German Reunification

This book provides a multinational history of German reunification based on empirical work by leading scholars. The reunification of Germany in 1989-90 was one of the most unexpected and momentous events of the twentieth century.

German Reunification

This book provides a multinational history of German reunification based on empirical work by leading scholars. The reunification of Germany in 1989-90 was one of the most unexpected and momentous events of the twentieth century. Embedded within the wider process of the end of the Cold War, it contributed decisively to the dramatic changes that followed: the end of the division of Europe, the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, the origins of NATO’s eastward expansion and, not least, the creation of the European Union. Based on the wealth of evidence that has become available from many countries involved, and relying on the most recent historiography, this collection takes into account the complex interaction of multinational processes that were instrumental in shaping German reunification in the pivotal years 1989-90. The volume brings together renowned international scholars whose recent works, based on their research in multiple languages and sources, have contributed significantly to the history of the end of the Cold War and of German reunification. The resulting volume represents an important contribution to our knowledge and understanding of a significant chapter in recent history. This book will be of much interest to students of German politics, Cold war history, international and multinational history and IR in general.

1989

The year 1989 was one such crucial watershed. This book uses previously unavailable sources to explore the momentous events following the fall of the Berlin Wall twenty years ago and the effects they have had on our world ever since.

1989

"Mary Sarotte's "1989" reinterprets, in a striking manner, the end of the Cold War in Europe. Based on extensive multiarchival research, it suggests a Bismarckian preeminence for West German chancellor Helmut Kohl in driving the course of events. All students of this subject will henceforth have to grapple with this provocatively persuasive argument."--John Lewis Gaddis, Yale University, author of "The Cold War" "Sarotte makes an essential contribution to the literature on the revolutions of 1989. Her focus is on Europe and Germany, East and West, in the context of the international system. The research is stunning, including new archival sources and revealing interviews with the historical figures involved. Her narrative is fast-paced--like the events themselves--and highly readable. Scholars, students, and the informed public at large will enjoy and learn a lot from this impressive book."--Norman M. Naimark, Stanford University, author of "Fires of Hatred" "The first international history of the diplomacy that produced the miracle of German reunification, this will be the starting point for all research on the international history of reunification from now on."--O. A. Westad, London School of Economics and Political Science, author of "The Global Cold War" "Challenging conventional wisdom, Mary Sarotte questions why the West opted to extend existing Euro-Atlantic structures east in the wake of German unification, instead of creating a new system that would have included Moscow. Based on new archival material and extensive interviews with participants in these events, she argues convincingly that the United States and its partners missed a one-time opportunity to devise a post-Cold War architecture that would have made Europe more secure."--Angela Stent, Georgetown University, author of "Russia and Germany Reborn" "Sarotte has written a major book about one of the most important events at the end of the Cold War--the international negotiations which culminated in the unification of Germany. Notably, she has managed to get access to primary sources that would be the dream of any historian. She vividly describes the efforts of powerful individuals to create order out of fast-moving and chaotic circumstances. This is a terrific book."--A. James McAdams, University of Notre Dame, author of "Germany Divided"

The End of the Cold War

This carefully researched history draws on archival sources as well as a wealth of new interviews with on-the-ground activists, political actors, international figures, and others to move beyond the narratives both the German and American ...

The End of the Cold War

This carefully researched history draws on archival sources as well as a wealth of new interviews with on-the-ground activists, political actors, international figures, and others to move beyond the narratives both the German and American varieties that have dominated the historical memory of German reunification.

Rethinking Europe s Future

This is a beautifully written book that offers rich insight into a critical moment in our history, whose outcome will shape the world long after our time.

Rethinking Europe s Future

Rethinking Europe's Future is a major reevaluation of Europe's prospects as it enters the twenty-first century. David Calleo has written a book worthy of the complexity and grandeur of the challenges Europe now faces. Summoning the insights of history, political economy, and philosophy, he explains why Europe was for a long time the world's greatest problem and how the Cold War's bipolar partition brought stability of a sort. Without the Cold War, Europe risks revisiting its more traditional history. With so many contingent factors--in particular Russia and Europe's Muslim neighbors--no one, Calleo believes, can pretend to predict the future with assurance. Calleo's book ponders how to think about this future. The book begins by considering the rival ''lessons'' and trends that emerge from Europe's deeper past. It goes on to discuss the theories for managing the traditional state system, the transition from autocratic states to communitarian nation states, the enduring strength of nation states, and their uneasy relationship with capitalism. Calleo next focuses on the Cold War's dynamic legacies for Europe--an Atlantic Alliance, a European Union, and a global economy. These three systems now compete to define the future. The book's third and major section examines how Europe has tried to meet the present challenges of Russian weakness and German reunification. Succeeding chapters focus on Maastricht and the Euro, on the impact of globalization on Europeanization, and on the EU's unfinished business--expanding into ''Pan Europe,'' adapting a hybrid constitution, and creating a new security system. Calleo presents three models of a new Europe--each proposing a different relationship with the U.S. and Russia. A final chapter probes how a strong European Union might affect the world and the prospects for American hegemony. This is a beautifully written book that offers rich insight into a critical moment in our history, whose outcome will shape the world long after our time.

Germany 1945 1990

This book offers lively description and convincing interpretation of the most significant events, cruces and ongoing themes in German history from the end of the Second World War up to the present.

Germany  1945 1990

This book offers lively description and convincing interpretation of the most significant events, cruces and ongoing themes in German history from the end of the Second World War up to the present. The chronologies that accompany each chapter record the most important dates, facts and names occurring in the narrative. Jurgen Weber's text supplies the reader with a combination of vivid descriptive history, easily absorbed chronology, and a reliable reference work for the parallel lives of the two Germanies, a product of the Cold War. Weber describes in a clear and reader-friendly manner the history of Germany since 1945. The narrative begins with the period of the allied occupation and progresses through the diverse developments in East and West Germany up to the Federal Republic of today. The most important events, cruces and ongoing themes of the last fifty years are not only succinctly and vividly presented and interpreted, they are also placed in the context of international political developments. Each chapter is accompanied by a chronology featuring the most significant dates and facts relating to the period it covers. The last chapter gives a summary of what happened after 1990 and on present and future political problems of German reunification.

Mitterrand the End of the Cold War and German Unification

Based on extensive research and a vast amount of archival sources, this book explores the role played by France in shaping a new European order.

Mitterrand  the End of the Cold War  and German Unification

Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, this important book explores the role of France in the events leading up to the end of the Cold War and German unification. Most accounts concentrate on the role of the United States and look at these events through the bipolar prism of Soviet-American relations. Yet because of its central position in Europe and of its status as Germany's foremost European partner, France and its President, Francois Mitterrand, played a decisive role in these pivotal international events: the peaceful liberation of Eastern Europe from Soviet rule starting in 1988, the fall of the Berlin Wall and Germany's return to unity and full sovereignty in 1989/90, and the breakup of the USSR in 1991. Based on extensive research and a vast amount of archival sources, this book explores the role played by France in shaping a new European order.

Britain Germany and the Cold War

This well-researched book details the ambiguity in British policy towards Europe in the Cold War as it sought to pursue détente with the Soviet Union whilst upholding its commitments to its NATO allies.

Britain  Germany and the Cold War

This well-researched book details the ambiguity in British policy towards Europe in the Cold War as it sought to pursue détente with the Soviet Union whilst upholding its commitments to its NATO allies. From the early 1950s, Britain pursued a dual policy of strengthening the West whilst seeking détente with the Soviet Union. British statesmen realized that only through compromise with Moscow over the German question could the elusive East-West be achieved. Against this, the West German hard line towards the East (endorsed by the United States) was seen by the British as perpetuating tension between the two blocs. This cast British policy onto an insoluble dilemma, as it was caught between its alliance obligations to the West German state and its search for compromise with the Soviet bloc. Charting Britain's attempts to reconcile this contradiction, this book argues that Britain successfully adapted to the new realities and made hitherto unknown contributions towards détente in the early 1960s, whilst drawing towards Western Europe and applying for membership of the EEC in 1961. Drawing on unpublished US and UK archives, Britain, Germany and the Cold War casts new light on the Cold War, the history of détente and the evolution of European integration. This book will appeal to students of Cold War history, British foreign policy, German politics, and international history.

The End of the Cold War

In this work Alexandre Muns analyzes and describes the political, economic and social forces and the roles played by politicians and high-ranking officials from the United States, the former Soviet Union, the Federal Republic of Germany, ...

The End of the Cold War

In this work Alexandre Muns analyzes and describes the political, economic and social forces and the roles played by politicians and high-ranking officials from the United States, the former Soviet Union, the Federal Republic of Germany, the former German Democratic Republic and other countries in enabling international diplomacy to achieve the historic success of peacefully reunifying Germany in less than a year as a fully sovereign and democratic state. Interviews with many of the key officials in the negotiations reveal how the western powers seized the opportunity presented by the popular democratic revolution in the GDR in 1989 to engineer German reunification on terms largely favorable to the West. Alexandre Muns Rubiol holds a PhD in Contemporary History from the University of Barcelona. He is a Lecturer in European Integration and International Economic Institutions at the Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional (Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona) since 1997 and Head of Studies of the American Chamber of Commerce in Spain.

Germany s Cold War

Gray examines West Germany's efforts to deny international acceptance of East Germany as a legitimate state following World War II, in the process telling an important story of the reassertion of Germany as an important power after the ...

Germany s Cold War

Gray examines West Germany's efforts to deny international acceptance of East Germany as a legitimate state following World War II, in the process telling an important story of the reassertion of Germany as an important power after the disaster of the war.

Transatlantic Relations since 1945

This book will be of great interest to students of transatlantic relations, NATO, US Foreign Policy, Cold War History, European History and IR/International history.

Transatlantic Relations since 1945

Transatlantic Relations Since 1945 offers a comprehensive account of transatlantic relations in the second half of the 20th century (extending to the present-day). The transatlantic relationship has been the bedrock of international relations since the end of World War II. This new textbook will focus on the period since the defeat of Nazi Germany, when the multitude of links between United States and Western Europe were created, extended, and multiplied. Written in an accessible style, it emphasizes transatlantic interactions, and avoids the temptation to focus on either U.S. ‘domination’ or European attempts to ‘resist’ an American effort to subjugate the old continent. That influence has travelled across the Atlantic in both directions is one of the starting points of this text. Structured chronologically, the book will be built around three key themes: Security: From the Cold War to the War on Terror Economics: Integration and Competition ‘Soft power’ and Transatlantic Relations. This book will be of great interest to students of transatlantic relations, NATO, US Foreign Policy, Cold War History, European History and IR/International history.

The End of the Cold War

Giving an overview of the origins and history of the Cold War, this work considers whether the Cold War is truly over, and what the effects have been on Europe, and the former Soviet Union, as well as US foreign policy.

The End of the Cold War

Giving an overview of the origins and history of the Cold War, this work considers whether the Cold War is truly over, and what the effects have been on Europe, and the former Soviet Union, as well as US foreign policy.

New Perspectives on the End of the Cold War

This collection of essays makes a significant contribution to the historiography of the end of the Cold War. Research on the causes and consequences of the end of the Cold War is constantly growing.

New Perspectives on the End of the Cold War

This collection of essays makes a significant contribution to the historiography of the end of the Cold War. Research on the causes and consequences of the end of the Cold War is constantly growing. Initially, it was dominated by fairly simplistic, and often politically motivated, debates revolving around the role played by major "winners" and "losers". This volume addresses a number of diverse issues and seeks to challenge several "common wisdoms" about the end of the Cold War. Together, the contributions provide insights on the role of personalities as well as the impact of transnational movements and forces on the unexpected political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Geographically, the chapters largely focus on the United States, Europe, with special emphasis on Germany, and the Soviet Union. The individual chapters are drawn together by the overarching theme relating to a particular "common wisdom": were the transformations that occurred truly "unexpected"? This collection of essays will make an important contribution to the growing literature on the developments that produced the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. This volume will be of much interest to students of Cold War Studies, International History, European Politics and International Relations in general.

What role did the pursuit of German reunification play in the drafting of the Treaty of Moscow The policy of Ostpolitik

Essay from the year 2019 in the subject History Europe - Other Countries - Newer History, European Unification, grade: 1,5, University of Amsterdam, language: English, abstract: The main aim of this paper is to analyze the aims of the ...

What role did the pursuit of German reunification play in the drafting of the Treaty of Moscow  The policy of Ostpolitik

Essay from the year 2019 in the subject History Europe - Other Countries - Newer History, European Unification, grade: 1,5, University of Amsterdam, language: English, abstract: The main aim of this paper is to analyze the aims of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in conducting the Treaty of Moscow as the core of "Ostpolitik" and assess the role of the pursuit of German reunification behind increased cooperation of the FRG with the USSR. In order to answer these questions, I will focus on the main aims desired by concluding the Soviet-German treaty and the origins of Ostpolitik. The paper will be divided into three main parts. Firstly, I will give a brief introduction on the "Neue Ostpolitk" under Brandt and construe the Treaty of Moscow as core agreement of this policy, as it was the first official agreement, which adhered to the will of improved relations with the USSR. In the second part I will further examine the underlying vision of Willy Brandt in pursuing Ostpolitik and how he presented this vision. In 1971, Brandt was awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize for his attempt to reconcile tensions between East and West. With regard to this accomplishment, I will analyze and interpret a speech held by the chancellor on the occasion of receiving the Nobel Peace Prize to disclose on how Brandt used the narrative of European stability to promote his pursuit of German reunification. Ultimately, I will coalesce my findings and try to answer whether the treaty, as core agreement of Ostpolitik, can be seen as just an atmospheric success , a materialization of nationalist aims or as decisive step in the process of reconciling tensions within Europe and advancing détente in Europe.

The Balance of Empires

The world in which we live now was created in no small part by the backroom decisions during a few months of 1952. This book on the March Note should appeal to both the armchair historian and the social scientist.

The Balance of Empires

On March 10, 1952, almost a decade before the Berlin Wall existed, the U.S.S.R. controversially proposed the creation of a reunified, rearmed and neutral Germany. A year before Stalin's death, this was the last overture he tendered on "the German Question." However, the bid failed and Germany remained divided for another 38 years. Why? One can understand neither the Cold War nor the eventual reunification of Germany in 1990 without understanding this 1952 incident. The world in which we live now was created in no small part by the backroom decisions during a few months of 1952. This book on the March Note should appeal to both the armchair historian and the social scientist. Besides being a fascinating tale of diplomatic intrigue, it provides a valuable case study for International Relations scholars. Scholarly arguments of Realism vs. Idealism, levels of analysis, open vs. closed door diplomacy, the selection of which tier of authority to address an issue (from chief of state to low functionary), institutionalism and path-dependence, and the ever-present issue of spin control are all in evidence here. As such, this book could make a useful classroom assignment in International Relations, Diplomatic History, American or European Studies, Journalism or Media Studies. Yet, the theoretically-disinclined can also leave these arguments in the background and simply enjoy this little-known tale of empires which still shapes our lives today.

Europe and the End of the Cold War

Seeking to reassess the role of Europe in the end of the Cold War & the process of German unification, this volume arises from an international conference held at the Sorbonne in June 2006.

Europe and the End of the Cold War

This book seeks to reassess the role of Europe in the end of the Cold War and the process of German unification. Much of the existing literature on the end of the Cold War has focused primarily on the role of the superpowers and on that of the US in particular. This edited volume seeks to re-direct the focus towards the role of European actors and the importance of European processes, most notably that of integration. Written by leading experts in the field, and making use of newly available source material, the book explores "Europe" in all its various dimensions, bringing to the forefront of historical research previously neglected actors and processes. These include key European nations, endemic evolutions in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, European integration, and the pan-European process. The volume serves therefore to rediscover the transformation of 1989-90 as a European event, deeply influenced by European actors, and of great significance for the subsequent evolution of the continent.

German Unification 1989 90

This volume is comprised of a collection of diplomatic documents covering British reactions to, and policy towards, the collapse of the German Democratic Republic and the unification of Germany in 1989-90.

German Unification 1989 90

This volume is comprised of a collection of diplomatic documents covering British reactions to, and policy towards, the collapse of the German Democratic Republic and the unification of Germany in 1989-90. The peaceful unification of Germany in 1989-90 brought a dramatic end to the Cold War. This volume documents official British reactions to the collapse of East Germany and the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the evolution of British policy during the ‘Two plus Four’ negotiations that provided the international framework for the merger of the two German states. All of the documents fall within the UK’s 30-year rule and have therefore not previously been in the public domain. Most are drawn from the archives of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, but there are also a large number of Prime Ministerial files from the Cabinet Office archives. These are of particular interest for the light they throw on the views of Margaret Thatcher. Taken together, the documents show that despite Mrs Thatcher’s well-known reservations about German unity, the United Kingdom played a vital and constructive role in the negotiations that helped to bring it about. This volume will be of great interest to students of International History, British Political History, and European Politics and International Relations in general. Patrick Salmon is Chief Historian at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Keith Hamilton is a Historian at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Senior Editor of Documents on British Policy Overseas. Stephen Twigge is a Senior Historian at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

Germany since Unification

The books' eleven authors, all experts in their field, analyse the way united Germany has tackled the many unforeseen problems and highlighted the gradually emerging short- and long-term patterns in Germany's slow adjustment to the new ...

Germany since Unification

A decade after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the collapse of the GDR and the end of the Cold War, Germany has begun to cope with the political, economic, social and nationalistic challenges unification has posed to its institutions and way of life in both the western and eastern part of the once divided nation. The books' eleven authors, all experts in their field, analyse the way united Germany has tackled the many unforeseen problems and highlighted the gradually emerging short- and long-term patterns in Germany's slow adjustment to the new realities. The country has not only become more populous and territorially bigger, but also burdened with much underestimated problems, particularly economic and social ones. The emergence of a new economic, political and perhaps military superstate as feared by many in 1990 has not materialised. Instead, Germany today is only just coping with the domestic and external challenges of unification. The economic and social integration of the former East Germany into the Federal Republic has still not been completed and may take yet another ten to fifteen years. The book is a timely and well-researched effort by a team of outstanding experts to evaluate Germany's performance to date. It gives the reader ample and well-analysed information to comprehend the many challenges facing Germany and its European neighbours in the post-Cold War world

The German Problem Transformed

This book will be of interest to scholars and students of German history, German politics, and European international relations, as well as policymakers and the interested public.

The German Problem Transformed

Does the new, more powerful Germany pose a threat to its neighbors? Does the new German Problem resemble the old? The German Problem Transformed addresses these questions fifty years after the founding of the Federal Republic and ten years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Many observers have underscored the reemergence of Germany as Europe's central power. After four decades of division, they contend, Germany is once again fully sovereign; without the strictures of bipolarity, its leaders are free to define and pursue national interests in East and West. From this perspective, the reunified Germany faces challenges not unlike those of its unified predecessor a century earlier. The German Problem Transformed rejects this formulation. Thomas Banchoff acknowledges post-reunification challenges, but argues that postwar changes, not prewar analogies, best illuminate them. The book explains the transformation of German foreign policy through a structured analysis of four critical postwar junctures: the cold war of the 1950s, the dtente of the 1960s and 1970s, the new cold war of the early 1980s, and the post-cold war 1990s. Each chapter examines the interaction of four factors--international structure and institutions, foreign policy ideas, and domestic politics--in driving the direction of German foreign policy at a key turning point. This book will be of interest to scholars and students of German history, German politics, and European international relations, as well as policymakers and the interested public. Thomas Banchoff is Assistant Professor of Government, Georgetown University.

Germany 1989

The author's text is elegant, insightful, and sure-footed. The final, reflective chapter should give everyone prone to rush to early judgment of recent happenings some severe cause for pause. This is a lovely book.

Germany 1989

"Lucidly written and accessible, Lothar Kettenacker?s book offers a vivid, informative and well-presented overview of the political and diplomatic history of German reunification." Dr. Riccardo Bavaj, University of St. Andrews In autumn 1989 the world watched transfixed as East German citizens, demonstrating under the banner ?We are the people!?, staged the only successful, totally peaceful revolution in German history. By October 1990, the process of reunification was formally concluded, bringing together a nation that had been divided for almost four decades. Now, nearly twenty years later, it is possible to judge the causes and consequences of the revolution more clearly. Was the fall of the Berlin Wall an unexpected fluke, or was it, in fact, the result of a long process of engagement between East and West? And did the momentous events of 1989 really signal the start of a bright new future for a united Germany? In this probing and wide-ranging account, Lothar Kettenacker considers the background behind the division of Germany and explains how the Berlin Wall and its death trap border proved to be the most horrendous manifestation of East-West antagonism. He also looks beyond 1990 to show how the confusion caused by the sudden collapse of the GDR and the fusion of two radically different economies is proving to be a challenge that will preoccupy Germany for generations to come.

Not One Inch

“ 'I Feel More Comfortable with You': France, the Soviet Union, and German Reunification. ... “Mitterrand's France, the End of the Cold War, and German Unification: A Reappraisal. ... German Reunification: A Multinational History.

Not One Inch

Thirty years after the Soviet Union’s collapse, this book reveals how tensions between America, NATO, and Russia transformed geopolitics in the decade after the fall of the Berlin Wall “The most engaging and carefully documented account of this period in East-West diplomacy currently available.”—Andrew Moravscik, Foreign Affairs Not one inch. With these words, Secretary of State James Baker proposed a hypothetical bargain to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev after the fall of the Berlin Wall: if you let your part of Germany go, we will move NATO not one inch eastward. Controversy erupted almost immediately over this 1990 exchange—but more important was the decade to come, when the words took on new meaning. Gorbachev let his Germany go, but Washington rethought the bargain, not least after the Soviet Union’s own collapse in December 1991. Washington realized it could not just win big but win bigger. Not one inch of territory needed to be off limits to NATO. On the thirtieth anniversary of the Soviet collapse, this book uses new evidence and interviews to show how, in the decade that culminated in Vladimir Putin’s rise to power, the United States and Russia undermined a potentially lasting partnership. Prize-winning historian M. E. Sarotte shows what went wrong.