Handbook of Thermoplastics Second Edition

This new edition of the bestselling Handbook of Thermoplastics incorporates recent developments and advances in thermoplastics with regard to materials development, processing, properties, and applications.

Handbook of Thermoplastics  Second Edition

This new edition of the bestselling Handbook of Thermoplastics incorporates recent developments and advances in thermoplastics with regard to materials development, processing, properties, and applications. With contributions from 65 internationally recognized authorities in the field, the second edition features new and updated discussions of several topics, including: Polymer nanocomposites Laser processing of thermoplastic composites Bioplastics Natural fiber thermoplastic composites Materials selection Design and application Additives for thermoplastics Recycling of thermoplastics Regulatory and legislative issues related to health, safety, and the environment The book also discusses state-of-the-art techniques in science and technology as well as environmental assessment with regard to the impact of thermoplastics. Each chapter is written in a review format that covers: Historical development and commercialization Polymerization and process technologies Structural and phase characteristics in relation to use properties The effects of additives on properties and applications Blends, alloys, copolymers, and composites derived from thermoplastics Applications Giving thorough coverage of the most recent trends in research and practice, the Handbook of Thermoplastics, Second Edition is an indispensable resource for experienced and practicing professionals as well as upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in a wide range of disciplines and industries.

Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers

The data tables included in this book assist engineers and scientists in both selecting and processing the materials for a given product or application. In the second edition of this handbook, all chapters have been reviewed and updated.

Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers

Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers, Second Edition presents a comprehensive working knowledge of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), providing an essential introduction for those learning the basics, but also detailed engineering data and best practice guidance for those already involved in polymerization, processing, and part manufacture. TPEs use short, cost-effective production cycles, with reduced energy consumption compared to other polymers, and are used in a range of industries including automotive, medical, construction and many more. This handbook provides all the practical information engineers need to successfully utilize this material group in their products, as well as the required knowledge to thoroughly ground themselves in the fundamental chemistry of TPEs. The data tables included in this book assist engineers and scientists in both selecting and processing the materials for a given product or application. In the second edition of this handbook, all chapters have been reviewed and updated. New polymers and applications have been added — particularly in the growing automotive and medical fields — and changes in chemistry and processing technology are covered. Provides essential knowledge of the chemistry, processing, properties, and applications for both new and established technical professionals in any industry utilizing TPEs Datasheets provide "at-a-glance" processing and technical information for a wide range of commercial TPEs and compounds, saving readers the need to contact suppliers Includes data on additional materials and applications, particularly in automotive and medical industries

Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook

Extrusion processing is constantly progressing, as have the elastomeric materials, fillers, and additives which are available. Throughout the book, the focus is on the engineering aspects of producing and using plastics.

Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook

Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook: Processing, Materials, and Applications, Second Edition, covers both the polymer basics that are helpful to bring readers quickly up-to-speed if they are not familiar with a particular area of plastics processing and the recent developments that enable practitioners to discover which options best fit their requirements. New chapters added specifically cover polyamides, polyimides, and polyesters. Hot topics such as 3-D printing and smart plastics are also included, giving plastics engineers the information they need to take these embryonic technologies and deploy them in their own work. With the increasing demands for lightness and fuel economy in the automotive industry (not least due to CAFÉ standards), plastics will soon be used even further in vehicles. A new chapter has been added to cover the technology trends in this area, and the book has been substantially updated to reflect advancements in technology, regulations, and the commercialization of plastics in various areas. Recycling of plastics has been thoroughly revised to reflect ongoing developments in sustainability of plastics. Extrusion processing is constantly progressing, as have the elastomeric materials, fillers, and additives which are available. Throughout the book, the focus is on the engineering aspects of producing and using plastics. The properties of plastics are explained, along with techniques for testing, measuring, enhancing, and analyzing them. Practical introductions to both core topics and new developments make this work equally valuable for newly qualified plastics engineers seeking the practical rules-of-thumb they don't teach you in school and experienced practitioners evaluating new technologies or getting up-to-speed in a new field. Presents an authoritative source of practical advice for engineers, providing guidance from experts that will lead to cost savings and process improvements Ideal introduction for both new engineers and experienced practitioners entering a new field or evaluating a new technology Updated to include the latest technology, including 3D Printing, smart polymers, and thorough coverage of biopolymers and biodegradable plastics

Handbook of Elastomers Second Edition

Presents structures, manufacturing techniques, and processing details for natural and synthetic rubbers, rubber-blends, rubber composites, and thermoplastic elastomers. 80% revised and rewritten material covers major advances since ...

Handbook of Elastomers  Second Edition

"Provides the latest authoritative research on the developments, technology, and applications of rubbery materials. Presents structures, manufacturing techniques, and processing details for natural and synthetic rubbers, rubber-blends, rubber composites, and thermoplastic elastomers. 80% revised and rewritten material covers major advances since publication of the previous edition."

Selecting Thermoplastics for Engineering Applications Second Edition

Plastics Engineering Handbook , SPE 4th ed . , Van Nostrand Reinhold , New York ( 1976 ) . 120. Saechtling , H. , International Plastics Handbook , 2nd ed . , Hanser , Munich ( 1987 ) . 121. Brandrup , J. , and Immergut , E. H. ( eds . ) ...

Selecting Thermoplastics for Engineering Applications  Second Edition

"Combines fundamental theory, systematic experimentation, disciplined research, and logical procedures to simplify the thermoplastic selection process as well as reduce production cost and time. Second Edition contains new features such as rheology property data, recycling in resin selection, and more and more."

Plastics Technology Handbook Third Edition

"Completely updated and enlarged to reflect the advances that have taken place since the publication of the Second Edition.

Plastics Technology Handbook  Third Edition

"Completely updated and enlarged to reflect the advances that have taken place since the publication of the Second Edition. Third Edition offers concise examinations of the chemical nature, characteristic properties, and uses of traditional industrial polymers, such as acrylics, polyolefins, vinyl polymers, polyesters, epoxies, and silicones, among others."

Prediction of Polymer Properties

Handbook of Applied Polymer Processing Technology, edited by Nicholas P.Cheremisinoff and Paul N.Cheremisinoff 32. ... Selecting Thermoplastics for Engineering Applications: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, ...

Prediction of Polymer Properties

Highlighting a broad range multiscale modeling and methods for anticipating the morphologies and the properties of interfaces and multiphase materials, this reference covers the methodology of predicting polymer properties and its potential application to a wider variety of polymer types than previously thought possible. A comprehensive source, the

Chemical Resistance of Specialty Thermoplastics

FluoroConsultants.com The PDL Handbook Series is aimed at a wide range` of engineers and other professionals working in the ... Second Edition ISBN:9781437744576 Kutz, Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook ISBN:9781437735147 Kurtz, ...

Chemical Resistance of Specialty Thermoplastics

Includes bibliographical references (v. 1, p. l-li) and indexes.

Chemical Resistance of Engineering Thermoplastics

PLASTICS DESIGN LIBRARY (PDL) PDL HANDBOOK SERIES Series Editor: Sina Ebnesajjad, Ph.D President, FluoroConsultants Group, ... Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers, Second Edition ISBN: 9780080964508 Wagner, ...

Chemical Resistance of Engineering Thermoplastics

Chemical Resistance of Engineering Thermoplastics provides a comprehensive, cross-referenced compilation of chemical resistance data that explains the effect of thousands of reagents, the environment, and other exposure media on the properties and characteristics of engineering thermoplastics – plastics which are generally used in higher performance applications. A huge range of exposure media are included, from aircraft fuel to alcohol, corn syrup to hydrochloric acid, and salt to silver acetate. This information has been substantially updated, curated, and organized by the engineers at M-Base Engineering + Software, a leading supplier of material databases, material information systems, product information systems, and material related simulation software. This book is a must-have reference for engineers and scientists who are designing and working with plastics and elastomers in environments where they come into contact with corrosive or reactive substances, from food, pharmaceuticals, and medical devices to the automotive, aerospace, and semiconductor industries. Explains the effect of thousands of reagents, the environment, and other exposure media on the properties and characteristics of engineering thermoplastics Substantially updated, curated, and organized by the engineers at M-Base Engineering + Software, a leading supplier of material databases and material information systems Provides a comprehensive, cross-referenced compilation of chemical resistance data

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers

FluoroConsultants.com The PDL Handbook Series is aimed at a wide range of engineers and other professionals working in the ... Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites, Second Edition (ISBN: 9781455778980) Sin, Rahmat and Rahman, ...

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers

This reference guide brings together a wide range of essential data on the effects of weather and UV light exposure on plastics and elastomers, enabling engineers to make optimal material choices and design decisions. In both normal and extreme environments, outdoor use has a variety of effects on different plastics and elastomers, including discoloring and brittleness. The data is supported by explanations of real-world engineering applications. The data tables in this book are supported by examples of real-world applications, enabling engineers and scientists to select the right materials for a given situation, across a wide range of sectors including construction, packaging, signage, consumer (e.g. toys, outdoor furniture), automotive and aerospace, defense, etc. The third edition includes new text chapters that provide the fundamental knowledge required to make best use of the data. Author Larry McKeen has also added detailed descriptions of the effect of weathering on the most common polymer classes such as polyolefins, polyamides, polyesters, elastomers, fluoropolymers, biodegradable plastics, etc., making this book an invaluable design guide as well as an industry standard data source. Essential data and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with plastics in outdoor applications and products New introductory chapters on weathering processes and the effect of light and heat on plastics 25% new data

Handbook of Thermoset Plastics

... plastics engineering, applications, processing, and manufacturing, and applied aspects of polymer science, elastomers and adhesives. Recent titles in the series Biron Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites, Second Edition ...

Handbook of Thermoset Plastics

Thermosetting plastics are a distinct category of plastics whose high performance, durability and reliability at high temperatures makes them suitable for specialty applications ranging from automotive and aerospace through to electronic packaging and consumer products (your melamine kitchen worktop is a thermoset resin!). Recent developments in thermoset plastics technology and processes has broadened their use exponentially over recent years, and these developments continue: in November 2011, French scientists created a new lightweight thermoset that is as strong and stable as previous materials yet can be easily reworked and reshaped when heated which makes it unique amongst thermosets and allows for repair and recycling. The Handbook of Thermoset Plastics, now in its 3rd edition, provides a comprehensive survey of the chemical processes, manufacturing techniques and design properties of each polymer, along with their applications. Written by a team of highly experienced practitioners, the practical implications of using thermoset plastics are presented – both their strengths and weaknesses. The data and descriptions presented here enable engineers, scientists and technicians to form judgments and take action on the basis of informed analysis. The aim of the book is to help the reader to make the right decision and take the correct action – avoiding the pitfalls the authors’ experience has uncovered. The new edition has been updated throughout to reflect current practice in manufacturing and processing, featuring: Case Studies to demonstrate how particular properties make different polymers suitable for different applications, as well as covering end-use and safety considerations. A new chapter on using nanoparticles to enhance thermal and mechanical properties. A new chapter describing new materials based on renewable resources (such as soy-based thermoset plastics). A new chapter covering recent developments and potential future technologies such as new catalysts for Controlled Radical Polymerization. Goodman and Dodiuk-Kenig provide a comprehensive reference guide to the chemistry, manufacturing and applications of thermosets. Updated to include recent developments in manufacturing – from biopolymers to nanocomposites. Case Studies illustrate applications of key thermoset plastics.

Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates

PDL is a series of data books, reference works and practical guides covering plastics engineering, applications, processing, ... Stretch Blow Molding, Second Edition (ISBN: 9781437735277) Ebnesajjad, Handbook of Adhesives and Surface ...

Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates

Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates explains the fundamentals of lamination and plastics thermoforming technologies along with current and new developments. It focuses on properties and thermoforming mechanics of plastic films and in particular single and multilayered laminates, including barrier films. For environmental and economic reasons, laminates are becoming increasingly important as a replacement for solid sheets and paint finishes in many industries, including transportation, packaging, and construction. Yet the processes of film formability during the extensive deformation and elevated temperatures experienced in conventional processing technologies, such as thermoforming, are poorly understood by most engineers. This book covers production processes, such as extrusion, calendaring, and casting, as well as mechanical and impact testing methods. It also describes how testing protocols developed for metals can be leveraged for plastic films and laminates, and includes a thorough discussion on methods for performing optical strain analysis. Applications in transportation vehicles and packaging, including packaging for food, medical and electronics applications, sports equipment, and household appliances, are discussed. Safety, recycling and environmental aspects of thermoforming and its products complete the book. First comprehensive source of information and hands-on guide for the thermoforming of multilayered laminates Covers applications across such sectors as automotive, packaging, home goods, and construction Introduces new testing methods leveraging protocols used for metals

Thermosets and Composites

PDL is a series of data books, reference works and practical guides covering plastics engineering, applications, processing, ... Stretch Blow Molding, Second Edition (ISBN: 9781437735277) Ebnesajjad, Handbook of Adhesives and Surface ...

Thermosets and Composites

This book bridges the technology and business aspects of thermosets, providing a practical guide designed for engineers working in real-world industrial settings. The author explores the criteria for material selection, provides information on material properties for each family of thermosets, and discusses the various processing options for each material type. He explains advantages and disadvantages of using thermosets and composites in comparison to competing materials and assesses cost aspects, enabling the reader to balance out technical and economic constraints when choosing a thermoset and processing technology for a given application. This second edition contains a new section on composites solutions for practical problems, gathering information on trends contributing to the breakthrough of composites in various sectors. Other new sections on specific crosslinking processes, processing trends, machinery and equipment manufacturers, applications, bio-sourced thermosets and natural fibers, and recycling of thermosets and composites are included. Case studies are provided, illustrating many design and production challenges. Furthermore, new market data and information about health and safety will be added. All data is fully updated throughout, with pricing in USD and EUR, and both ASTM (North American) and European standards. Thermosets and Thermoset Composites, Second Edition is the only book that gives in-depth coverage of a wide range of subject matters and markets, yet in brevity and concision in a single volume, avoiding the need of consulting a series of other specialized books. By providing the knowledge necessary for selecting a fabrication process, thermoset material and methods for determining the all important cost of thermoset parts this new edition is an invaluable decision-making aid and reference work for practitioners in a field with growing importance. Combining materials data, information on processing techniques, and economic aspects, Biron provides a unique end-to-end approach to the selection and use of materials in the plastics industry and related sectors New material on bio-sourced thermosets, natural fibers, and recycling of thermosets Concise and easy-to-use source of information and decision-making aid

Biopolymers Reuse Recycling and Disposal

PDL is a series of data books, reference works and practical guides covering plastics engineering, applications, ... Handbook of Adhesives and Surface Preparation (ISBN: 9781437744613) Grot, Fluorinated Ionomers, Second Edition (ISBN: ...

Biopolymers  Reuse  Recycling  and Disposal

Biopolymers Reuse, Recycling and Disposal is the first book covering all aspects of biopolymer waste management and post-usage scenarios, embracing existing technologies, applications, and the behavior of biopolymers in various waste streams. The book investigates the benefits and weaknesses, social, economic and environmental impacts, and regulatory aspects of each technology. It covers different types of recycling and degradation, as well as life cycle analysis, all supported by case studies, literature references, and detailed information about global patents. Patents in particular—comprising 80% of published technical literature in this emerging field, widely scattered, and often available in Japanese only—are a key source of information. Dr. Niaounakis draws on disciplines such as polymer science, management, biology and microbiology, organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, and patent law to produce a reference guide for engineers, scientists and other professionals involved in the development and production of biopolymers, waste management, and recycling. This information is also valuable for regulators, patent attorneys and academics working in this field. Explores techniques and technologies involved in managing biopolymers in the waste stream, including recycling and upcycling Provides waste management and recycling professionals the knowledge they need to plan for the exponential growth in biopolymer waste Helps engineers and product designers fully consider the end-of-life aspects of their environmentally sustainable 'green' products and solutions

Introduction to Fluoropolymers

FluoroConsultants.com The PDL Handbook Series is aimed at a wide range of engineers and other professionals working in the plastics industry, and related sectors using plastics and adhesives. PDL is a series of data books, ...

Introduction to Fluoropolymers

Introduction to Fluoropolymers, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of the history, principles, properties, processing and applications of fluoropolymers, supporting their development and utilization in high-performance applications, components, and products. This second edition has been updated and expanded to include new in-depth chapters on manufacturing and applications of PTFE and melt processible fluoropolymers. The book begins by demonstrating the role of fluoropolymers in everyday life, before introducing the history and basic principles of fluoropolymers. This is followed by detailed coverage of the main fluoropolymer types. Properties and applications are illustrated by real-world examples as diverse as waterproof clothing, vascular grafts and coatings for aircraft interiors. The different applications of fluoropolymers show the benefits of a group of materials that are highly water-repellant and flame-retardant, with unrivalled lubrication properties and a high level of biocompatibility. Health and safety and environmental aspects are also covered throughout the book, with a final chapter examining safety, disposal, and recycling in detail. This book is an essential resource for anyone looking to understand or use fluoropolymer materials in their products. This includes engineers, product designers, manufacturers, scientists, researchers, and other professionals, across industries such as automotive, aerospace, medical devices, food and beverages, high performance apparel, oil and gas, renewable energy, solar photovoltaics, electronics and semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and chemical processing. This is also a valuable introductory guide for academic researchers and advanced students in plastics engineering, polymer science, and materials science. Introduces and demystifies fluoropolymers for a wide audience of engineers, designers, professionals, and researchers, across industries and disciplines Covers a broad range of materials, including polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), vinylidene fluoride polymers, fluoroelastomers, and more Focuses on properties, processing methods and advanced industrial applications of fluoropolymers

Using the Engineering Literature Second Edition

Chemical Resistance Guidefor Plastics: A Guide to Chemical Resistance of Engineering Thermoplastics, Fluoroplastics, Fibers, and Thermoset Resins..La.Jolla,. CA:.Compass. Ramachandran,. V.. S.. and. J.. J.. Beaudoin.. 2001.. Handbook of ...

Using the Engineering Literature  Second Edition

With the encroachment of the Internet into nearly all aspects of work and life, it seems as though information is everywhere. However, there is information and then there is correct, appropriate, and timely information. While we might love being able to turn to Wikipedia® for encyclopedia-like information or search Google® for the thousands of links on a topic, engineers need the best information, information that is evaluated, up-to-date, and complete. Accurate, vetted information is necessary when building new skyscrapers or developing new prosthetics for returning military veterans While the award-winning first edition of Using the Engineering Literature used a roadmap analogy, we now need a three-dimensional analysis reflecting the complex and dynamic nature of research in the information age. Using the Engineering Literature, Second Edition provides a guide to the wide range of resources available in all fields of engineering. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and features new sections on nanotechnology as well as green engineering. The information age has greatly impacted the way engineers find information. Engineers have an effect, directly and indirectly, on almost all aspects of our lives, and it is vital that they find the right information at the right time to create better products and processes. Comprehensive and up to date, with expert chapter authors, this book fills a gap in the literature, providing critical information in a user-friendly format.

Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics

FluoroConsultants.com The PDL Handbook Series is aimed at a wide range` of engineers and other professionals working in the ... Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers, Second Edition ISBN: 9780080964508 Wagner, ...

Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics

Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics is a unique reference work, providing a comprehensive cross-referenced compilation of chemical resistance data that explains the effect of thousands of exposure media on the properties and characteristics of commodity thermoplastics. The two volumes cover thermoplastics grouped within the following parts: - Acrylic Polymers and Copolymers - Acrylonitrile Polymers - Cellulosics Polymers - Ionomers - Olefinic Polymers - Polyacetals - Polyacetals - Polyamides - Polycarbonates - Polyesters - Polyurethanes - Polycarbonates - Styrene Copolymers - Styrene Copolymers - Vinyl Chloride Polymers - Vinyl Polymers The single most comprehensive data source covering the chemical resistance properties of high consumption volume commercial thermoplastics A rating number is provided for each test, summarizing the effect of the exposure medium on the given thermoplastic The data covered in the two volumes is also provided as an online publication offering extended navigation and search features

Chemical Resistance of Commodity Thermoplastics

FluoroConsultants.com The PDL Handbook Series is aimed at a wide range of engineers and other professionals working in the ... Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers, Second Edition ISBN: 9780080964508 Wagner, ...

Chemical Resistance of Commodity Thermoplastics

Chemical Resistance of Commodity Thermoplastics provides a comprehensive, cross-referenced compilation of chemical resistance data that explains the effect of thousands of reagents, the environment and other exposure media on the properties and characteristics of commodity thermoplastics – plastics which are generally used in higher performance applications. A huge range of exposure media are included, from aircraft fuel to alcohol, corn syrup to hydrochloric acid, and salt to silver acetate. This information has been substantially updated, curated, and organized by the engineers at M-Base Engineering + Software, a leading supplier of material databases, material information systems, product information systems, and material related simulation software. This book is a must-have reference for engineers and scientists designing and working with plastics and elastomers in environments where they come into contact with corrosive or reactive substances, from food, pharmaceuticals, and medical devices, to the automotive, aerospace, and semiconductor industries. Explains the effect of thousands of reagents, the environment and other exposure media on the properties and characteristics of commodity thermoplastics Organized by the engineers at M-Base Engineering + Software, a leading supplier of material databases, material information systems, product information systems, and material related simulation software A must-have reference for engineers and scientists designing and working with plastics and elastomers in environments where they come into contact with corrosive or reactive substances

The Effect of Temperature and other Factors on Plastics and Elastomers

FluoroConsultants.com The PDL Handbook Series is aimed at a wide range of engineers and other professionals working in the ... Recent titles in the series Biron, Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites, Second Edition (ISBN: ...

The Effect of Temperature and other Factors on Plastics and Elastomers

This reference guide brings together a wide range of critical data on the effect of temperature on plastics and elastomers, enabling engineers to make optimal material choices and design decisions. The effects of humidity level and strain rate on mechanical and electrical properties are also covered. The data are supported by explanations of how to make use of the data in real world engineering contexts. High (and low) temperatures can have a significant impact on plastics processing and applications, particularly in industries such as automotive, aerospace, oil and gas, packaging, and medical devices, where metals are increasingly being replaced by plastics. Additional plastics have also been included for polyesters, polyamides and others where available, including polyolefins, elastomers and fluoropolymers. Entirely new sections on biodegradable polymers and thermosets have been added to the book. The level of data included – along with the large number of graphs and tables for easy comparison – saves readers the need to contact suppliers, and the selection guide has been fully updated, giving assistance on the questions which engineers should be asking when specifying materials for any given application. Trustworthy, current thermal data and best practice guidance for engineers and materials scientists in the plastics industry More than 1,000 graphs and tables allow for easy comparison between plastics Entirely new sections added on biopolymers and thermosets.

Handbook of Vinyl Polymers

Maintaining the quality of the critically acclaimed first edition, the Handbook of Vinyl Polymers: Radical Polymerization, Process, and Technology, Second Edition provides a fully updated, single-volume source on t

Handbook of Vinyl Polymers

Radical polymerization is one of the most widely used means of producing vinyl polymers, supporting a myriad of commercial uses. Maintaining the quality of the critically acclaimed first edition, the Handbook of Vinyl Polymers: Radical Polymerization, Process, and Technology, Second Edition provides a fully updated, single-volume source on the chemistry, technology, and applications of vinyl polymers. Emphasizes radical initiating systems and mechanisms of action... Written by renowned researchers in the field, this handbook is primarily concerned with the physical and organic chemistry of radical vinyl polymerization. The authors survey the most recent advances, processing methods, technologies, and applications of free radical vinyl polymerization. The book features thorough coverage of polymer functionalization, photo initiation, block and graft copolymers, and polymer composites. Analyzes living/controlled radical polymerization, one of the latest developments in the field... Combining fundamental aspects with the latest advances, processing methods, and applications in free radical vinyl polymerization and polymer technology, this invaluable reference provides a unified, in-depth, and innovative perspective of radical vinyl polymerization.