Chapter 12 From eugenics to genetic screening Historical problems of human genetic applications HANS - PETER KRÖNER Institute of Theory and History Munster University Germany 1. INTRODUCTION When trying to deal with precursors of ...
Author: Ruth F. Chadwick
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This collection of essays represents the work produced in the course of a three-year project funded by the Commission of the European Communities under the Biomed I programme, on the ethics of genetic screening, entitled 'Genetic screening: ethical and philosophical perspectives, with special reference to multifactorial diseases'. The short title of the project was Euroscreen, thereafter known as Euroscreen I, in the light of the fact that a second project on genetic screening was subsequently funded. The project was multinational and multidisciplinary, and had as its objectives to examine the nature and extent of genetic screening programmes in different European countries; to analyse the social policy response to these developments in different countries; and to explore the applicability of normative ethical frameworks to the issues. The project was led by a core group who had oversight of the project and members of which have acted as editors for this volume. Darren Shickle edited the first section; Henk ten Have the second; Ruth Chadwick and Urban Wiesing the third and final part. The volume opens with an overview of genetic screening and the principles available for addressing developments in the field, with special reference to the Wilson and Jungner principles on screening. The first of the three major sections thereafter includes papers on the state of the art in different countries, together with some analysis of social context and policy.
Carrier screening for SMA is an example of new capabilities for identifying genetic risk (see the article by Thomas W. Prior elsewhere in this issue for further exploration of this topic). New tests added to the genetic screening list ...
Author: Anthony R. Gregg
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Genetic Screening and Counseling is reviewed in this issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, guest edited by Drs. Anthony R. Gregg and Joe Leigh Simpson. Authorities in the field have come together to pen articles on Contemporary Genetics Counseling: New Frontiers and Challenges, Newborn Screening, SMA Carrier Screening, Fragile X, Ashkenazi Jewish Screening in the 21st Century, Thrombophilia in Obstetric Practice, Microarrays in the Practice of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cancer Genetic Screening, and Cystic Fibrosis.
Release on 1982 | by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology. Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight
The extent of genetic screening remains a matter of speculation . Moreover , there is mystery about the Federal Government's role . A regulation , well known to industry , exists in rules promulgated by the Occupational Safety and ...
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology. Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight
genetic. screening. and. the. concept. of. risk. Rogeer. Hoedemaekers. 1. Introduction. Generally speaking, the aim of screening is to provide more certainty about a risk factor threatening health. The information may reveal that an ...
Author: Angus Clarke
Publisher: Garland Science
This book, written by a leading geneticist, examines the ethical and social issues raised by the genetic testing of children. The opinions of geneticists, ethicists and affected families are all included to give a balanced view of this controversial field. Issues covered include confidentiality, potential abuses of genetic information (eg the use of test results by insurance companies) and the value of predictive genetic testing. The aim of the book is to improve awareness of the complexity of the issues raised and provide suggestions as to how the discussions must develop - it therefore raises new questions as well as answering those that already exist.
and nonmedical uses of genetic tests are topics of other OTA reports ( 9,10,11,13,20,24 ) . WHAT IS GENETIC TESTING ? Genetically determined individuality is a fact of life . Yet not long ago , the factors affecting heritability were ...
Release on 1993 | by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee
GENETICS AND SOCIETY Genetic testing in the The past two decades have witnessed rapid workplace : a view from the USA advances in DNA technologies , from recombinant DNA and its products in the mid - 1970s to the recently developed ...
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee
Small groups within the community that reject abortion have accepted screening but on their own terms (e.g., the Dor Yeshorim system of genetic screening before arranged marriage ensures that marriages in which both members of the ...
Author: Michael Arribas-Ayllon
Advances in molecular genetics have led to the increasing availability of genetic testing for a variety of inherited disorders. While this new knowledge presents many obvious health benefits to prospective individuals and their families it also raises complex ethical and moral dilemmas for families as well as genetic professionals. This book explores the ways in which genetic testing generates not only probabilities of potential futures, but also enjoys new forms of social, individual and professional responsibility. Concerns about confidentiality and informed consent involving children, the assessment of competence and maturity, the ability to engage in shared decision-making through acts of disclosure and choice, are just some of the issues that are examined in detail.
While the identification of the causative gene made detection of asymptomatic carriers possible , the extreme heterogeneity of its mutations has limited the sensitivity of the available DNA screening tests and called into question their ...
Genetic Screening Genetic testing includes two types of testing, genetic screening and genetic monitoring. However, both types of testing are sciences in their infancy and should not be used for routine workplace monitoring programs.
Indeed, with the explosion of information about the human genome and the increasing identification of potential “risk genes” for common disorders, such as cancer, heart disease, or diabetes, the role of predictive genetic screening in ...
Author: James Wolfe
Publisher: Encyclopaedia Britannica
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
This book covers the foundations of genes and heredity to give readers a solid understanding of what modern genetics has been built on, before examining the ways in which genetic testing is used to assess genetic risk.
I have grave reservations as to whether our medical- legal-social-financial structure can deal rationally to genetic screening and/or monitoring. Our track record regarding women and minorities gives me little comfort to believe we ...
Development Of The Hypothyroid Screening System While the federal government and the committee were preparing for the nationwide multiple genetic screening program, screening for congenital hypothyroidism based on TSH assay was started ...
One of the most likely areas for the application or misapplication of genetic information is in the genetic screening of individuals. In the business context, employees and potential employees are perhaps most likely to face screening.
Author: Robert W. Kolb
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Business & Economics
Our rapidly expanding genetic knowledge today points toward a near future in which the elements of humanity closest to our moral core may themselves be produced, manipulated, commodified, and exchanged. Explores the moral and ethical concerns derived from an increasing knowledge of genetics and the variety of its commercial applications A major contribution to the emerging understanding of the role that ethics will play in genetic commerce Written by experts from the academic and corporate sector, with diverse backgrounds in business, social science, and philosophy Addresses a range of relevant issues, including genetic screening, the use of individual’s genetic information, the rise of genetically modified foods, patenting, pharmaceutical mergers and monopolization, and the implications of genetic testing on non-human mammals
Release on 2017-04-21 | by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
GENETIC TESTING 27 by its size, shape, and pattern of bands along its length as detected by the staining. The test detects abnormalities of chromosomal structure and number. Its resolution depends on the degree of chromosomal ...
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Advances in genetics and genomics are transforming medical practice, resulting in a dramatic growth of genetic testing in the health care system. The rapid development of new technologies, however, has also brought challenges, including the need for rigorous evaluation of the validity and utility of genetic tests, questions regarding the best ways to incorporate them into medical practice, and how to weigh their cost against potential short- and long-term benefits. As the availability of genetic tests increases so do concerns about the achievement of meaningful improvements in clinical outcomes, costs of testing, and the potential for accentuating medical care inequality. Given the rapid pace in the development of genetic tests and new testing technologies, An Evidence Framework for Genetic Testing seeks to advance the development of an adequate evidence base for genetic tests to improve patient care and treatment. Additionally, this report recommends a framework for decision-making regarding the use of genetic tests in clinical care.
Raising people's consciousness of genes, and providing them with the means to manage their genetic risks by launching genetic screening, can be seen to manifest this type of government. Furthermore, I hold the idea of offering Bayesian ...
Author: Robin Bunton
Category: Social Science
Ethical and practical issues around genetic research are of major international concern, both in academia and in the public domain. Questions concerning what interventions are possible and appropriate with the increasing amount of genetic information available, challenge our understandings of ourselves, our health and wellbeing, and the role of medical ethics, public health, surveillance and risk. However there has been little reflection on the socio-political effects of this new genetic knowledge and the changes in practice that are currently impacting on our lives. Containing contributions from key international researchers, this book examines the broader issues of genetic debates and looks at how prediction and risk assessment is being changed in the arenas of health, medicine and reproduction, bringing new insight on the dangers of surveillance, regulation and increased inequality. Developed out of the Taylor and Francis journal Critical Public Health, the book considers the implications of developments in genetics for contemporary liberal governance, as well as for the future of healthcare and public health.
American Journal of Public Health 85 ( 1995 ) : 119697 ; Neil A. Holtzman and Mark A. Rothstein , " Eugenics and Genetic Discrimination , " American Journal of Human Genetics 50 ( 1992 ) : 457-59 ; Curt S. Rush , " Genetic Screening ...
Author: Mark A. Rothstein
Publisher: Yale University Press
The dramatic explosion of information brought about by recent advances in genetic research brings welcome scientific knowledge. Yet this new knowledge also raises complex and troubling issues concerning privacy and confidentiality. This thought-provoking book is the first comprehensive exploration of these ethical, legal, and social issues. Distinguished experts in law, medicine, bioethics, public health, science policy, clinical genetics, philosophy, and other fields consider the many contexts in which issues of genetic privacy arise--from research and clinical settings to workplaces, insurance offices, schools, and the courts. The first chapters of this book set out a framework for analyzing genetic privacy and confidentiality, comparing genetic privacy with other forms of medical privacy. Later chapters deal with such topics as concerns that arise in the health care setting (the patient-physician relationship, genetic counseling and privacy); the effect of new technology (the role of commercial genomics, forensic DNA applications); nonmedical uses of genetic information (the law of medical and genetic privacy in the workplace, implications of genetic testing for health and life insurance); and a review of ethics and law in the United States and abroad. In the concluding chapter, Mark A. Rothstein discusses flaws in existing and proposed legislation designed to protect genetic privacy and confidentiality, and he offers a new set of guidelines for policy makers.
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/2057.html GENETIC TESTING AND ASSESSMENT 65 terfere with the ability to make correct predictions regarding the extent and severity of disease. Genetic tests include the many different laboratory assays used to ...
Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Raising hopes for disease treatment and prevention, but also the specter of discrimination and "designer genes," genetic testing is potentially one of the most socially explosive developments of our time. This book presents a current assessment of this rapidly evolving field, offering principles for actions and research and recommendations on key issues in genetic testing and screening. Advantages of early genetic knowledge are balanced with issues associated with such knowledge: availability of treatment, privacy and discrimination, personal decision-making, public health objectives, cost, and more. Among the important issues covered: Quality control in genetic testing. Appropriate roles for public agencies, private health practitioners, and laboratories. Value-neutral education and counseling for persons considering testing. Use of test results in insurance, employment, and other settings.
Another type of DNA testing involves comparing the sequence of DNA bases in a patient's gene to a normal version of the gene. This book gathers important research in this field.
Author: Sandra R. Pupecki
Publisher: Nova Publishers
Gene tests (also called DNA-based tests), the newest and most sophisticated of the techniques used to test for genetic disorders, involve direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Other genetic tests include biochemical tests for such gene products as enzymes and other proteins and for microscopic examination of stained or fluorescent chromosomes. Genetic tests are used for several reasons, including: Carrier screening, which involves identifying unaffected individuals who carry one copy of a gene for a disease that requires two copies for the disease to be expressed; Preimplantation genetic diagnosis prenatal diagnostic testing new-born screening; Presymptomatic testing for predicting adult-onset disorders such as Huntington's disease; Presymptomatic testing for estimating the risk of developing adult-onset cancers and Alzheimer's disease; and Confirmational diagnosis of a symptomatic individual forensic/identity testing. In gene tests, scientists scan a patient's DNA sample for mutated sequences. A DNA sample can be obtained from any tissue, including blood. probes, whose sequences are complementary to the mutated sequences. These probes will seek their complement among the three billion base pairs of an individual's genome. If the mutated sequence is present in the patient's genome, the probe will bind to it and flag the mutation. Another type of DNA testing involves comparing the sequence of DNA bases in a patient's gene to a normal version of the gene. This book gathers important research in this field.
Role of Molecular Genetic Testing for Screening By current methods of diagnosis and treatment , 85 % of patients with lung cancer will succumb to their disease ; most patients who will become long - term survivors have NSCLC detected at ...
Author: John D. Pfeifer
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Written by experts from Washington University School of Medicine, this text is a thorough review of the specific molecular genetic techniques that can provide diagnostically useful molecular genetic information on tissue samples—including cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), PCR, electrophoresis and hybridization analysis, DNA sequence analysis, and microarrays. The first part of the book describes each technique, indicates its advantages, disadvantages, capabilities, and limitations, and systematically addresses sensitivity and specificity issues. Subsequent chapters, organized by organ system, detail the specific applications of these tests in surgical pathology. More than 150 full-color and black-and-white illustrations complement the text.
Clinical utility of expanded carrier screening : results - guided actionability and outcomes . Genet Med 2019 ; 21 : 1041 . 561. ... Experience with carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis for 16 Ashkenazi Jewish genetic diseases .
Author: Aubrey Milunsky
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
"The time is fast approaching when virtually all the culprit genes and their mutations for 7,000 rare monogenic disorders1 will be known. Thus far causal single genes and their mutations have been determined for 5,6732 genetic disorders, enabling pre-implantation genetic testing or prenatal genetic diagnosis. These advances using chromosomal microarrays, whole exome sequencing and even whole genome sequencing together with fetal imaging, and non-invasive prenatal testing, expand the era in which all couples have the option of avoiding or preventing having children with irreversible, irremediable, crippling, or lethal monogenic disorders. Primary care physicians, and those in all medical specialties, will need to inform their patients of this key option. This imperative is already partly in current practice. Missing is the requirement of physicians to request and obtain the precise name of the genetic disorder in question or an existing DNA report on a family member, for prospective parents to benefit from available options"--