Developmental Genetics of Higher Organisms

Subsequent culture and implantation of such aggregates resulted in birth of genetically mosaic newborn animals (16,27a). Because these chimeric or “allophenic” (also called “mosaic”) mice were genetic mosaics of two distinct genotypes ...

Developmental Genetics of Higher Organisms


Teratocarcinoma Stem Cells

Reversion of malignancy and normalized differentiation of teratocarcinoma cells in chimeric mice. In Genetic mosaics and chimeras in mammals (ed. L.B. Russell), p. 3. Plenum Press, New York. Jones-Villeneuve, E.M.V., M.W. McBurney, ...

Teratocarcinoma Stem Cells


Differentiation and Neoplasia

USA 74, 5657-5661 (1977) Illmensee, K.: Reversion of malignancy and normalized differentiation of teratocarcinoma cells in chimeric mice. In: Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals (ed. L.B. Russell), pp. 3-25.

Differentiation and Neoplasia

There is no commonly accepted mechanism to explain differentiation of either normal or neoplastic cells. Despite this fact, the organizers of the 3 rd International Conference on Differentiation recognized that there is much emerging evidence which supports the view that both normal cells and many cancer cells share common differentiative processes. Accordingly, the organizers perceived that clinical scientists and developmental biologists would greatly benefit by together considering differentiation. In that way, developmental biologists would be apprised of recent insights in cancer cell biology and the physician scientist would be updated on events in developmental biology and both would gain new understanding of the cell biology of neoplasia. A specific example may reveal the potential value of developmental biologists interacting with cancer physicians. An example chosen at random suggests that probably any paper included in the symposium volume would serve the purpose. Dr. Stephen Subtelny reviewed recent studies by his laboratory concerning germ cell migration and replication in frog embryos. How might those results interest the cancer scientist? Dr. Subtelny showed that primordial germ cells of a fertile graft will reverse their migratory direction and move into a sterile host. Perhaps in this context it would not be inappropriate to state that the germ cells of the graft metastasized into the host. Germ cells from grafts of a different species will populate the previously sterile host gonad.

Females Are Mosaics

Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals . New York: Plenum Publishing; 1978:379–391. 290. Adler DA, Rugarli EI, Lingenfelter PA, et al. Evidence of evolutionary up-regulation of the single active X chromosome in mammals based on Clc4 ...

Females Are Mosaics

This is the only book about the X chromosome as a key to female development and the role of X-related factors in the etiology of sex differences in human disease. This new edition reflects research advances from the six years since the widely praised first edition.

Current Topics in Developmental Biology

... mammalian chimeras. In “Chimeras in Developmental Biology” (N. Le Douarin and A. McLaren, Eds.), pp. ... Retroviral mosaics—A new approach to cell lineage analysis in the mouse embryo. ... “Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals.

Current Topics in Developmental Biology

Current Topics in Developmental Biology provides a comprehensive survey of the major topics in the field of developmental biology. The volumes are valuable to researchers in animal and plant development, as well as to students and professionals who want an introduction to cellular and molecular mechanisms of development. The series has recently passed its 30-year mark, making it the longest-running forum for contemporary issues in developmental biology.

Advances in Developmental Biology

In: Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals (Russell, L. B., ed.), Vol. 12, pp. 329-337. Plenum Press, New York. Migeon, B. R., Sprenkle, J.A., and Do, T.T. (1979). Stability of the "two active X" phenotype in triploid somatic cells.

Advances in Developmental Biology

Advances in Developmental Biology was launched as a series by JAI Press in 1992 with the appearance of Volume 1. This series is inextricably linked to the companion series, Advances in Developmental Biochemistry, that was launched at the same time. As stated in the Preface to Volume 1: "Together the two series will provide annual reviews of research topics in developmental biology/biochemistry, written from the perspectives of leading investigators in these fields. It is intended that each review draw heavily form the author's own research contributions and perspective. Thus, the presentations are not necessarily encyclopedic in coverage, nor do they necessarily reflect all opposing views of the subject." Volume 2 of the series follows these same guidelines.

American Science

Romeo, G & Migeon, BR: Genetic inactivation of the agalactosidase locus in carriers of Fabry's disease. ... determinants of female phenotype,in Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals (Ed. Russell, LB) Plenum Press, New York, 417, 1978.

American Science

In this insiders account of university science in America, Barbara Migeon focuses on how an influx of new technologies empowered scientists to make groundbreaking discoveries on the nature of hereditary diseases. She begins her story with an account of how she began her research career before delving into a broader discussion of what scientists do, what they must deal with, and the changing face of biomedical science over the last half century. This is a fascinating, insightful and thought-provoking book, beautifully written by an excellent scientist, a pioneering female in a strongly male-centric field. Her personal history of this remarkable era of biomedical science is a must read for anyone males, females, scientists and non-scientists curious about the process of scientific discovery and progress toward gender equity. Her account shows how science is shaped by deep commitment and insights, complex human interactions, and public policy. Barbara Sollner-Webb. Professor Emerita, Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University I was captivated by Migeons ability to synthesize the personal, political, scientific, and academic strands of her life over the past half-century. To her credit, this historian speaks forthrightly; while her research clearly has been a source of deep joy, she also exposes the institutional problems (including sexism). Her inclusion of selected material from a personal journal she kept over the years is a welcome addition to a book that offers a fresh perspective to scientists as well as non-scientists, men as well as women. Evelyn Torton Beck, Professor Emerita, Womens Studies, University of Maryland

Utilization of Mammalian Specific Locus Studies in Hazard Evaluation and Estimation of Genetic Risk

L. B. Russell and N. L. A. Cacheiro, The use of mouse X-autosome translocations in the study of X-inactivation pathways and nonrandomness, in: "Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals," Liane B. Russell, ed., pp. 393-416, Plenum Press, ...

Utilization of Mammalian Specific Locus Studies in Hazard Evaluation and Estimation of Genetic Risk

The magnitude of the threat to the human genetic material posed by environmental agents has not as yet been fully determined. Never theless, the potential hazards of many chemicals have been identi fied by studies on lower organisms. However, too little is known regarding the comparability or lack of it between the metabolic pathways available in such organisms and those in man. Although at present there is great public concern for what is considered by some as the excessive use of laboratory animals in toxicological testing, it seems clear that the usage of mammalian systems may be deemed necessary. It has been proposed that cell culture systems might suffice to meet this need, however, such approaches cannot match the complexity of physiological occurances that are present in the intact animal. For studies of genetic effects, some non-invasive human test systems are presently available. These do not, however, meet the re quirements for extensive laboratory studies. In order to assess the risks to humans of environmental factors such laboratory investiga tions are essential. Therefore, for the forseeable future reliance on experiments using laboratory animals will be necessary. This Volume, which contains the proceedings of a workshop which was held at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, March 29-31, 1982, explores the existing methodologies and their utility for risk estimations. It covers the most well developed human systems, as well as the most widely used animal tests.

The Embryo

Am J Obstet Gynec 153: 211–217 Chapman VM,West JD,AdlerDA(1977) Genetics of early mammalian embryogenesis. In: Sherman MI (ed) Concepts in ... In: Russell LB(ed) Genetic mosaics and chimeras in mammals. Plenum Press, New York,pp227–237 ...

The Embryo

A variety of new techniques that promise to revolutionize the clinical management of early pregnancy are fully detailed in this state-of-the-art book. Leading international researchers describe fast-moving topics such as embryo manipulation and the diagnosis of congenital abnormalities. The technology of assisted reproduction has made it possible to study living embryonic material for the first time, which has led to rapid advances in our understanding of the human embryo's early development. For example, study of the embryo in the test tube has pointed to early pregnancy loss as a possible cause of later infertility. Even more important, diagnostic tests using sophisticated techniques of molecular biology can be run on single cells before the embryo is replaced in the uterus. Another area of advance is the diagnosis of congenital abnormalities in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Great improvements have been made in the techniques of chorion villus biopsy and ultrasound imaging. A spectrum of simple biochemical tests performed on the mother's blood can greatly improve the detection of Down syndrome and other chromosome defects. Together with other developments in the fields of molecular biology and endocrinology, these new diagnostic techniques are the beginning of a new age in clinical human genetics and embryology.

The Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo

Takagi, N., 1978, Preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome in mice, in: Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals (L.B. Russell, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 341-360. Tarkowski, A.K., 1977, In vitro ...

The Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo

With a few notable exceptions, mammalian preimplantation embryos grown in vitro are likely to exhibit sub-optimal or retarded development. This may be manifested in different ways, depending on the species and on the stage(s) of embryonic development that are being examined. For example, bovine embryos often experience difficulty in cleaving under in vitro conditions, and usually cease development at about the 8-cell stage (Wright and Bondioli, 1981). The block to development is stage-dependent; embryos cultured for 24 hr from the I-cell stage are much more capable of developing into viable blastocysts after transfer to oviducts than embryos cultured for 24 hr from the 4-cell stage prior to transfer (Eyestone et oZ. , 1985). Similar problems with in vitro embryo development are encountered in other species. Pig embryos can be grown up to the 4-cell stage in vitro but usually no further (Davis and Day, 1978). In the golden hamster, in the rat and in many outbred strains of mice, development of zygotes in vitro is blocked at the 2-cell stage (Yanagimachi and Chang, 1964; Whittingham, 1975). Even with some inbred mouse strains, embryo development is reduced if very early cleavage stages are used as the starting point for in vitro culture (Spielmann et oZ. , 1980). A common finding is that embryos grown in vitro have reduced cell counts (Harlow and Quinn, 1982; Kane, 1985) and their viability is reduced (Bowman and McLaren, 1970; Papaioannou and Ebert, 1986) compared to equivalent developmental stages recovered from mated animals.

Human Growth

Dickinson, A. G., 1960, Some genetic implications of maternal effects—An hypothesis of mammalian growth, J. Agric. Sci. ... R. C., 1978b, Growth control in chimeras, in: Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals (L. B. Russell, ed.), pp.

Human Growth


Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology

L. B. Russell and N. L. A. Cacheiro, in "Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals" (L. B. Russell, ed.), p. 393. Plenum, New York, 1978. M. F. Lyon, J. Zenthon, E. P. Evans, M. D. Burtenshaw, K. A. Wareham, and E. D. Williams, ...

Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology

Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology

Molecular Genetics in Developmental Neurobiology

In Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals , ed . Russell , L.B. , pp . 3–25 . New York : Plenum . 10 Martin , G.R. ( 1981 ) . In Development in Mammals , ed . Johnson , M.H. , pp . 225–265 . Amsterdam : North - Holland .

Molecular Genetics in Developmental Neurobiology

Molecular genetics in neurobiology has developed rapidly with the introduction of the new and productive methodologies of genetic engineering and cell manipulation. Particularly in the field of developmental neurobiology, molecular genetics has had impact in research on the molecular mechanism of development and differentiation in the nervous system. This volume comprises 20 articles grouped into the following areas: cell recognition, embryo and gene manipulation, gene analysis and manipulation, and neural recognition. The authors have reviewed and interpreted their most recent results reflecting new concepts and ideas in the molecular approach to neurobiology.

From Egg to Embryo

Reversion of malignancy and normalised differentiation of teratocarcinoma cells in chimeric mice . In Gatlinberg Symposium on Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals , ed . L. B. Russell , pp . 3–25 . Plenum Press , New York .

From Egg to Embryo

This book is about the development of the animal embryo starting from the fertilised egg. The emphasis is on the problem of pattern formation: how cells in different regions of the embryo become programmed to form the various structures of the body in the correct relative positions.

The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences

The direct demonstration of an Xchromosome dosage effect prior to inactivation. In “Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals” (L. B. Russell, ed.), pp. 261—267. Plenum, New York. Epstein, C. J ., Smith, S., and Travis, B. (1980).

The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences

The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences focuses on the structure, function, and synthesis of proteins. This book examines the various approaches on how amino acids are polymerized in vitro, which involves the physical, chemical, immunological, enzymologic, biosynthetic, and organic synthetic techniques. Comprised of five parts encompassing 27 chapters, this book starts with an overview of Christian B. Anfinsen’s role in the development of protein chemistry and the training of scientists who have advanced their experiences in his laboratory to pioneer in the field of biological and medical sciences. This text then examines the synthesis of albumin molecule in the bloodstream as it carries cystine, hematin, bilirubin, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds. Other chapters discuss the kinetic experiments of hydrogen exchange in aqueous solution between peptide molecules and solvent water. This text also introduces the reader to the lipoprotein–atherosclerosis connection by studying the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. This book is a valuable source of information for biologists, chemical biologists, scientists, and students.

Modelling of Patterns in Space and Time

In : Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals (L. B. Russell ed.) pp. 445-463. New York: Plenum Press Williams, T., Bjerknes, R. (1972) Stochastic model for abnormal clone spread through epithelial basal layer. Nature 236, 19–21 Witten, ...

Modelling of Patterns in Space and Time

This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the work shop "Modelling of Patterns in Space and Time", organized by the 80nderforschungsbereich 123, "8tochastische Mathematische Modelle", in Heidelberg, July 4-8, 1983. The main aim of this workshop was to bring together physicists, chemists, biologists and mathematicians for an exchange of ideas and results in modelling patterns. Since the mathe matical problems arising depend only partially on the particular field of applications the interdisciplinary cooperation proved very useful. The workshop mainly treated phenomena showing spatial structures. The special areas covered were morphogenesis, growth in cell cultures, competition systems, structured populations, chemotaxis, chemical precipitation, space-time oscillations in chemical reactors, patterns in flames and fluids and mathematical methods. The discussions between experimentalists and theoreticians were especially interesting and effective. The editors hope that these proceedings reflect at least partially the atmosphere of this workshop. For the convenience of the reader, the papers are ordered alpha betically according to authors. However, the table of contents can easily be grouped into the main topics of the workshop. For practical reasons it was not possible to reproduce in colour the beautiful pictures of patterns shown at the workshop. Since a larger number of half-tone pictures could be included in this volume, the loss of information has, however, been kept to a minimum. The workshop has already stimulated cooperation between its parti cipants and this volume is intended to spread this effect.

Early Mammalian Development

Reversion of malignancy and normalized differentiation of teratocarcinoma cells in chimeric mice . In Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals , ed . L. B. Russell , pp . 3–25 . New York : Plenum Press .

Early Mammalian Development


Genetics of Sex Determination

In: Symposium on Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals (Russell, L.B., Ed.). Plenum Press, New York, 1978, pp. 195-208. Ward, H.B.; McLaren, A.; Baker, T.G. Gonadal development in T16H/XSXr hermaphrodite mice. J. Reprod. Fert.

Genetics of Sex Determination

The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection by R.A. Fisher (1930) dictated that sexual dimorphisms may depend upon a single medelian factor. This could be true for some species but his suggestion could not take off the ground as gender in Drosophila is determined by the number of X chromosomes. Technical advances in molecular biology have revived the initial thinking of Fisher and dictate that TDF or SRY genes in humans or Tdy in mice are sex determining genes. The fortuitous findings of XX males and XY female, which are generally termed sex reversal phenomenon, are quite bewildering traits that have caused much amazement concerning the pairing mechanism(s) of the pseudoautosomal regions of human X and Y chromosomes at meiosis. These findings have opened new avenues to explore further the genetic basis of sex determination at the single gene level. The aim of the fourth volume, titled Genetics of Sex Determination is to reflect on the latest advances and future investigative directions, encompassing 10 chapters. Commissioned several distinguished scientists, all pre-eminent authorities in each field to shed their thoughts concisely but epitomise their chapters with an extended bibliography. Obviously, during the past 60 years, the metoric advances are voluminous and to cover every account of genes, chromosomes, and sex in a single volume format would be a herculean task. Therefore, a few specific topics are chosen, which may be of great interest to scientists and clinicians. The seasoned scientists who love to inquire about the role of genes in sex determination should find the original work of these notable contributors very enlightening. This volume is intended for advanced students who want to keep abreast as well as for those who indulge in the search for genes of sex determination.

Methods of Animal Experimentation

Genetics 34, 708–723. Russell, E. S., Nash, D. J., Bernstein, S. E., Kent, E. L., McFarland, E. C., Matthews, S. M., and Norwood, M. S. (1970). Blood 35,838-850. Russell, L. B., ed. (1978). “Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals.

Methods of Animal Experimentation

Methods of Animal Experimentation, Volume VI is a compendium of papers that defines which animals will prove most useful in biological experiments using the best methods in an environment of complex technologies and therapies. One paper reviews the genetic methods in animal experimentation including tests of Mendelian ratios, chromosomes crossing-over, chromosome anomalies, and gene transfer that produces congenic strains. Another paper explains the concepts and methodologies used in animals in ophthalmic research, particularly in ocular pharmacology, aqueous humor dynamics, glaucoma, and animal models of non-infectious uveitis. One paper analyzes the neural mechanisms of pain in an intact nervous system following ethical and moral principles of human treatment. For example, the use of different stimuli to elicit pain is applied only in situations where the stimuli is more appropriate, whether in behavioral or physiological experiments. The paper provides a list of requirements for the ideal pain stimulus. Another paper describes the methods in using standard animal models when an unknown agent is to be given as a general or local anesthesia. This book can prove beneficial to researchers, scientists, and laboratory technicians dealing with animals in relation to pharmacological, biological, chemical, and physiological research.