Foundations of Real Time Computing Scheduling and Resource Management

This volume contains a selection of papers that focus on the state-of the-art in real-time scheduling and resource management.

Foundations of Real Time Computing  Scheduling and Resource Management

This volume contains a selection of papers that focus on the state-of the-art in real-time scheduling and resource management. Preliminary versions of these papers were presented at a workshop on the foundations of real-time computing sponsored by the Office of Naval Research in October, 1990 in Washington, D.C. A companion volume by the title Foundations of Real-Time Computing: Fonnal Specifications and Methods complements this book by addressing many of the most advanced approaches currently being investigated in the arena of formal specification and verification of real-time systems. Together, these two texts provide a comprehensive snapshot of current insights into the process of designing and building real-time computing systems on a scientific basis. Many of the papers in this book take care to define the notion of real-time system precisely, because it is often easy to misunderstand what is meant by that term. Different communities of researchers variously use the term real-time to refer to either very fast computing, or immediate on-line data acquisition, or deadline-driven computing. This text is concerned with the very difficult problems of scheduling tasks and resource management in computer systems whose performance is inextricably fused with the achievement of deadlines. Such systems have been enabled for a rapidly increasing set of diverse end-uses by the unremitting advances in computing power per constant-dollar cost and per constant-unit-volume of space. End-use applications of deadline-driven real-time computers span a spectrum that includes transportation systems, robotics and manufacturing, aerospace and defense, industrial process control, and telecommunications.

Foundations of Real Time Computing Scheduling and Resource Management

FOREWORD This volume contains a selection of papers that focus on the state-ofthe-art in real-time scheduling and resource management. Preliminary versions of these papers were presented at a workshop on the foundations of real-time ...

Foundations of Real Time Computing  Scheduling and Resource Management

This volume contains a selection of papers that focus on the state-of the-art in real-time scheduling and resource management. Preliminary versions of these papers were presented at a workshop on the foundations of real-time computing sponsored by the Office of Naval Research in October, 1990 in Washington, D.C. A companion volume by the title Foundations of Real-Time Computing: Fonnal Specifications and Methods complements this book by addressing many of the most advanced approaches currently being investigated in the arena of formal specification and verification of real-time systems. Together, these two texts provide a comprehensive snapshot of current insights into the process of designing and building real-time computing systems on a scientific basis. Many of the papers in this book take care to define the notion of real-time system precisely, because it is often easy to misunderstand what is meant by that term. Different communities of researchers variously use the term real-time to refer to either very fast computing, or immediate on-line data acquisition, or deadline-driven computing. This text is concerned with the very difficult problems of scheduling tasks and resource management in computer systems whose performance is inextricably fused with the achievement of deadlines. Such systems have been enabled for a rapidly increasing set of diverse end-uses by the unremitting advances in computing power per constant-dollar cost and per constant-unit-volume of space. End-use applications of deadline-driven real-time computers span a spectrum that includes transportation systems, robotics and manufacturing, aerospace and defense, industrial process control, and telecommunications.

Deadline Scheduling for Real Time Systems

John A. Stankovic HARD REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS: Predictable Scheduling Algorithms and Applications, by Giorgio C. ... ISBN: 0-7923-9167-5 FOUNDATIONS OF REAL-TIME COMPUTING: Scheduling and Resource Management, A. M. van Tilborg, ...

Deadline Scheduling for Real Time Systems

Many real-time systems rely on static scheduling algorithms. This includes cyclic scheduling, rate monotonic scheduling and fixed schedules created by off-line scheduling techniques such as dynamic programming, heuristic search, and simulated annealing. However, for many real-time systems, static scheduling algorithms are quite restrictive and inflexible. For example, highly automated agile manufacturing, command, control and communications, and distributed real-time multimedia applications all operate over long lifetimes and in highly non-deterministic environments. Dynamic real-time scheduling algorithms are more appropriate for these systems and are used in such systems. Many of these algorithms are based on earliest deadline first (EDF) policies. There exists a wealth of literature on EDF-based scheduling with many extensions to deal with sophisticated issues such as precedence constraints, resource requirements, system overload, multi-processors, and distributed systems. Deadline Scheduling for Real-Time Systems: EDF and Related Algorithms aims at collecting a significant body of knowledge on EDF scheduling for real-time systems, but it does not try to be all-inclusive (the literature is too extensive). The book primarily presents the algorithms and associated analysis, but guidelines, rules, and implementation considerations are also discussed, especially for the more complicated situations where mathematical analysis is difficult. In general, it is very difficult to codify and taxonomize scheduling knowledge because there are many performance metrics, task characteristics, and system configurations. Also, adding to the complexity is the fact that a variety of algorithms have been designed for different combinations of these considerations. In spite of the recent advances there are still gaps in the solution space and there is a need to integrate the available solutions. For example, a list of issues to consider includes: preemptive versus non-preemptive tasks, uni-processors versus multi-processors, using EDF at dispatch time versus EDF-based planning, precedence constraints among tasks, resource constraints, periodic versus aperiodic versus sporadic tasks, scheduling during overload, fault tolerance requirements, and providing guarantees and levels of guarantees (meeting quality of service requirements). Deadline Scheduling for Real-Time Systems: EDF and Related Algorithms should be of interest to researchers, real-time system designers, and instructors and students, either as a focussed course on deadline-based scheduling for real-time systems, or, more likely, as part of a more general course on real-time computing. The book serves as an invaluable reference in this fast-moving field.

Hard Real Time Computing Systems

Consulting Editor John A. Stankovic REAL-TIME SYSTEMS: Design Principles for Distributed Embedded Applications, ... ISBN: 0-7923-9167-5 FOUNDATIONS OF REAL-TIME COMPUTING: Scheduling and Resource Management, A. M. van Tilborg, ...

Hard Real Time Computing Systems

Real-time computing plays a crucial role in our society since an increasing num ber of complex systems rely, in part or completely, on processor control. Ex amples of applications that require real-time computing include nuclear power plants, railway switching systems, automotive electronics, air traffic control, telecommunications, robotics, and military systems. In spite of this large application domain, most of the current real-time systems are still designed and implemented using low-level programming and empirical techniques, without the support of a scientific methodology. This approach results in a lack of reliability, which in critical applications may cause serious environmental damage or even loss of life. This book is a basic treatise on real-time computing, with particular emphasis on predictable scheduling algorithms. The main objectives of the book are to introduce the basic concepts of real-time computing, illustrate the most sig nificant results in the field, and provide the basic methodologies for designing predictable computing systems useful in supporting critical control applica tions. The book is written for instructional use and is organized to enable readers without a strong knowledge of the subject matter to quickly grasp the material. Technical concepts are clearly defined at the beginning of each chapter, and algorithm descriptions are reinforced through concrete examples, illustrations, and tables.

Euro Par 99 Parallel Processing

In A.M. van Tilborg and G.M. Koob, editors, Foundations of Real-Time Computing: Scheduling and Resource Management, chapter 1, pages 1–30. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. [2] C. Douglass Locke. Software Architecture for Hard Real-Time ...

Euro Par    99 Parallel Processing

Euro-Parisaninternationalconferencededicatedtothepromotionandadvan- ment of all aspects of parallel computing. The major themes can be divided into the broad categories of hardware, software, algorithms and applications for p- allel computing. The objective of Euro-Par is to provide a forum within which to promote the development of parallel computing both as an industrial te- nique and an academic discipline, extending the frontier of both the state of the art and the state of the practice. This is particularly important at a time when parallel computing is undergoing strong and sustained development and experiencing real industrial take-up. The main audience for and participants in Euro-Parareseenasresearchersinacademicdepartments,governmentlabora- ries and industrial organisations. Euro-Par’s objective is to become the primary choice of such professionals for the presentation of new results in their specic areas. Euro-Par is also interested in applications which demonstrate the e - tiveness of the main Euro-Par themes. There is now a permanent Web site for the series http://brahms. fmi. uni-passau. de/cl/europar where the history of the conference is described. Euro-Par is now sponsored by the Association of Computer Machinery and the International Federation of Information Processing. Euro-Par’99 The format of Euro-Par’99follows that of the past four conferences and consists of a number of topics eachindividually monitored by a committee of four. There were originally 23 topics for this year’s conference. The call for papers attracted 343 submissions of which 188 were accepted. Of the papers accepted, 4 were judged as distinguished, 111 as regular and 73 as short papers.

Real Time Computing

Ramamritham, K. and J. Stankovic, Scheduling Results in the Spring Project, Chapter in Foundations in Real-Time Computing: Scheduling and Resource Management, editor Andre van Tilborg, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.

Real Time Computing

NATO's Division of Scientific and Environmental Affairs sponsored this Advan ced Study Institute because it was felt to be timely to cover this important and challengjng subject for the first time in the framework of NATO's ASI programme. The significance of real-time systems in everyones' life is rapidly growing. The vast spectrum of these systems can be characterised by just a few examples of increasing complexity: controllers in washing machines, air traffic control systems, control and safety systems of nuclear power plants and, finally, future military systems like the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). The import ance of such systems for the well-being of people requires considerable efforts in research and development of highly reliable real-time systems. Furthermore, the competitiveness and prosperity of entire nations now depend on the early app lication and efficient utilisation of computer integrated manufacturing systems (CIM), of which real-time systems are an essential and decisive part. Owing to its key significance in computerised defence systems, real-time computing has also a special importance for the Alliance. The early research and development activities in this field in the 1960s and 1970s aimed towards improving the then unsatisfactory software situation. Thus, the first high-level real-time languages were defined and developed: RTL/2, Coral 66, Procol, LTR, and PEARL. In close connection with these language develop ments and with the utilisation of special purpose process control peripherals, the research on real-time operating systems advanced considerably.

Event Triggered and Time Triggered Control Paradigms

Other books in this series: DEADLINE SCHEDULING FOR REAL-TIME SYSTEMS: EDF and Related Algorithms, John A. Stankovic, ... ISBN: 0-7923-9167-5 FOUNDATIONS OF REAL-TIME COMPUTING: Scheduling and Resource Management, A. M. van Tilborg, ...

Event Triggered and Time Triggered Control Paradigms

Event-Triggered and Time-Triggered Control Paradigms presents a valuable survey about existing architectures for safety-critical applications and discusses the issues that must be considered when moving from a federated to an integrated architecture. The book focuses on one key topic - the amalgamation of the event-triggered and the time-triggered control paradigm into a coherent integrated architecture. The architecture provides for the integration of independent distributed application subsystems by introducing multi-criticality nodes and virtual networks of known temporal properties. The feasibility and the tangible advantages of this new architecture are demonstrated with practical examples taken from the automotive industry. Event-Triggered and Time-Triggered Control Paradigms offers significant insights into the architecture and design of integrated embedded systems, both at the conceptual and at the practical level.

Handbook of Real Time and Embedded Systems

In IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium 2004, Lisbon, Portugal, Dec. 2004. 92. S. H. Son, Y. Lin, and R. P. Cook. Concurrency Control in Real-Time Database Systems. In Foundations of Real-Time Computing: Scheduling and Resource Management, ...

Handbook of Real Time and Embedded Systems

Real-time and embedded systems are essential to our lives, from controlling car engines and regulating traffic lights to monitoring plane takeoffs and landings to providing up-to-the-minute stock quotes. Bringing together researchers from both academia and industry, the Handbook of Real-Time and Embedded Systems provides comprehensive covera

Real time Systems Scheduling 1

[HER 07b] Hermant J., George L., “An optimal approach to determine the minimum architecture for realtime embedded systems ... Foundations of RealTime Computing: Scheduling and Resource Management, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.

Real time Systems Scheduling 1

Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications,including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is acentral problem for these computing/communication systems sinceresponsible of software execution in a timely manner. This bookprovides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis onthe key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advancesand findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references toimportant papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short andnot overloaded with confusing details. Coverage includes schedulingapproaches for mono-core as well as multi-core platforms, dependenttasks, networks, and notably very tremendous recent advances inscheduling of energy constrained embedded systems. Othersophisticated issues such as feedback control scheduling and timinganalysis of critical applications are also addressed. This volume can serve as a textbook for courses on the topic inbachelor and in more advanced master programs. It also provides areference for computer scientists and engineers involved in thedesign or the development of Cyber-Physical Systems which requireup-to-date real-time scheduling solutions.

Real Time Database and Information Systems Research Advances

THE KLUVVER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE REAL-TIME SYSTEMS Consulting Editor John A. Stankovic HARD ... FOUNDATIONS OF REAL-TIME COMPUTING: Scheduling and Resource Management, A. M. van Tilborg, G. M. Koob, ...

Real Time Database and Information Systems  Research Advances

Real-time systems are defined as those for which correctness depends not only on the logical properties of the produced results, but also on the temporal properties of these results. In a database, real-time means that in addition to typical logical consistency constraints, such as a constraint on a data item's value, there are constraints on when transactions execute and on the `freshness' of the data transactions access. The challenges and tradeoffs faced by the designers of real-time database systems are quite different from those faced by the designers of general-purpose database systems. To achieve the fundamental requirements of timeliness and predictability, not only do conventional methods for scheduling and transaction management have to be redesigned, but also new concepts that have not been considered in conventional database systems or in real-time systems need to be added. Real-Time Database and Information Systems: Research Advances is devoted to new techniques for scheduling of transactions, concurrency management, transaction logging, database languages, and new distributed database architectures. Real-Time Database and Information Systems: Research Advances is primarily intended for practicing engineers and researchers working in the growing area of real-time database and information retrieval systems. For practitioners, the book will provide a much needed bridge for technology transfer and continued education. For researchers, the book will provide a comprehensive reference for well-established results. The book can also be used in a senior or graduate level course on real-time systems, real-time database systems, and database systems, or closely related courses.

Real Time Systems

COMPUTER. SCIENCE. REAL-TIME. SYSTEMS. Consulting Editor John A. Stankovic FAULT-TOLERANT REAL-TIME SYSTEMS: The Problem ... ISBN: 0-7923-9167-5 FOUNDATIONS OF REAL-TIME COMPUTING: Scheduling and Resource Management, A. M. van Tilborg, ...

Real Time Systems

7. 6 Performance Comparison: ET versus TT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 7. 7 The Physical Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Points to Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Chapter 8: The Time-Triggered Protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 8. 1 Introduction to Time-Triggered Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 8. 2 Overview of the TTP/C Protocol Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 8. 3 TheBasic CNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Internal Operation of TTP/C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 8. 4 8. 5 TTP/A for Field Bus Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Review Questions and Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Chapter 9: Input/Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 9. 1 The Dual Role of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 9. 2 Agreement Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 9. 3 Sampling and Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 9. 4 Interrupts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 9. 5 Sensors and Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 9. 6 Physical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Bibliographic Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Chapter 10: Real-Time Operating Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 10. 1 Task Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 10. 2 Interprocess Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 10. 3 Time Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 10. 4 Error Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 10. 5 A Case Study: ERCOS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Bibliographic Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Review Questions and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Chapter 11: Real-Time Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 11. 1 The Scheduling Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 11. 2 The Adversary Argument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 11. 3 Dynamic Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 x TABLE OF CONTENTS 11. 4 Static Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Points to Remember. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Bibliographic Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Review Questions and Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Chapter 12: Validation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 12. 1 Building aConvincing Safety Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 12. 2 Formal Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 12. 3 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fault Tolerant Real Time Systems

RESPONSIVE COMPUTER SYSTEMS: Steps Toward Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems, by Donald Fussell and Miroslaw Malek, ... ISBN: 0-7923-9167-5 FOUNDATIONS OF REAL-TIME COMPUTING: Scheduling and Resource Management, A. M. van Tilborg, ...

Fault Tolerant Real Time Systems

Real-time computer systems are very often subject to dependability requirements because of their application areas. Fly-by-wire airplane control systems, control of power plants, industrial process control systems and others are required to continue their function despite faults. Fault-tolerance and real-time requirements thus constitute a kind of natural combination in process control applications. Systematic fault-tolerance is based on redundancy, which is used to mask failures of individual components. The problem of replica determinism is thereby to ensure that replicated components show consistent behavior in the absence of faults. It might seem trivial that, given an identical sequence of inputs, replicated computer systems will produce consistent outputs. Unfortunately, this is not the case. The problem of replica non-determinism and the presentation of its possible solutions is the subject of Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems: The Problem of Replica Determinism. The field of automotive electronics is an important application area of fault-tolerant real-time systems. Systems like anti-lock braking, engine control, active suspension or vehicle dynamics control have demanding real-time and fault-tolerance requirements. These requirements have to be met even in the presence of very limited resources since cost is extremely important. Because of its interesting properties Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems gives an introduction to the application area of automotive electronics. The requirements of automotive electronics are a topic of discussion in the remainder of this work and are used as a benchmark to evaluate solutions to the problem of replica determinism.

Embedded Microprocessor Systems

In Foundations of Real - Time Computing : Scheduling and Resource Management , A. M. van Tilborg & G. M. Koob eds . , Kluwer Academic Publishers , 1991 , pp . 1-30 . [ 11 ] C. L. Liu & J. W. Layland , " Scheduling Algorithms for ...

Embedded Microprocessor Systems

Embedded microprocessor systems are affecting our daily lives at a fast pace, mostly unrecognised by the general public. Most of us are aware of the part they are playing in increasing business efficiency through office applications such as personal computers, printers and copiers. Only a few people, however, fully appreciate the growing role of embedded systems in telecommunications and industrial environments, or even in everyday products like cars and home appliances. The challenge to engineers and managers is not only highlighted by the sheer size of the market, ' 1.5 billion microcontrollers and microprocessors are produced every year ' but also by the accelerating innovation in embedded systems towards higher complexity in hardware, software and tools as well as towards higher performance and lower consumption. To maintain competitiveness in this demanding environment, an optimum mix of innovation, time to market and system cost is required. Choosing the right options and strategies for products and companies is crucial and rarely obvious. In this book the editors have, therefore, skilfully brought together more than fifty contributions from some of the leading authorities in embedded systems. The papers are conveniently grouped in four sections.

Real Time Database Systems

COMPUTER. SCIENCE. REAL-TIME. SYSTEMS. Consulting. Editor. John A. Stankovic FAULT-TOLERANTREAL-TIME SYSTEMS: The Problem ... ISBN: 0-7923-9167-5 FOUNDATIONS OF REAL-TIME COMPUTING: Scheduling and Resource Management, A. M. van Tilborg, ...

Real Time Database Systems

Despite the growing interest in Real-Time Database Systems, there is no single book that acts as a reference to academics, professionals, and practitioners who wish to understand the issues involved in the design and development of RTDBS. Real-Time Database Systems: Issues and Applications fulfills this need. This book presents the spectrum of issues that may arise in various real-time database applications, the available solutions and technologies that may be used to address these issues, and the open problems that need to be tackled in the future. With rapid advances in this area, several concepts have been proposed without a widely accepted consensus on their definitions and implications. To address this need, the first chapter is an introduction to the key RTDBS concepts and definitions, which is followed by a survey of the state of the art in RTDBS research and practice. The remainder of the book consists of four sections: models and paradigms, applications and benchmarks, scheduling and concurrency control, and experimental systems. The chapters in each section are contributed by experts in the respective areas. Real-Time Database Systems: Issues and Applications is primarily intended for practicing engineers and researchers working in the growing area of real-time database systems. For practitioners, the book will provide a much needed bridge for technology transfer and continued education. For researchers, this book will provide a comprehensive reference for well-established results. This book can also be used in a senior or graduate level course on real-time systems, real-time database systems, and database systems or closely related courses.

Active and Real Time Database Systems ARTDB 95

In Andre van Tilborg and Gary M. Koob, editors, Foundations of Real-Time Computing - Scheduling and Resource Management, chapter 8. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. [34] C. D. Locke. Best-Effort Decision Making for Real-Time Scheduling ...

Active and Real Time Database Systems  ARTDB 95

The areas of active and real-time databases have seen a tremendous growth of interest in the past few years, particularly with regard to their support of time-critical and embedded applications. ARTDB-95 provided, therefore, an important forum for researchers from both communities to discuss research results, and also to chart new directions for the future. As well as the 11 submitted papers presented at the workshop, this volume also contains 4 invited papers on the following topics: the impact of active databases on commercial practice; the optimization of active database transactions; the need for better language, compiler and tool support for real-time databases; and the origin of time constraints associated with data, events and actions. Together the papers give a comprehensive overview of current research, and will provide invaluable reading for academic and industrial researchers and students at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.

A Practitioner s Handbook for Real Time Analysis

Guide to Rate Monotonic Analysis for Real-Time Systems Mark Klein, Thomas Ralya, Bill Pollak, Ray Obenza, Michael González Harbour ... Foundations of Real-Time Computing: Scheduling and Resource Management. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic ...

A Practitioner   s Handbook for Real Time Analysis

A Practitioner's Handbook for Real-Time Analysis: Guide to Rate Monotonic Analysis for Real-Time Systems contains an invaluable collection of quantitative methods that enable real-time system developers to understand, analyze, and predict the timing behavior of many real-time systems. The methods are practical and theoretically sound, and can be used to assess design tradeoffs and to troubleshoot system timing behavior. This collection of methods is called rate monotonic analysis (RMA). The Handbook includes a framework for describing and categorizing the timing aspects of real-time systems, step-by-step techniques for performing timing analysis, numerous examples of real-time situations to which the techniques can be applied, and two case studies. A Practitioner's Handbook for Real-Time Analysis: Guide to Rate Monotonic Analysis for Real-Time Systems has been created to serve as a definitive source of information and a guide for developers as they analyze and design real-time systems using RMA. The Handbook is an excellent reference, and may be used as the text for advanced courses on the subject.

Active Real Time and Temporal Database Systems

J. Stankovic, K. Ramamritham, and D. Towsley, Scheduling in Real-Time Transaction Systems, in Foundations of Real-Time Computing: Scheduling and Resource Management, edited by Andre van Tilborg ...

Active  Real Time  and Temporal Database Systems

Database systems of the next generation are likely to be inherently very complex due to the diversity of requirements placed on them. Incorporating active, real time, and temporal virtues in one database system is an arduous effort but is also a commend able one. This book presents the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Active, Real Time, and Temporal Database Systems (ARTDB 97), held in Como, Milan, in September 1997. The aim of the workshop was to bring researchers together from the active and real time research communities, and to examine the current state of the art in active, real time, and temporal database systems. This book offers a collection of papers presented at the ARTDB 97 workshop. The papers, many of them representing proficient and tenable results, illuminate the feasibility of building database system supporting reactive behavior, while enforcing timeliness and predictability. The book contains nine papers carefully reviewed and accepted by the program committee, three invited papers written by prominent researchers in the field, and two summaries of the panel discussions held at the workshop. The program committee received seventeen submissions, where each submission was reviewed by at least three program committee members. The two panel sessions focused on predictability issues and on practical experience of active, real time, and temporal database systems. The ARTDB 97 workshop was held in cooperation with the IEEE Technical Committees on Real Time Systems and Complexity in Computing, and the ACM Special Interest Group on Manipulation of Data.

Imprecise and Approximate Computation

... AND COMPUTER SCIENCE REAL-TIME SYSTEMS Consulting Editor John A. Stankovic FOUNDATIONS OF DEPENDABLE COMPUTING: System ... ISBN: 0-7923-9167-5 FOUNDATIONS OFREAL-TIME COMPUTING: Scheduling and Resource Management, A. M. van Tilborg, ...

Imprecise and Approximate Computation

Real-time systems are now used in a wide variety of applications. Conventionally, they were configured at design to perform a given set of tasks and could not readily adapt to dynamic situations. The concept of imprecise and approximate computation has emerged as a promising approach to providing scheduling flexibility and enhanced dependability in dynamic real-time systems. The concept can be utilized in a wide variety of applications, including signal processing, machine vision, databases, networking, etc. For those who wish to build dynamic real-time systems which must deal safely with resource unavailability while continuing to operate, leading to situations where computations may not be carried through to completion, the techniques of imprecise and approximate computation facilitate the generation of partial results that may enable the system to operate safely and avert catastrophe. Audience: Of special interest to researchers. May be used as a supplementary text in courses on real-time systems.

Real Time Concepts for Embedded Systems

Holt, Richard C. “Some Deadlock Properties of Computer Systems. ... “Priority Inheritance Protocols: An approach to real-time synchronization. ... Foundations of Real-Time Computing, Scheduling, and Resource Management.

Real Time Concepts for Embedded Systems

'... a very good balance between the theory and practice of real-time embedded system designs.' —Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino, Ph.D., Research Laboratory, Internet Initiative Japan Inc., IETF IPv6 Operations Working Group (v6ops) co-chair 'A cl