Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination

This book focuses on the processes widely used in industry, which include multistage flash desalination and reverse osmosis. Also, other desalination processes with attractive features and high potential are featured.

Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination

Industrial desalination of sea and brackish water is becoming an essential part in providing sustainable sources of fresh water for a larger number of communities around the world. Desalination is a main source of fresh water in the Gulf countries, a number of the Caribbean and Mediterranean Islands, and several municipalities in a large number of countries. As the industry expands there is a pressing need to have a clear and well-written textbook that focuses on desalination fundamentals and other industrial aspects. This book focuses on the processes widely used in industry, which include multistage flash desalination and reverse osmosis. Also, other desalination processes with attractive features and high potential are featured. It includes a large number of solved examples, which are explained in simple and careful matter that allow the reader to follow and understand the development. The data used in the development of the examples and case studies are extracted from existing desalination plants. This title also includes comparisons of model predictions against results reported in literature as well as available experimental and industrial data. Several industries include similar unit operation processes, i.e., evaporators, condensers, flashing units, membrane separation, and chemical treatment. Examples of such industries include wastewater treatment, food, petroleum, petrochemical, power generation, and pulp and paper. Process fundamentals and design procedures of such unit processes follow the same procedures given in this textbook.

COMMON FUNDAMENTALS AND UNIT OPERATIONS IN THERMAL DESALINATION SYSTEMS Volume II

These volumes are part of Encyclopedia of Water Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias.

COMMON FUNDAMENTALS AND UNIT OPERATIONS IN THERMAL DESALINATION SYSTEMS   Volume II

These volumes are part of Encyclopedia of Water Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The three volumes present state-of-the art subject matter of various aspects of Common Fundamentals and Unit Operations in Thermal Desalination Systems such as: Conventional Water Treatment Technologies; Guidelines for Potable Water Purification; Advanced Treatment Technologies for Recycle - Reuse of Domestic Wastewater; Composition of Desalinated Water; Crystallization; Deep Bed Filtration: Modeling Theory and Practice; Distillation ; Rectification; Flocculation and Flocculation Filtration; Hazardous Waste Treatment Technologies; Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration; Post-Treatment of Distillate and Permeate; Pre-Cleaning Measures: Filtration; Raw Water Pre-Treatment: Sludge Treatment Technologies; Supercritical Extraction; Potential for Industrial Wastewater Reuse; Treatment of Industrial Wastewater by Membrane Bioreactors; Unconventional Sources of Water Supply; Problem of Non-Condensable Gas Release in Evaporators; Entrainment in Evaporators; Mist Eliminators; Chemical Hazards in Seawater Desalination by the Multistage-Flash Evaporation Technique; Concentration of Liquid Foods; Environmental Impact of Seawater Desalination Plants; Environmental Impacts of Intakes and Out Falls; Industrial Ecology, Water Resources, and Desalination; Rural and Urban Water Supply and Sanitation; Sustainable Development, Water Supply and Sanitation Technology These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy and Decision Makers.

Advances in Water Desalination

The important topics explored in this volume are: Fundamentals of desalination analysis and design Environmental impacts of desalination technologies Economic aspects of water desalination Advances in hollow fiber reverse osmosis membrane ...

Advances in Water Desalination

Desalination is a dynamically growing field with more research, more engineering, more applications, more countries, more people, and with more training programs. This book provides high quality invited reviews on progress in various aspects of the desalination field. It features comprehensive coverage of desalination science, technology, economics, markets, energy considerations, environmental impact, and more. It is a key guide for professionals and researchers in water desalination and related areas including chemical, mechanical, and civil engineers, chemists, materials scientists, manufacturers of desalination membranes, water reuse engineers, and water authorities, as well as students in these fields.

Sustainable Design Through Process Integration

Optimal scheduling of biocide dosing for seawater-cooled power and desalination plants. J. Clean Technol. Environ. Policy. 13 (6), 783À796. Borsani, R., Rebagliati, S., 2005. Fundamentals and costing of MSF desalination plants and ...

Sustainable Design Through Process Integration

Sustainable Design through Process Integration: Fundamentals and Applications to Industrial Pollution Prevention, Resource Conservation, and Profitability Enhancement, Second Edition, is an important textbook that provides authoritative, comprehensive, and easy-to-follow coverage of the fundamental concepts and practical techniques on the use of process integration to maximize the efficiency and sustainability of industrial processes. The book is ideal for adoption in process design and sustainability courses. It is also a valuable guidebook to process, chemical, and environmental engineers who need to improve the design, operation, performance, and sustainability of industrial plants. The book covers pressing and high growth topics, including benchmarking process performance, identifying root causes of problems and opportunities for improvement, designing integrated solutions, enhancing profitability, conserving natural resources, and preventing pollution. Written by one of the world’s foremost authorities in integrated process design and sustainability, the new edition contains new chapters and updated materials on various aspects of process integration and sustainable design. The new edition is also packed with numerous new examples and industrial applications. Allows the reader to methodically develop rigorous targets that benchmark the performance of industrial processes then develop cost-effective implementations Contains state-of-the-art process integration and improvement approaches and techniques including graphical, algebraic, and mathematical methods Covers topics and applications that include profitability enhancement, mass and energy conservation, synthesis of innovative processes, retrofitting of existing systems, design and assessment of water, energy, and water-energy-nexus systems, and reconciliation of various sustainability objectives

Seawater Desalination

IDA, Int. Desalination Association, Worldwide Desalting Plants Inventory, 2006. 2. El-Dessouky, HT, and Ettouney, H.M., Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination, Elsevier, New York, USA, 2002. E. Curcio (IE) Department of Chemical ...

Seawater Desalination

A growing proportion of the world’s population is dependent on Seawater Desalination as a source of fresh water for both potable and civil use. One of the main drawbacks of conventional desalination technologies is the substantial energy requirement, which is facing cost increases in the global energy market. "Seawater Desalination" presents an overview of conventional and non-conventional technologies, with a particular focus on the coupling of renewable energies with desalination processes. The first section of this book presents, in a technical but reader-friendly way, an overview of currently-used desalination processes, from thermal to membrane processes, highlighting the relevant technical features, advantages and disadvantages, and development potential. It also gives a rapid insight into the economic aspects of fresh water production from seawater. The second section of the book presents novel processes which use Renewable Energies for fresh water production. From the first solar still evaporators, which artificially reproduced the natural cycle of water, technology has progressed to develop complex systems to harness energy from the sun, wind, tides, waves, etc. and then to use this energy to power conventional or novel desalination processes. Most of these processes are still at a preliminary stage of development, but some are already being cited as examples in remote areas, where they are proving to be valuable in solving the problems of water scarcity. A rapid growth in these technologies is foreseen in the coming years. This book provides a unique foundation, within the context of present and future sustainability, for professionals, technicians, managers, and private and public institutions operating in the area of fresh water supply.

Salt Water Purification

This introductory book is for newcomers to the field of desalting.

Salt Water Purification

This introductory book is for newcomers to the field of desalting. As a result of the development of arid regions, and also in the wake of intensive use of water in urban areas all over the world, fresh water is frequently not available in the quantities desired. In the last 20 years, great strides have been made in the development of the science and technology of water desalting. Statesmen, economists, scientists, and engineers must often make decisions relating to this field. Quite often such decisions involve the disposition of considerable amounts of energy and investment funds. It is hoped that this book will provide newcomers with sufficient background to appreciate the fundamentals involved, to understand the jargon of the "insiders," to guide them to the rich original multidisciplinary literature of this field, and to facilitate the first stages of further reading. Conversion of salt water into fresh water requires useful energy, i. e. , energy that could otherwise be used for mechanical or electrical work. Therefore, the problem of water desalting is intimately linked to power supply. A second, equally important factor in the economic balance is the availability and cost of equipment. The production of energy-efficient and reliable desalting plants requires considerable engi neering skill and usually a variety offairly sophisticated control devices.

Progress in Exergy Energy and the Environment

Accessed 25 Dec 2010 El-Dessouky T, Ettouney M (2002) Fundamentals of salt water desalination. Elsevier Science B.V. Khawaji A, Kutubkhanah I, Wie JM (2008) Advances in seawater desalination technologies. Desalination 221:47 Raluy R, ...

Progress in Exergy  Energy  and the Environment

This thorough and highly relevant volume examines exergy, energy and the environment in the context of energy systems and applications and as a potential tool for design, analysis, optimization. It further considers their role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing for sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered.

A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Desalination

“Multi-stage flash distillation-The first 10 years”, in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium On Fresh Water from the Sea, 191–206. Athens. Ettouney, H. M., and El-Dessouky, H. (2002). Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination.

A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Desalination

Although more than 70% of the globe is covered with water, only a small portion is suitable for direct human use, making the scarcity of freshwater one of our planet's most serious challenges. In this context, desalination, defined as "the separation of salts from water," is one of the possible solutions for appeasing our ever-increasing thirst. By drawing upon the expertise of a remarkable team of international authors, this book provides a simple, encompassing, and "multidisciplinary" introduction to desalination. The particular stregnth of this publication is its inclusive yet straightforward nature. In other words, the unique assortment of reader-friendly chapters is designed to cover the topic of desalination as a whole and strike a delicate balance between the technical and non-technical. To this end, the book is divided into five general sections: * The first section presents an overview of water scarcity, followed by a review of integrated water management and the alternatives to desalination. The fundamentals of desalination are also provided, including simple water chemistry. * The second section covers conventional desalination technologies, including thermal and membrane processes. The topics of pre- and post- treatment are given due credit, as all desalination plants are more or less reliant on them. * The third section reviews the history of how desalination technologies originated, including a review of today's R&D activities and cutting edge research. The topic of membrane manufacturing is also covered. * Section four is concerned with energy and environmental issues, including the application of renewable and nuclear energy, energy minimization, brine management, and environmental impacts. * Finally, section five covers the social and commercial issues, ranging from rural desalination to politics. Desalination costs and economic feasibility are discussed as well as issues in business development and future market prospects.

Low Grade Heat Driven Multi Effect Distillation and Desalination

[12] J.R. Hillamana, E. Baydoun, Overview of the roles of energy and water in addressing global food security, Int. J. Therm ... [22] H.T. El-Dessouky, H.M. Ettouney, Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination, Elsevier Science B.V., 2002.

Low Grade Heat Driven Multi Effect Distillation and Desalination

Low Grade Heat Driven Multi-effect Distillation and Desalination describes the development of advanced multi-effect evaporation technologies that are driven by low grade sensible heat, including process waste heat in refineries, heat rejection from diesel generators or microturbines, and solar and geothermal energy. The technologies discussed can be applied to desalination in remote areas, purifying produced water in oil-and-gas industries, and to re-concentrate process liquor in refineries. This book is ideal for researchers, engineering scientists, graduate students, and industrial practitioners working in the desalination, petrochemical, and mineral refining sectors, helping them further understand the technologies and opportunities that relate to their respective industries. For researchers and graduate students, the core enabling ideas in the book will provide insights and open up new horizons in thermal engineering. Focuses on advanced, yet practical, distillation technologies using low-grade sensible heat Explains the new design paradigm that must accompany the development of technologies Contains key experimental data that serves to prove the core concepts that underpin the new technologies Covers extensive thermo-economic analyses of the technologies, the price point for adoption, capital cost comparison with existing technologies, operating costs, and net present values

Water Management

Cogeneration applied to very high efficiency thermal seawater desalination plants. Desalination, 125, 203–208. Delene, J. G. and Ball, ... Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier Science.

Water Management

Exponential growth in population and improved standards of living demand increasing amount of freshwater and are putting serious strain on the quantity of naturally available freshwater worldwide. Water Management: Social and Technological Perspectives discusses developments in energy-efficient water production, management, wastewater treatment, and social and political aspects related to water management and re-use of treated water. It features a scientific and technological perspective to meeting current and future needs, discussing such technologies as membrane separation using reverse osmosis, the use of nanoparticles for adsorption of impurities from wastewater, and the use of thermal methods for desalination. The book also discusses increasing the efficiency of water usage in industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications to ensure a sustainable system of water production, usage, and recycling. With 30 chapters authored by internationally renowned experts, this work offers readers a comprehensive view of both social and technological outlooks to help solve this global issue.

Osmosis Engineering

[5] K. Park, J. Kim, D.R. Yang, S. Hong, Towards a low-energy seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant: a review and theoretical ... [15] H.T. El-Dessouky, H.M. Ettouney, Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination, Elsevier, 2002.

Osmosis Engineering

Osmosis Engineering provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art surrounding osmosis-based research and industrial applications. The book covers the underpinning theories, technology developments and commercial applications. Sections discuss innovative and advanced membranes and modules for osmosis separation processes (e.g., reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, pressure retarded osmosis, osmotic membrane distillation), different application of these osmosis separation processes for energy and water separation, such as the treatment of radioactive waste, oily wastewater and heavy metal removal, draw solutions, pretreatment technologies, fouling effects, the use of renewable energy driven osmotic processes, computational, environmental and economic studies, and more. Covers state-of-the-art osmotic engineering technologies and applications Presents multidisciplinary topics in engineered osmosis, including both fundamental and applied EO concepts Includes major challenges such as fouling mitigation, membrane development, pre-treatment and energy usage

Membrane Distillation in Desalination

Dahdah, T.H. and A. Mitsos, Structural optimization of seawater desalination: II novel MED–MSF–TVC configurations. Desalination, 2014. 344: pp. 219–227. ... and H.M. Ettouney, Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination.

Membrane Distillation in Desalination

Membrane-Distillation in Desalination is an attempt to provide the latest knowledge, state of the art and demystify outstanding issues that delay the deployment of the technology on a large scale. It includes new updates and comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals of membrane distillation technology and explains the energy advantage of membrane distillation for desalination when compared to traditional techniques such as thermal or reverse osmosis. The book includes the latest pilot test results from around the world on membrane distillation desalination.

Recent Progress in Desalination Environmental and Marine Outfall Systems

Dawoud MA, Al Mulla MM (2012) Environmental impacts of seawater desalination: Arabian Gulf case study. ... Desalination Year Book, IDA, Australia El-Dessouky HT, Ettouney HM (2002) Fundamentals of salt water desalination.

Recent Progress in Desalination  Environmental and Marine Outfall Systems

This book collects current scientific information on advanced technologies and management practices associated with the desalination industry in the Middle East and elsewhere around the world. The book opens with introductory chapter which briefly recounts the history of desalination, and describes the current state of development in the field. Part I: Desalination Systems includes ten chapters which describe a variety of techniques and designs intended not only to minimize the impact of desalination, but also to save energy and use natural resources to maximize the output of integrated desalination systems. Among the highlights are a chapter on the use of ceramic membrane technology for sustainable oil water production; a case study on the use of solar heating systems in desalination technology in Oman; discussion of fouling and its effect on design and performance of desalination systems; a review of shore approaches and sea-lines with case studies from Australia and Germany; and a discussion of the integration of desalination technology with renewable energy for climate change abatement in the Middle East and North Africa region. Part II: Environmental Systems includes among others a chapter on regulating the use of water resources and desalination technology on a regional scale reducing the carbon footprint of desalination, with examples from Australia; a description of desalination for irrigation in the Souss Massa region in the south of Morocco; a study of the impact of the coastal intake environment on operating conditions of thermal desalination plants in the United Arab Emirates; a discussion of hydrodynamic and thermal dispersion modeling of the effluent in a coastal channel, with a case study from Oman; and a mathematical model study of effluent disposal from a desalination plant in the marine environment at Tuticorin in India. The book aims to inspire developments in desalination technologies which are specifically aimed at reducing energy consumption and cost, and minimizing environmental impact.

Solar Energy Desalination Technology

[2] Junhe W. Seawater desalination (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press; 1978. [3] Xinshi G. Solar energy engineering (in Chinese). Beijing: Academic Journal Press; 1988. [4] EL-Dessouky HT, Ettouney HM. Fundamentals of salt water ...

Solar Energy Desalination Technology

Solar Energy Desalination Technology explains how to obtain clean water from sea water using solar energy. Special methods and types used in solar desalination are introduced, providing new thoughts, concepts, and feasible solutions in the desalination field, along with the thermal and economic efficiency relating to current technology. Many places in the world are suffering from fresh water shortage. However, those places are often rich with solar resources, sea water, and/or brackish water resources that could dramatically benefit from solar energy as a viable solution for the production of fresh water. Explains the principles of solar thermal energy usage to produce clean water from sea water Introduces and explains new kinds of solar desalination systems, including their technical level and working principle Provides fundamental knowledge on water treatment and solar collection

Seas and Waterways of the World

Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination. New York: Elsevier, . Sommariva, C., H. Hogg, and K. Callister. “Environmental Impact of Seawater Desalination: Relations between Improvement in Efficiency and Environmental Impact.

Seas and Waterways of the World

This is the first comprehensive encyclopedia on the history of the vast and varied ways human beings have used the world's waterways for business, protection, and recreation. * 134 entries, organized alphabetically within 3 sections * Approximately 50 contributors—experts in the study and practice of water-based commerce * A chronology of important events in nautical history * A rich selection of photographs, illustrations, and maps

Solar Desalination for the 21st Century

El-Dessouky, H. T., and Ettouney, H. M., 2002, Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination, Elsevier, Amsterdam. El-Nashar, A. M., 2001, The economic feasibility of small solar MED seawater desalination plants for remote arid areas, ...

Solar Desalination for the 21st Century

This book of the NATO Science Series presents the state-of-the-art of Desalination Technologies driven by Renewable Energies, highlighting the results achieved in the research field and presenting the potentialities of such technologies. It provides an up-to-date point-of-reference on the topic, giving an extensive overview of the current status of solar desalination, both from the research and industrial point of view.

The Water Food Energy Nexus

Nonlinear model-based control of an experimental reverse-osmosis water desalination system. ... Optimal design of cogeneration plants for seawater desalination. ... Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination, Elsevier.

The Water Food Energy Nexus

Exponential growth of the worldwide population requires increasing amounts of water, food, and energy. However, as the quantity of available fresh water and energy sources directly affecting cost of food production and transportation diminishes, technological solutions are necessary to secure sustainable supplies. In direct response to this reality, this book focuses on the water-energy-food nexus and describes in depth the challenges and processes involved in efficient water and energy production and management, wastewater treatment, and impact upon food and essential commodities. The book is organized into 4 sections on water, food, energy, and the future of sustainability, highlighting the interplay among these topics. The first section emphasizes water desalination, water management, and wastewater treatment. The second section discusses cereal processing, sustainable food security, bioenergy in food production, water and energy consumption in food processing, and mathematical modeling for food undergoing phase changes. The third section discusses fossil fuels, biofuels, synthetic fuels, renewable energy, and carbon capture. Finally, the book concludes with a discussion of the future of sustainability, including coverage of the role of molecular thermodynamics in developing processes and products, green engineering in process systems, petrochemical water splitting, petrochemical approaches to solar hydrogen generation, design and operation strategy of energy-efficient processes, and the sustainability of process, supply chain, and enterprise.

Desalination Sustainability

M.A. Darwish, F. Al-Juwayhel, H.K. Abdulraheim, Multi-effect boiling systems from an energy viewpoint, Desalination 194 (1–3) (2006) 22–39. H.T. El-Dessouky, H.M. Ettouney, Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination, Elsevier, Amsterdam, ...

Desalination Sustainability

Desalination Sustainability: A Technical, Socioeconomic, and Environmental Approach presents a technical, socioeconomical, and environmental approach that guides researchers and technology developers on how to quantify the energy efficiency of a proposed desalination process using thermodynamics-based tools. The book offers the technical reader an understanding of the issues related to desalination sustainability. For example, technology users, such as public utility managers will gain the ability and tools to assess whether or not desalination is a good choice for a city or country. Readers will learn new insights on a clear and practical methodology on how to probe the economic feasibility of desalination using simple and effective tools, such as levelized cost of water (LCOW) calculation. Decision-makers will find this book to be a valuable resource for the preliminary assessment of whether renewable-powered desalination is a good choice for their particular setting. Presents the issues related to desalination sustainability Guides researchers and technology developers on how to quantify the energy efficiency of a proposed desalination process using thermodynamics-based tools Outlines a clear and practical methodology on how to probe the economic feasibility of desalination using simple and effective tools Provides a roadmap for decision-makers on the applicability of a desalination process at a particular setting

Tapping the Oceans

El-Dessouky, H.T. and Ettouney, H.M. 2002. Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Elimelech, M. and Phillip, W.A. 2011. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment.

Tapping the Oceans

Increasingly, water-stressed cities are looking to the oceans to fix unreliable, contested and over-burdened water supply systems. Desalination technologies are, however, also becoming the focus of intense political disagreements about the sustainable and just provision of urban water. Through a series of cutting-edge case studies and multi-subject approaches, this book explores the political and ecological debates facing water desalination on a broad geographical scale.