Molecular Genetics of Sex Determination

Second, it covers current human genetics, clinical studies, and the syndromes of abnormal sex differentiation. With chapters by preeminent reproductive biologists, this is a capital work.

Molecular Genetics of Sex Determination

In this era of accelerated discovery and prolific output, Molecular Genetics of Sex Determination keeps readers abreast of this fields fast-moving biology. Its chapters were completed by experts in eacharea only months before publication. The text is organized into two parts. First, it reviews the basic biology of sex determination and summarizes ground-breaking work in mouse, marsupial, and Drosophila systems. Second, it covers current human genetics, clinical studies, and the syndromes of abnormal sex differentiation. With chapters by preeminent reproductive biologists, this is a capital work. Ohno's law is described by Ohno; the Lyon hypothesis, by Lyon; Sinclair tells how he cloned the testis-determining gene; and so on. Molecular Genetics of Sex Determination is authoritative, comprehensive, and current. It is prime reading for geneticists, developmental biologists, graduate students in these and related fields, clinical researchers, physicians, and medical students. Reviews the genetics of sex determination in 19 up-to-date chapters Features research on sex chromosomes and sex-determining genes Includes abnormalities of sex determination and clinical genetics Written by scientists who pioneered work in this field

Genetics of Sex Determination

This volume is intended for advanced students who want to keep abreast as well as for those who indulge in the search for genes of sex determination.

Genetics of Sex Determination

The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection by R.A. Fisher (1930) dictated that sexual dimorphisms may depend upon a single medelian factor. This could be true for some species but his suggestion could not take off the ground as gender in Drosophila is determined by the number of X chromosomes. Technical advances in molecular biology have revived the initial thinking of Fisher and dictate that TDF or SRY genes in humans or Tdy in mice are sex determining genes. The fortuitous findings of XX males and XY female, which are generally termed sex reversal phenomenon, are quite bewildering traits that have caused much amazement concerning the pairing mechanism(s) of the pseudoautosomal regions of human X and Y chromosomes at meiosis. These findings have opened new avenues to explore further the genetic basis of sex determination at the single gene level. The aim of the fourth volume, titled Genetics of Sex Determination is to reflect on the latest advances and future investigative directions, encompassing 10 chapters. Commissioned several distinguished scientists, all pre-eminent authorities in each field to shed their thoughts concisely but epitomise their chapters with an extended bibliography. Obviously, during the past 60 years, the metoric advances are voluminous and to cover every account of genes, chromosomes, and sex in a single volume format would be a herculean task. Therefore, a few specific topics are chosen, which may be of great interest to scientists and clinicians. The seasoned scientists who love to inquire about the role of genes in sex determination should find the original work of these notable contributors very enlightening. This volume is intended for advanced students who want to keep abreast as well as for those who indulge in the search for genes of sex determination.

The Genetics and Biology of Sex Determination

In addition, clinical aspects and the genetic analysis of anomalies of human sexual development are also addressed. This exciting book reviews much new and exciting work in this area and identifies promising new research directions.

The Genetics and Biology of Sex Determination

Nature employs a wide variety of sex determining mechanisms and it is only comparatively recently that the tools have become available for these to be explored at the cellular and molecular levels. A major landmark was the discovery in 1990 of the SRY gene and the subsequent demonstration of its key role in triggering male sex determination in transgenic mice. This book reviews and discusses our current understanding of the molecular genetic pathways of sex determination, with special emphasis on vertebrates. It features comparisons with other modes of sex determination, consideration of the biology of sexual development and discussion of the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms. By bringing together an international and interdisciplinary group of experts who study many different aspects of the problem, the book highlights much new and exciting work in this area and serves to identify and stimulate promising new research directions.

Sex Determination and Sexual Development

This volume reviews our current understanding for how sex determination is initiated and how it results in sexual dimorphic development.

Sex Determination and Sexual Development

This volume reviews our current understanding for how sex determination is initiated and how it results in sexual dimorphic development. Chapters discussing work on different model systems provide a basis for understanding similarities that exist between different species. Coverage includes discussion of sexual development of the soma in C. elegans; sexual development of the germline in C. elegans; sexual development of the soma in Drosophila; sexual development of the germline in Drosophila; sexual development of the soma in the mouse; sexual development of the germline in the mouse; control of sex-specific behavior in Drosophila; and control of sex-specific behavior in vertebrates. * Uncovers the latest research findings on sexual determination and sexual development * Model systems illustrate key sexual similarities * Explores in-depth the origins of sex specific behavior

Evolution of Sex Determining Mechanisms

Classical sex determining mechanisms; Male and female heterogamety: 2. factor systems; Multiple-factor systems; Genetics of sex development and the nature of sex factors; A combinatorial enumeration of sex determining mechanisms: 2. factor ...

Evolution of Sex Determining Mechanisms

Classical sex determining mechanisms; Male and female heterogamety: 2. factor systems; Multiple-factor systems; Genetics of sex development and the nature of sex factors; A combinatorial enumeration of sex determining mechanisms: 2. factor and multiple-factor systems; Evolution in multiple-factor systems; Evolution of the heterogametic mechanism of sex determination; Polyfactorial sex determination; Environmental sex determination (ESD); Evolution of environmental sex determination; Uniparental males: arrhenotoky (Haplo-diploidy) and paternal genome loss; Advantages of producing uniparental males; Cytoplasmic sex determination; A parental mechanism of sex determination: maternal monogeny; Sex chromosome evolution; Characteristics of sex chromosomes: extreme X-Y heteromorphism; Slight X-Y heteromorphism and evidence of a transition; Evolution of sex chromosome differences: models and theory.

Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination in Vertebrates

This book surveys current knowledge of sex chromosomes and sex determination in all vertebrate classes, relying on the restriction of genetic recombination in sex chromosomes as the unifying concept of this subject.

Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination in Vertebrates

The cloning of the SRY gene and the attainment of XX mice transgenic for the Sry gene opened a new era in research on sex determination. This book surveys current knowledge of sex chromosomes and sex determination in all vertebrate classes, relying on the restriction of genetic recombination in sex chromosomes as the unifying concept of this subject. The book's interdisciplinary approach integrates contributions from the fields of cytogenetics, molecular biology, developmental biology, and evolutionary genetics. A detailed treatment of the meiotic behavior of sex chromosomes is featured, and the entire text is supplemented by numerous schemes, drawings, and electron micrographs. The book will be valuable to general cytogeneticists, vertebrate zoologists, and veterinarian and medical practitioners interested in the foundations of sex determination and the current knowledge of sex chromosomes. It will also interest students in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in these areas.

Genetics of Sex Differentiation

The book is an excellent ""bedside book"" for students in biology, specifically in genetics and developmental biology. Lecturers and professionals in biology and genetics will also find this book invaluable for their practice.

Genetics of Sex Differentiation

Genetics of Sex Differentiation intends to help readers understand the genetic basis of sex differentiation. The book focuses on explaining how the sex chromosomes affect the process of sex differentiation by influencing the rates at which cells divide. The book is composed of seven chapters. It provides overviews of classical genetics and structure of cells. It also explains the chromosomal basis of sex determination and sex determination using Drosophila. Polygenetics and continuous and quasicontinuous variations are also discussed. The book also discusses sex factors, determination, and disorders. Moreover, it explains the heterochromatin, embryological basis of sex differentiation, and triploidy and autosomal effects. In addition, it discusses the relationship of genes, chromosomes, growth, and sex. The book is an excellent ""bedside book"" for students in biology, specifically in genetics and developmental biology. Lecturers and professionals in biology and genetics will also find this book invaluable for their practice.

Sex Chromosomes and Sex Linked Genes

Natural selection operates among individual organisms which differ in their genetic constitution.

Sex Chromosomes and Sex Linked Genes

Natural selection operates among individual organisms which differ in their genetic constitution. The degree of hereditary variability within a species is greatly enhanced by cross-fertilization. Indeed, the mechanism of sexual reproduction occurred very early in evolution, for it is seen today even in bacteria. In Escherichia coli, fertilization occurs by passage of the single chromosome from the male into the female bacterium (LEDERBERG, 1959). In multicellular organisms, the separation of germ from soma, and the production of haploid gametes became mandatory. The gametes were of two types. One, extremely mobile, was designed to seek out and penetrate the other, which loaded with nutrients, received the mobile gamete and intiated the development of a new individual. The foundation for true bisexuality was thus laid. In the primitive state of bisexuality, whether an individual is to be a sperm-producing male or an egg-producing female appears to be decided rather haphazardly. In the worm, Banelia viridis, the minute males are parasites in the female. Larvae that become attached to the proboscis of an adult female become males, while unattached larvae sink to the bottom and become females (BALTZER, 1935). The more sophisticated state of bisexuality was initiated by setting aside a particular pair of chromosomes for specialization and making either the male or the female a heterogametic sex. Sex chromosomes as we know them were thus born.

Genes and Mechanisms in Vertebrate Sex Determination

Subsequent chapters look at the roles of these genes in sex determination in marsupial mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, and review the different sex-determining mechanisms, genetic and environmental, that operate in these ...

Genes and Mechanisms in Vertebrate Sex Determination

Following an opening chapter by the late Susumu Ohno on paralogues of sex-determining genes, the five best-studied genes essential for early mammalian gonadal development are portrayed in detail: SF-1 and WT1 and their roles in early events in gonadal development, SRY and SOX9 in testis determination, and the anti-testis gene DAX-1. Subsequent chapters look at the roles of these genes in sex determination in marsupial mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, and review the different sex-determining mechanisms, genetic and environmental, that operate in these different vertebrate classes. Two insights emerge: one, that the same basic set of genes appears to operate during early gonadal development in all vertebrates, despite the differences in mechanisms; the other, that sex determination in vertebrates results from a complex network of regulatory interactions and not from a simple hierarchical cascade of gene actions.

The Evolution of Sex Determination

This novel book presents and synthesizes our current understanding, and clearly shows that sex-determination evolution will remain a dynamic field of future research.

The Evolution of Sex Determination

Sexual reproduction is a fundamental aspect of life. It is defined by the occurrence of meiosis and the fusion of two gametes of different sexes or mating types. Sex-determination mechanisms are responsible for the sexual fate and development of sexual characteristics in an organism, be it a unicellular alga, a plant, or an animal. In many cases, sex determination is genetic: males and females have different alleles or different genes that specify their sexual morphology. In animals, this is often accompanied by chromosomal differences. In other cases, sex may be determined by environmental (e.g. temperature) or social variables (e.g. the size of an organism relative to other members of its population). Surprisingly, sex-determination mechanisms are not evolutionarily conserved but are bewilderingly diverse and appear to have had rapid turnover rates during evolution. Evolutionary biologists continue to seek a solution to this conundrum. What drives the surprising dynamics of such a fundamental process that always leads to the same outcome: two sex types, male and female? The answer is complex but the ongoing genomic revolution has already greatly increased our knowledge of sex-determination systems and sex chromosomes in recent years. This novel book presents and synthesizes our current understanding, and clearly shows that sex-determination evolution will remain a dynamic field of future research. The Evolution of Sex Determination is an advanced, research level text suitable for graduate students and researchers in genetics, developmental biology, and evolution.

Molecular Genetic Mechanisms of Sex Determination in Animals

Thanks to this mechanism, numerous species have an evolutionary advantage. In the book, two authors will discuss the types of genetic sex determination and differentiation, mostly in multicellular animal organisms.

Molecular Genetic Mechanisms of Sex Determination in Animals

Gender (sex) is a set of morphological and physiological characteristics of the organism underlying sexual reproduction, the essence of which is reduced to fertilization, i.e. the fusion of male and female gametes (gametes) zygote, which develops into a new organism.Sexual reproduction of a species is considered as one of the mechanisms of its homeostasis. Thanks to this mechanism, numerous species have an evolutionary advantage. In the book, two authors will discuss the types of genetic sex determination and differentiation, mostly in multicellular animal organisms. Sex determination is both genetic and environmental process, the sex of an individual being established through an alternative physiological solution. There are two main postulated mechanisms of sex determination: genetic (GSD, Genetical Sex Determination) and environmental (ESD, Environmental Sex Determination).

Sex Determination in Vertebrates

Sex Determination, Volume 134, the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series, contains current reviews in the field of vertebrate sex determination.

Sex Determination in Vertebrates

Sex Determination, Volume 134, the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series, contains current reviews in the field of vertebrate sex determination. It covers molecular pathways of sex determination in genetic and environmental species and encompasses both sex determination of somatic lineages and commitment of germ cells to male or female fate. Chapters in this new release cover, amongst other topics, Mapping the Sox9 Enhancer Elements, Epigenetic Regulation of Sex Determination, Evolution and Management of Sex Chromosomes, Regulation of Germ Cell Sex Identity in Medaka, Control of Sex Determination in Zebrafish, Sexually Dimorphic Germ Cell Identity in Mammals, and more. Contains reviews written by leading experts in each field Includes informative figures that illustrate principle points that are useful for teaching Written in a style that is clear and simple

Sex Chromosomes

However, because the remainder of the Y chromosome is missing they frequently do not develop secondary sexual characteristics in the usual way. This book presents the latest research in the field from around the world.

Sex Chromosomes

Sex chromosomes determine the sex of an organism. A human somatic cell has two sex chromosomes: XY in male and XX in female. A human germ cell has one sex chromosome: X or Y in a sperm and X in an egg. When an X-sperm is combined with an egg, the resulting zygote (fertilised egg) will contain two X chromosomes. A person developed from the XX-zygote will have the characteristics of a female. Combination of a Y-sperm and an egg will produce a male. Usually, a woman has two X chromosomes (XX) and a man one X and one Y (XY). However, both male and female characteristics can sometimes be found in one individual, and it is possible to have XY women and XX men. Analysis of such individuals has revealed some of the molecules involved in sex determination, including one called SRY, which is important for testis formation. SRY (which stands for sex-determining region Y gene) is found on the Y chromosome. In the cell, it binds to other DNA and in doing so distorts it dramatically out of shape. This alters the properties of the DNA and likely alters the expression of a number of genes, leading to testis formation. Most XX men who lack a Y chromosome do still have a copy of the SRY gene on one of their X chromosomes (moved there by chromosomal translocation). This copy accounts for their maleness. However, because the remainder of the Y chromosome is missing they frequently do not develop secondary sexual characteristics in the usual way. This book presents the latest research in the field from around the world.

Sex Determination in Plants

Indispensable for all plant biologists, this is a fascinating and thorough examination of those factors which affect the sex determination of plant species, describing all of the main classes of plant with unisexual flowers hermaphrodite, ...

Sex Determination in Plants

Indispensable for all plant biologists, this is a fascinating and thorough examination of those factors which affect the sex determination of plant species, describing all of the main classes of plant with unisexual flowers hermaphrodite, monoecious and

Sex Determination Differentiation and Intersexuality in Placental Mammals

Originally published in 1995, this book describes the genetic determination of sex and examines how sexual organs are differentiated.

Sex Determination  Differentiation and Intersexuality in Placental Mammals

How do males become male and females become female? And what are the consequences if the decision is not incisive? Drawing upon interests in animal genetics and molecular biology, the author endeavours to answer these difficult yet fascinating questions. Originally published in 1995, this book describes the genetic determination of sex and examines how sexual organs are differentiated. Using examples of intersexuality, chimaeras and asymmetries, the book describes the underlying molecular basis of sex determination and sexual differentiation, and focuses on the critical role of the rate of embryonic development in these vital processes. Male precocity is a recurrent theme, as is the involvement of Sertoli cells and their secretion of anti-Müllerian hormone. An invaluable book for reproductive physiologists, geneticists and developmental biologists whose interests may extend from animal science through veterinary medicine to human clinical medicine.

Sex determination

Sex determination


The X in Sex

--Gilbert Taylor, Booklist Reviews of this book: In The X in Sex, David Bainbridge explains the far-reaching effects of X. Bainbridge...moves with ease between straightforward accounts of biology and historical stories about its effect, ...

The X in Sex

A tiny scrap of genetic information determines our sex; it also consigns many of us to a life of disease, directs or disrupts the everyday working of our bodies, and forces women to live as genetic chimeras. The culprit--so necessary and yet the source of such upheaval--is the X chromosome, and this is its story. An enlightening and entertaining tour of the cultural and natural history of this intriguing member of the genome, The X in Sex traces the journey toward our current understanding of the nature of X. From its chance discovery in the nineteenth century to the promise and implications of ongoing research, David Bainbridge shows how the X evolved and where it and its counterpart Y are going, how it helps assign developing human babies their sex--and maybe even their sexuality--and how it affects our lives in infinitely complex and subtle ways. X offers cures for disease, challenges our cultural, ethical, and scientific assumptions about maleness and femaleness, and has even reshaped our views of human evolution and human nature. Table of Contents: Prologue 1. Making a Difference Interlude: What Is It, Exactly? 2. The Duke of Kent's Testicles Interlude: How Sexy Is X? 3. The Double Life of Women Epilogue: The Chosen One Further Reading Glossary Index Reviews of this book: The author of Making Babies takes a lively, witty tour of the X chromosome, creator of "a delicious symmetry between men and women"...Entertaining and informative...A fine demonstration of science made accessible. --Kirkus Reviews Reviews of this book: A well-written, well-researched, easy-to-read study that explains what has been learned about the X and Y chromosomes using DNA sequencing and other molecular biology techniques. British biologist Bainbridge...has pulled together historical and current scientific research about how the X and Y chromosomes affect us and what the genes on these chromosomes actually do, like causing sex-linked diseases and color blindness...An excellent example of good science writing...Recommended. --Margaret Henderson, Library Journal Reviews of this book: Bainbridge is an essentialist, interested in understanding what aspects of gender are biologically driven, and why...He has a central question he wants to answer. The question is not so much why men and women are different (a worn topic that's the subject of too many Mars-and-Venus bestsellers) but, far more specific and far more interesting: Why are men and women more different than they need to be? --Liza Mundy, Washington Post Reviews of this book: Bainbridge summarizes our knowledge of the genetic information that determines one's sex by recounting the ancients' speculations about the genesis of gender, following with modern biologists' discovery of the X and Y chromosomes about a century ago, and of the sex-determining gene Sry in the 1990s. In a discussion rich with history, evolution, and philosophy, Bainbridge points out the dramatic effect that gender selection has on people's lives...A fascinating, often humorous analysis of the science of sexuality. --Gilbert Taylor, Booklist Reviews of this book: In The X in Sex, David Bainbridge explains the far-reaching effects of X. Bainbridge...moves with ease between straightforward accounts of biology and historical stories about its effect, like the chapter describing the progression of hemophilia through the royal houses of Europe. Bainbridge discusses cultural history as well as natural history, and his wit enlivens every page. --Christine Kenneally, New York Times Book Review Reviews of this book: There are many literary stars (such as Stephen Jay Gould, Richard Dawkins and Matt Ridley) in the firmament of writers on evolution, and to a man they write with dash and persuasive logic. David Bainbridge is one such and in his latest book he takes the reader through the glories of the X chromosome at a cracking pace. --Miriam Stoppard, Times Higher Education Supplement (UK) Reviews of this book: The truth is that the behaviours of [chromosomes] X and Y are inextricably linked. Bainbridge explores this link in a compelling tale that takes in how the sex chromosomes became sex chromosomes, and the very different consequences of this for women and men. Along the way we encounter the Duke of Kent's testicles, calico cats and non-identical identical twin girls. His story weaves science, history and the history of science (with a little religion for good measure) in a straightforward, anecdotal fashion that will appeal to scientists and non-scientists alike. --Mark T. Ross, New Scientist (UK) Reviews of this book: In his structure/function analysis of the X chromosome, Bainbridge provides a tongue-in-cheek, yet informative, description of one of the two human sex chromosomes. --R. Adler, Choice Reviews of this book: If you have ever been intrigued by some of the puzzles of genetics--why boys tend to get haemophilia or colour blindness while girls are more likely to have an identical twin or to develop rheumatoid arthritis later in life--then The X in Sex is for you. --Chris Tyler-Smith, Times Literary Supplement David Bainbridge takes us on a fascinating tour of X chromosomes and explains what the possession of these intricately folded, infinitessimally narrow, two-inch long strings of genetic codes weighing almost nothing, means for their bearers--that is for each one of us, male and female. History and personal anecdotes are woven together with up-to-date summaries of the science, punctuated with Bainbridge's zany--and very British--humor, so that this information-packed book is pure pleasure to read. --Sarah Blaffer Hrdy author of Mother Nature: A History of Mothers, Infants, and Natural Selection The X in Sex is absolutely fascinating, so intriguing, in fact, that I found myself unwilling to put it down. David Bainbridge surveys an astonishing amount of new information from recent genomic studies of the X chromosome, clearly explaining the findings in a way the average person can easily follow. The science is presented via amusing and highly appropriate metaphors and clever turns of phrase, all of which serve to brighten the prose and present the reader with catchy ways to think about complex ideas. This is an informative, authoritative, and thoroughly enjoyable read: one of the best books I have read in recent years. --Jane Lancaster, University of New Mexico This is wonderful stuff--beautifully written, clear, jargon-free, with anecdotes sure to hold the attention. --other hupauthorTim Birkhead, author of Promiscuity: An Evolutionary History of Sperm Competition

Genetics of Sex Determination

This volume is intended for advanced students who want to keep abreast as well as for those who indulge in the search for genes of sex determination.

Genetics of Sex Determination

The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection by R.A. Fisher (1930) dictated that sexual dimorphisms may depend upon a single medelian factor. This could be true for some species but his suggestion could not take off the ground as gender in Drosophila is determined by the number of X chromosomes. Technical advances in molecular biology have revived the initial thinking of Fisher and dictate that TDF or SRY genes in humans or Tdy in mice are sex determining genes. The fortuitous findings of XX males and XY female, which are generally termed sex reversal phenomenon, are quite bewildering traits that have caused much amazement concerning the pairing mechanism(s) of the pseudoautosomal regions of human X and Y chromosomes at meiosis. These findings have opened new avenues to explore further the genetic basis of sex determination at the single gene level. The aim of the fourth volume, titled Genetics of Sex Determination is to reflect on the latest advances and future investigative directions, encompassing 10 chapters. Commissioned several distinguished scientists, all pre-eminent authorities in each field to shed their thoughts concisely but epitomise their chapters with an extended bibliography. Obviously, during the past 60 years, the metoric advances are voluminous and to cover every account of genes, chromosomes, and sex in a single volume format would be a herculean task. Therefore, a few specific topics are chosen, which may be of great interest to scientists and clinicians. The seasoned scientists who love to inquire about the role of genes in sex determination should find the original work of these notable contributors very enlightening. This volume is intended for advanced students who want to keep abreast as well as for those who indulge in the search for genes of sex determination.