Gangs and the Military

This could be due in part to the increased number of gang members with military training. This book explores how military veterans are becoming increasingly involved in street gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, and domestic extremist groups.

Gangs and the Military

Gangs are expanding, evolving, and posing an increasing threat to communities nationwide. This could be due in part to the increased number of gang members with military training. This book explores how military veterans are becoming increasingly involved in street gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, and domestic extremist groups.

American Soldier Gangs in the Military

The primary reason for gang members' ability to join the military was recruiter's inability to effectively identify gang members as many of them lied about their gang history.

American Soldier  Gangs in the Military

The primary reason for gang members' ability to join the military was recruiter's inability to effectively identify gang members as many of them lied about their gang history.

Gangs Pseudo Militaries and Other Modern Mercenaries

This book fills that void. Employing a case study approach, and believing that shadows from the past often portend the future, Manwaring begins with a careful consideration of the writings of V. I. Lenin.

Gangs  Pseudo Militaries  and Other Modern Mercenaries

As the first decade of the twenty-first century has made brutally clear, the very definitions of war and the enemy have changed almost beyond recognition. Threats to security are now as likely to come from armed propagandists, popular militias, or mercenary organizations as they are from conventional armies backed by nation-states. In this timely book, national security expert Max G. Manwaring explores a little-understood actor on the stage of irregular warfare—the gang. Since the end of the Cold War, some one hundred insurgencies or irregular wars have erupted throughout the world. Gangs have figured prominently in more than half of those conflicts, yet these and other nonstate actors have received little focused attention from scholars or analysts. This book fills that void. Employing a case study approach, and believing that shadows from the past often portend the future, Manwaring begins with a careful consideration of the writings of V. I. Lenin. He then scrutinizes the Piqueteros in Argentina, gangs in Colombia, private armies in Mexico, Hugo Chavez’s use of popular militias in Venezuela, and the looming threat of Al Qaeda in Western Europe. As conventional warfare is increasingly eclipsed by these irregular and “uncomfortable” wars, Manwaring boldly diagnoses the problem and recommends solutions that policymakers should heed.

Irregular Army

With millions of veterans now back in the US and domestic extremism on the rise, Kennard’s book is a stark warning about potential dangers facing Americans—from their own soldiers.

Irregular Army

Reveals the US military’s “don’t ask, don’t tell” approach to extremists in its ranks. Since the launch of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars—now the longest wars in American history—the US military has struggled to recruit troops. It has responded, as Matt Kennard’s explosive investigative report makes clear, by opening its doors to neo-Nazis, white supremacists, gang members, criminals of all stripes, the overweight, and the mentally ill. Based on several years of reporting, Irregular Army includes extensive interviews with extremist veterans and leaders of far-right hate groups—who spoke openly of their eagerness to have their followers acquire military training for a coming domestic race war. As a report commissioned by the Department of Defense itself put it, “Effectively, the military has a ‘don’t ask, don’t tell’ policy pertaining to extremism.” Irregular Army connects some of the War on Terror’s worst crimes to this opening-up of the US military. With millions of veterans now back in the US and domestic extremism on the rise, Kennard’s book is a stark warning about potential dangers facing Americans—from their own soldiers.

Gangs Extremists Groups and the Military

This review includes an in-depth discussion of three main approaches to understanding right-wing extremism, and an examination of actual cases of extremist activity in the military.

Gangs  Extremists Groups  and the Military

The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of instituting or improving measures for screening military enlistees for gang or extremist group involvement. The report begins with an extensive review of the literature on right-wing extremism and street gangs, with a specific emphasis on the implications of these phenomena for the United States Armed Forces. This review includes an in-depth discussion of three main approaches to understanding right-wing extremism, and an examination of actual cases of extremist activity in the military. Next, the review considers documented and potential cases of gang activity in the military. Throughout this review, opportunities for identifying and screening gang members and extremists are highlighted, as are some drawbacks and caveats regarding such screening. The second major section of the report reviews the military's current responses to the problems of gangs and extremism among enlisted personnel. It begins by discussing the enlistment process, including prescreening by recruiters, aptitude and medical screening at Military Entrance Processing Stations (MEPSs), background screening during the pre-enlistment and pre-accession phases of the enlistment process, and further enlistee observation occurring at Recruit Training Centers (RTCs). Next, a variety of Department of Defense (DoD) Directives and Service policies regarding active-duty personnel are discussed. Here, particular attention is given to how such policies have been changing in response to the rise of problems like gang and extremist activity among military personnel and to how the different Services have approached such problems. Finally, the military's current efforts to research gang and extremist problems further are examined.

Strategic Notes on Third Generation Gangs

From that foundation, Dr. Sullivan and Dr. Robert J. Bunker, editors of this volume, and others have expanded that core to articulate the threat that sophisticated gangs with transnational reach and political dimensions pose to community, ...

Strategic Notes on Third Generation Gangs

Strategic Notes on Third Generation Gangs builds upon the third generation street gang (3Gen Gang) theory first articulated in a series of papers by John P. Sullivan in 1997. From that foundation, Dr. Sullivan and Dr. Robert J. Bunker, editors of this volume, and others have expanded that core to articulate the threat that sophisticated gangs with transnational reach and political dimensions pose to community, national, and global security. This Small Wars Journal-El Centro Anthology provides empirical depth to their theoretical perspective, bringing together strategic notes and essays on third generation gangs and military-trained gang members with new content assessing the theoretical and policy ramifications of both theory and reality on the ground. – Dave Dilegge, SWJ Editor-in-Chief

A Military Campaign Against Gangs

This study examines the historical precedents and the laws that allow federal troops to combat domestic enemies, the current environment that may call for the use of active duty forces, and a model that can be used to deal with domestic ...

A Military Campaign Against Gangs


Street Gangs

The primary thrust of the monograph is to explain the linkage of contemporary criminal street gangs (that is, the gang phenomenon or third generation gangs) to insurgency in terms of the instability it wreaks upon government and the ...

Street Gangs

The primary thrust of the monograph is to explain the linkage of contemporary criminal street gangs (that is, the gang phenomenon or third generation gangs) to insurgency in terms of the instability it wreaks upon government and the concomitant challenge to state sovereignty. Although there are differences between gangs and insurgents regarding motives and modes of operations, this linkage infers that gang phenomena are mutated forms of urban insurgency. In these terms, these "new" nonstate actors must eventually seize political power in order to guarantee the freedom of action and the commercial environment they want. The common denominator that clearly links the gang phenomenon to insurgency is that the third generation gangs' and insurgents' ultimate objective is to depose or control the governments of targeted countries. As a consequence, the "Duck Analogy" applies. Third generation gangs look like ducks, walk like ducks, and act like ducks - a peculiar breed, but ducks nevertheless! This monograph concludes with recommendations for the United States and other countries to focus security and assistance responses at the strategic level. The intent is to help leaders achieve strategic clarity and operate more effectively in the complex politically dominated, contemporary global security arena.

Out of the Mountains

Analyzes four megatrends—population growth, urbanization, coastal life and connectedness-and concludes that future conflict is increasingly likely to occur in sprawling coastal cities; in underdeveloped regions of the Middle East, Africa, ...

Out of the Mountains

Analyzes four megatrends—population growth, urbanization, coastal life and connectedness-and concludes that future conflict is increasingly likely to occur in sprawling coastal cities; in underdeveloped regions of the Middle East, Africa, Latin America and Asia; and in highly networked, connected settings, in a book that also looks at gangs, cartels and warlords.

A More Perfect Military

In 2007, the FBI issued a report, GangRelated Activity in the U.S. Armed Forces Increasing, warning the military it has a growing problem with the enlistment of gang members. It found that a rising level of gang-related activity in the ...

A More Perfect Military

Surveys show that the all-volunteer military is our most respected and trusted institution, but over the last thirty-five years it has grown estranged from civilian society. Without a draft, imperfect as it was, the military is no longer as representative of civilian society. Fewer people accept the obligation for military service, and a larger number lack the knowledge to be engaged participants in civilian control of the military. The end of the draft, however, is not the most important reason we have a significant civil-military gap today. A More Perfect Military explains how the Supreme Court used the cultural division of the Vietnam era to change the nature of our civil-military relations. The Supreme Court describes itself as a strong supporter of the military and its distinctive culture, but in the all-volunteer era, its decisions have consistently undermined the military's traditional relationship to law and the Constitution. Most people would never suspect there was anything wrong, but our civil-military relations are now as constitutionally fragile as they have ever been. A More Perfect Military is a bracingly candid assessment of the military's constitutional health. It crosses ideological and political boundaries and is challenging-even unsettling-to both liberal and conservative views. It is written for those who believe the military may be slipping away from our common national experience. This book is the blueprint for a new national conversation about military service.

State and Nonstate Associated Gangs

This monograph explores the complex protean character and hegemonic role of gangs operating as state and nonstate surrogates in the contemporary asymmetric and irregular global security arena.

State and Nonstate Associated Gangs

This monograph explores the complex protean character and hegemonic role of gangs operating as state and nonstate surrogates in the contemporary asymmetric and irregular global security arena. Gangs come in different types with different motives, and with different modes of action. Examples include Venezuela's institutionalized "popular militias," Colombia's devolving paramilitary criminal or warrior bands (bandas criminales), and al-Qaeda's loosely organized networks of propaganda-agitator gangs operating in Spain and elsewhere in Western Europe.

The Complexity of Modern Asymmetric Warfare

Today more than one hundred small, asymmetric, and revolutionary wars are being waged around the world. This book provides invaluable tools for fighting such wars by taking enemy perspectives into consideration.

The Complexity of Modern Asymmetric Warfare

Today more than one hundred small, asymmetric, and revolutionary wars are being waged around the world. This book provides invaluable tools for fighting such wars by taking enemy perspectives into consideration. The third volume of a trilogy by Max G. Manwaring, it continues the arguments the author presented in Insurgency, Terrorism, and Crime and Gangs, Pseudo-Militaries, and Other Modern Mercenaries. Using case studies, Manwaring outlines vital survival lessons for leaders and organizations concerned with national security in our contemporary world. The insurgencies Manwaring describes span the globe. Beginning with conflicts in Algeria in the 1950s and 1960s and El Salvador in the 1980s, he goes on to cover the Shining Path and its resurgence in Peru, Al Qaeda in Spain, popular militias in Cuba, Haiti, and Brazil, the Russian youth group Nashi, and drugs and politics in Guatemala, as well as cyber warfare. Large, wealthy, well-armed nations such as the United States have learned from experience that these small wars and insurgencies do not resemble traditional wars fought between geographically distinct nation-state adversaries by easily identified military forces. Twenty-first-century irregular conflicts blur traditional distinctions among crime, terrorism, subversion, insurgency, militia, mercenary and gang activity, and warfare. Manwaring’s multidimensional paradigm offers military and civilian leaders a much needed blueprint for achieving strategic victories and ensuring global security now and in the future. It combines military and police efforts with politics, diplomacy, economics, psychology, and ethics. The challenge he presents to civilian and military leaders is to take probable enemy perspectives into consideration, and turn resultant conceptions into strategic victories.

Studies in Gangs and Cartels

The work will be of great interest to academics and students in the fields of political science and criminal justice and to military, law enforcement, and governmental professionals and policy makers.This book is a collection of new and ...

Studies in Gangs and Cartels

Concerns over the changing nature of gangs and cartels and their relationships to states in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has resulted in the emergence of a scholarly body of work focused on their national security threat potentials. This body of work, utilizing the third generation gangs and third phase cartel typologies, represents an alternative to traditional gang and organized crime research and one that is increasingly influencing the US defense community. Rather than being viewed only as misguided youth and opportunistic criminals or, in their mature forms, as criminal organizations with no broader social or political agendas, more evolved gangs and cartels, are instead seen as developing political, mercenary, and state-challenging capacities. This evolutionary process has emerged due to the growing illicit economy and other unintended consequences of globalization.This important anthology of writings by Robert J. Bunker and John P. Sullivan draws upon a collection of their works from the mid-1990s to the present with the addition of new essays written specifically for this publication. The work will be of great interest to academics and students in the fields of political science and criminal justice and to military, law enforcement, and governmental professionals and policy makers.This book is a collection of new and previously published works from a variety of publications, a full list of which is on the Citation Information page.

Social Issues in America

Gang conflicts also grew in size and complexity. Increasingly, gangs adopted military tactics, scouting out opponents' strengths and weaknesses before launching well-coordinated assaults. The changing face of gang members was also ...

Social Issues in America

Truly comprehensive in scope - and arranged in A-Z format for quick access - this eight-volume set is a one-source reference for anyone researching the historical and contemporary details of more than 170 major issues confronting American society. Entries cover the full range of hotly contested social issues - including economic, scientific, environmental, criminal, legal, security, health, and media topics. Each entry discusses the historical origins of the problem or debate; past means used to deal with the issue; the current controversy surrounding the issue from all perspectives; and the near-term and future implications for society. In addition, each entry includes a chronology, a bibliography, and a directory of Internet resources for further research as well as primary documents and statistical tables highlighting the debates.

I Didn t Want My Life to Be Like That

Nationally, only half of Latino males graduate from high school (Contreras, 2011).

 I Didn t Want My Life to Be Like That

Nationally, only half of Latino males graduate from high school (Contreras, 2011). Scholars are beginning to critically examine the various internal and external influences which contribute to low academic achievement for Latino males. This qualitative study uses a human ecological theory to examine how Latino male high school students with high academic achievement understand and develop goals to attend postsecondary education versus engaging in gangs or the military. The findings highlight the students' different levels of college preparation, interactions with military recruitment, and their gang connections.

Wars of Latin America 1948 1982

The police identified the gang chiefs and profusely distributed their photographs in newspapers and announced their names over the radio ... The most important component of Plan Lazo was the army campaign against bandit gangs in Caldas.

Wars of Latin America  1948  1982

"This book continues the narrative begun by the author in the preceding volume. This new work provides a clear and readable description of military combat occurring in Latin America for the years 1948 to the start of 1982. Though concentrating on a combat narrative, matters of politics, business and international relations appear as necessary to understand the wars"--Provided by publisher.

UN Peace Operations

cooperation« with the US military mission to implement the agreement, which was to promote ... their own agendas, and the relations between actors and armed gangs whose allegiance sometimes could be bought started to become murkier.

UN Peace Operations

This book assesses the UN Peace Operations in Haiti and establishes what lessons should be taken into account for future operations elsewhere. Specifically, the book examines the UN’s approaches to security and stability, demobilisation, disarmament and reintegration (DDR), police, justice and prison reform, democratisation, and transitional justice and their interdependencies through the seven UN missions in Haiti. Drawing on extensive fieldwork and interviews conducted in Haiti, it identifies strengths and weaknesses of these approaches and focuses on the connections between these different sectors. It places these efforts in the broader Haitian political context, emphasises economic development as a central factor to sustainability, provides a civil society perspective, and discusses the many constraints the UN faced in implementing its mandates. The book also serves as a historical account of UN involvement in Haiti, which comes at a time when the drawdown of the mission has begun. In an environment where the UN is increasingly seeking to conduct security sector reform (SSR) within the context of integrated missions, this book will be a valuable contribution to the debate on intervention, UN peace operations and SSR. This book will be of interest to students of peace operations and peacekeeping, conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.

Prosecuting Women

Besides these, there were the non-military gangs, such as the Band of Zundert and the Band of Engelejantje. The Jewish gangs, which became increasingly active from 1730 onwards, were not wholly absent from the countryside, although they ...

Prosecuting Women

In the early modern period women played a prominent role in crime. At times they even made up half of all defendants. Female criminality was a typically urban phenomenon. Why do we find so many women before the Dutch criminal courts?

Criminal States and Criminal Soldiers

This book was previously published as a special issue of Global Crime.

Criminal States and Criminal Soldiers

The United States and her allies have found themselves plunged into ‘a war over [humanity’s] future social and political organization’ with criminal challengers to the nation-state form. These new wars are currently being fought globally with Al Qaeda, in Iraq with shifting coalitions of criminal gangs, insurgents, and Jihadi groups and throughout the Americas with the Maras (the first group of 3rd GEN Gangs to emerge). More new wars are poised to develop and the on-going ones are far from over, with more attacks upon the homelands of the US and her allies expected. This cutting edge book looks initially at the theoretical and legal side of criminal-state and criminal-soldier emergence and growth, before focusing on criminal-states and criminal-soldiers themselves, with particular attention paid to Al Qaeda, Hizballah, Mara Salvatrucha (MS 13), Caliphate and Mahdi concerns, Islamic Fundamentalist Use of Beheadings, Criminalization of Russian State Security, Nuclear Materials Trafficking, and Outlaw Private Security Firms. With the contributions from international experts, this book makes for critical reading for political scientists and criminal justice students and researchers, policy makers, and military and law enforcement practitioners. This book was previously published as a special issue of Global Crime.