-2008 world has in store. The book is divided into two parts. The first part delves into every major economic theory, from Aristotle to the present, with a determination to discover clues of what went wrong in 2008. The main finding is that all economic theory is inherently flawed. Any system of ideas whose purpose is to describe capitalism in mathematical or engineering terms leads to inevitable logical inconsistency; an inherent error that stands between us and a decent grasp of capitalist reality. The only scientific truth about capitalism is its radical indeterminacy, a condition which makes it impossible to use science's tools (e.g. calculus and statistics) to second-guess it. The second part casts an attentive eye on the post-war era; on the breeding ground of the Crash of 2008. It distinguishes between two major post-war phases: The Global Plan (1947-1971) and the Global Minotaur (1971-2008). This dynamic new book delves into every major economic theory and maps out meticulously the trajectory that global capitalism followed from post-war almost centrally planned stability, to designed disintegration in the 1970s, to an intentional magnification of unsustainable imbalances in the 1980s and, finally, to the most spectacular privatisation of money in the 1990s and beyond. Modern Political Economics is essential reading for Economics students and anyone seeking a better understanding of the 2008 economic crash.

Methodology of Social Sciences

It was hoped thereby to raise economics to the status of an “ethical science” with empirical foundations. ... that value-judgments are to be withdrawn from scientific discussion in general simply because in the last analysis they rest ...

Methodology of Social Sciences

Max Weber wrote these methodological essays in the closest intimacy with actual research and against a background of constant and intensive meditation on substantive problems in the theory and strategy of the social sciences. They were written between 1903 and 1917, the most productive of Max Weber's life, when he was working on his studies in the sociology of religion and Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Weber had done important work in economic and legal history and had taught economic theory. On the basis of original investigations, he had acquired a specialist's knowledge of the details of German economic and social structure. His always vital concern for the political prosperity of Germany among the nations thrust him deeply into discussion of political ideals and programs. Weber's methodology still holds interest for us. Some of its shortcomings, from the contemporary viewpoint, may be attributed to the fact that some of the methodological problems that he treated could not be satisfactorily resolved prior to certain actual developments in research technique. These few qualifications aside, the work remains a pioneering work in large scale social research, from one of the field's masters.

Independent Offices and Department of Housing and Urban Development Appropriations

These developments place a heavy responsibility upon the Foundation to nurture fundamental research activities that ... In sociological sciences the demand for support of work on demographic problems , on the experimental study of ...

Independent Offices and Department of Housing and Urban Development Appropriations


Problems of Communism

It matter bluntly to oppose Marxian analysis with becomes impossible , consequently , to deduce “ sin- subjective ... The dialectic has to be viewed as opposed to scientific positivism , a system INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH , Mr. Gottheil ...

Problems of Communism


Resources in Education

Pub Type - Collected Works - General ( 020 ) — Speeches / Meeting Papers ( 150 ) EDRS Price – MF01 / PC01 Plus Postage . ... A Study of the Influence of the Theoretical Foundations of Human Resource Development on Research and Practice ...

Resources in Education


A History of Water in Modern England and Wales

It is clear from recent studies that the scientific analysis and conclusions utilised in a number of areas of water resource management were based on very shaky foundations in this period . Because the development of water policy ...

A History of Water in Modern England and Wales

Examines the changing way in which water has been used in England and Wales since the industrial revolution, through the Victorian period and up to the present day.

Philosophy in an Age of Science

judgment” it can't possibly be a [statement of ] “fact,” and a further presupposition of this is that value judgments are subjective ... But if we disagree about means, then scientific analysis can often help us resolve our differences.

Philosophy in an Age of Science

Hilary Putnam has at last paused from philosophizing to collect his papers for publication—his first volume in almost two decades. Contributing to a broad range of philosophical inquiry, Putnam has been said to represent a “history of recent philosophy in outline.” In this volume he suggests philosophy’s possible future, as well.

Thorstein Veblen

Hence Marx strayed from the narrow trail of scientific analysis appropriate to a mechanistic age and attained an ... social scientist to point out the ways in which the labor theory of value rests awkwardly on Ricardian foundations and ...

Thorstein Veblen

Fired by Stanford and the University of Chicago but recommended by his peers to the presidency of the American Economic Association, Thorstein Veblen remains a baffling figure in American intellectual history. In part because he was an eccentric who shunned publicity, he has also been one of our most neglected. Veblen is known to the general public only as coiner of the term "conspicuous consumption," and to scholars primarily as one of many social critics of the reform-minded Progressive Era. This important critical biography--originally published as The Bard of Savagery and now appearing in paperback for the first time--attempts both to unravel the riddles that surround his reputation and to assess his varied and important contributions to modern social theory.