Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion

But the collapse of both systems threw Russian influence into limbo. In this book, James Sherr draws on his in-depth study of the country over many years to explain and analyse the factors that have brought Russian influence back into play.

Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion

During the Cold War, Soviet influence and Leninist ideology were inseparable. But the collapse of both systems threw Russian influence into limbo. In this book, James Sherr draws on his in-depth study of the country over many years to explain and analyse the factors that have brought Russian influence back into play. Today, Tsarist, Soviet and contemporary approaches combine in creative and discordant ways. The result is a policy based on a mixture of strategy, improvisation and habit. The novelty of this policy and its apparent successes pose possible dangers for Russia's neighbours, the West and Russia itself.

Beyond Crimea

Joseph S. Nye Jr., Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2004), pp. 6, 8, 11–15. 5. James Sherr, Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad (London: Chatham House, 2013), p. 2. 6.

Beyond Crimea

How will Russia redraw post-Soviet borders? In the wake of recent Russian expansionism, political risk expert Agnia Grigas illustrates how—for more than two decades—Moscow has consistently used its compatriots in bordering nations for its territorial ambitions. Demonstrating how this policy has been implemented in Ukraine and Georgia, Grigas provides cutting-edge analysis of the nature of Vladimir Putin’s foreign policy and compatriot protection to warn that Moldova, Kazakhstan, the Baltic States, and others are also at risk.

Soft Power

The Role of Soft Power in Putin's Foreign Policy,” Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 58, No. 7 (November 2006), pp. 1079–1099; James Sherr, Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad (London: Chatham House, 2013); Marcel H. Van ...

Soft Power

This book explores the phenomenon of soft power in international relations. In the context of current discourses on power and global power shift s, it puts forward a comprehensive taxonomy of soft power and outlines a methodological roadmap for its empirical study. To that end, the book classifies soft power into distinct components - resources, instruments, reception, and outcomes - and identifies relevant indicators for each of these categories. Moreover, the book integrates previously neglected aspects into the concept of soft power, including the significance of (political) personalities. A broad range of historical examples is drawn upon to illustrate the effects of soft power in international relations in an innovative and analytically differentiated way. A central methodological contribution of this book consists in highlighting the value of comparative-historical analysis (CHA) as a promising approach for empirical analyses of the soft power of different actors on the international stage. By introducing a comprehensive taxonomy of soft power, the book offers an innovative and substantiated perspective on a pivotal phenomenon in today’s international relations. As the forces of attraction in world politics continue to gain in importance, it provides a valuable asset for a broad readership. “In this important and thoughtful book, Hendrik Ohnesorge explains and advances our knowledge of the ways that soft power, public diplomacy, and charismatic personal diplomacy are shaping the international relations of our global information age.” Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Harvard University and author of The Future of Power

Central and East European Politics

Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad. London: Chatham House, 2013. Toal, Gerard. Near Abroad: Putin, the West and the Contest over Ukraine and the Caucasus. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Central and East European Politics

"Now in a fully updated edition, this essential text explores the other half of Europe, the newer and future members of the EU along with the problems and potential they bring to the region and to the world stage"--

Russia and the New World Disorder

James Sherr notes that recent versions of Russia's Military Doctrine reflect “the revival of the view of states as sovereign 'spatial-geographical phenomena' engaged in a struggle to dominate 'space'”—Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: ...

Russia and the New World Disorder

The Russian annexation of Crimea was one of the great strategic shocks of the past twenty-five years. For many in the West, Moscow's actions in early 2014 marked the end of illusions about cooperation, and the return to geopolitical and ideological confrontation. Russia, for so long a peripheral presence, had become the central actor in a new global drama. In this groundbreaking book, renowned scholar Bobo Lo analyzes the broader context of the crisis by examining the interplay between Russian foreign policy and an increasingly anarchic international environment. He argues that Moscow's approach to regional and global affairs reflects the tension between two very different worlds—the perceptual and the actual. The Kremlin highlights the decline of the West, a resurgent Russia, and the emergence of a new multipolar order. But this idealized view is contradicted by a world disorder that challenges core assumptions about the dominance of great powers and the utility of military might. Its lesson is that only those states that embrace change will prosper in the twenty-first century. A Russia able to redefine itself as a modern power would exert a critical influence in many areas of international politics. But a Russia that rests on an outdated sense of entitlement may end up instead as one of the principal casualties of global transformation.

Russia and the Western Far Right

58 Sherr, Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion, p. 96. The original italics omitted. 59 Yevgeniy Minchenko, “'Politbyuro 2.0' nakanune perezagruzki elitnykh grupp”, Minchenko Consulting, 19 February (2013), ...

Russia and the Western Far Right

The growing influence of Russia on the Western far right has been much discussed in the media recently. This book is the first detailed inquiry into what has been a neglected but critically important trend: the growing links between Russian actors and Western far right activists, publicists, ideologues, and politicians. The author uses a range of sources including interviews, video footage, leaked communications, official statements and press coverage in order to discuss both historical and contemporary Russia in terms of its relationship with the Western far right. Initial contacts between Russian political actors and Western far right activists were established in the early 1990s, but these contacts were low profile. As Moscow has become more anti-Western, these contacts have become more intense and have operated at a higher level. The book shows that the Russian establishment was first interested in using the Western far right to legitimise Moscow’s politics and actions both domestically and internationally, but more recently Moscow has begun to support particular far right political forces to gain leverage on European politics and undermine the liberal-democratic consensus in the West. Contributing to ongoing scholarly debates about Russia’s role in the world, its strategies aimed at securing legitimation of Putin’s regime both internationally and domestically, modern information warfare and propaganda, far right politics and activism in the West, this book draws on theories and methods from history, political science, area studies, and media studies and will be of interest to students, scholars, activists and practitioners in these areas.

Soft Power and US Foreign Policy

This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of this key concept in foreign affairs and is essential reading for scholars of US foreign policy, public diplomacy, international relations and foreign policy analysis.

Soft Power and US Foreign Policy

The rise of widespread negative attitudes towards US foreign policy, especially due to the war of aggression against Iraq and the subsequent military occupation of the country – has brought new attention to the meaning and instruments of soft power. In this edited collection, an outstanding line up of contributors provides the most extensive discussion of soft power to date. Soft power is the use of attraction and persuasion rather than the use of coercion or force in foreign policy. It arises from the attractiveness of a country's culture, political ideals and policies, whereas hard power develops out of a country's military or economic might. Soft Power has become part of popular political discourse since it was coined by Harvard’s Joseph Nye, and this volume features a brand new chapter by Nye outlining his views on soft, hard and smart power and offers a critique of the Bush administration’s inadequacies. He then goes on to examine the challenges for the incoming US president. The other contributions to the volume respond to Nye's views from a range of theoretical, historical and policy perspectives giving new insights in to both soft power and the concept of power itself. This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of this key concept in foreign affairs and is essential reading for scholars of US foreign policy, public diplomacy, international relations and foreign policy analysis.

The Future of Land Warfare

See, for example, James Sherr, Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2013), pp. 54–64; and Alexander Lukin, “What the Kremlin Is Thinking,” Foreign Affairs 93, no.

The Future of Land Warfare

What happens if we bet too heavily on unmanned systems, cyber warfare, and special operations in our defense? In today's U.S. defense policy debates, big land wars are out. Drones, cyber weapons, special forces, and space weapons are in. Accordingly, Pentagon budget cuts have honed in on the army and ground forces: this, after the long wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, seems like an appealing idea. No one really wants American boots on the ground in bloody conflicts abroad. But it is not so easy to simply declare an end to messy land wars. A survey of the world's trouble spots suggests that land warfare has more of a future than many now seem to believe. In The Future of Land Warfare, Michael O'Hanlon offers an analysis of the future of the world's ground forces: Where are large-scale conflicts or other catastrophes most plausible? Which of these could be important enough to require the option of a U.S. military response? And which of these could in turn demand significant numbers of American ground forces in their resolution? O'Hanlon is not predicting or advocating big American roles in such operations—only cautioning against overconfidence that we can and will avoid them. O'Hanlon considers a number of illustrative scenarios in which large conventional forces may be necessary: discouraging Russia from even contemplating attacks against the Baltic states; discouraging China from considering an unfriendly future role on the Korean peninsula; handling an asymmetric threat in the South China Sea with the construction and protection of a number of bases in the Philippines and elsewhere; managing the aftermath of a major and complex humanitarian disaster superimposed on a security crisis—perhaps in South Asia; coping with a severe Ebola outbreak not in the small states of West Africa but in Nigeria, at the same time that country falls further into violence; addressing a further meltdown in security conditions in Central America.

Russia s Coercive Diplomacy

Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad (London: Chatham House). Averre, Derek L. 2009. “Competing Rationalities: Russia, the EU and the 'Shared Neighbourhood.'” Europe-Asia Studies, 61 (10): 1689–1713. Allison, Roy.

Russia s Coercive Diplomacy

Russia's place in the world as a powerful regional actor can no longer be denied; the question that remains concerns what this means in terms of foreign policy and domestic stability for the actors involved in the situation, as Russia comes to grips with its newfound sources of might.

Russia Resurrected

This is a term used also by James Sherr, “The New East West Discord: Russian Objectives and Western Interests,” (Clingendael, Netherlands Institute for International Relations, 2015, and James Sherr Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: ...

Russia Resurrected

An assessment of Russia that suggests that we should look beyond traditional means of power to understand its strength and capacity to disrupt international politics. Too often, we are told that Russia plays a weak hand well. But, perhaps the nation's cards are better than we know. Russia ranks significantly behind the US and China by traditional measures of power: GDP, population size and health, and military might. Yet 25 years removed from its mid-1990s nadir following the collapse of the USSR, Russia has become a supremely disruptive force in world politics. Kathryn E. Stoner assesses the resurrection of Russia and argues that we should look beyond traditional means of power to assess its strength in global affairs. Taking into account how Russian domestic politics under Vladimir Putin influence its foreign policy, Stoner explains how Russia has battled its way back to international prominence. From Russia's seizure of the Crimea from Ukraine to its military support for the Assad regime in Syria, the country has reasserted itself as a major global power. Stoner examines these developments and more in tackling the big questions about Russia's turnaround and global future. Stoner marshals data on Russia's political, economic, and social development and uncovers key insights from its domestic politics. Russian people are wealthier than the Chinese, debt is low, and fiscal policy is good despite sanctions and the volatile global economy. Vladimir Putin's autocratic regime faces virtually no organized domestic opposition. Yet, mindful of maintaining control at home, Russia under Putin also uses its varied power capacities to extend its influence abroad. While we often underestimate Russia's global influence, the consequences are evident in the disruption of politics in the US, Syria, and Venezuela, to name a few. Russia Resurrected is an eye-opening reassessment of the country, identifying the actual sources of its power in international politics and why it has been able to redefine the post-Cold War global order.

Routledge Handbook of Russian Foreign Policy

Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad (London: Chatham House). Sidorova, Galina. 2017. “Under the Aegis of the Foreign Ministry.” Trans by Arch Tait (January) Henry Jackson Society and Radio Free Europe/ Radio ...

Routledge Handbook of Russian Foreign Policy

Providing a comprehensive overview of Russia’s foreign policy directions, this handbook brings together an international team of scholars to develop a complex treatment of Russia’s foreign policy. The chapters draw from numerous theoretical traditions by incorporating ideas of domestic institutions, considerations of national security and international recognition as sources of the nation’s foreign policy. Covering critically important subjects such as Russia’s military interventions in Ukraine and Syria, the handbook is divided into four key parts: Part I explores the social and material conditions in which Russia’s foreign policy is formed and implemented. Part II investigates tools and actors that participate in policy making including diplomacy, military, media, and others. Part III provides an overview of Russia’s directions towards the United States, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Eurasia, and the Arctic. Part IV addresses the issue of Russia’s participation in global governance and multiple international organizations, as well as the Kremlin’s efforts to build new organizations and formats that suit Russia’s objectives. The Routledge Handbook of Russian Foreign Policy is an invaluable resource to students and scholars of Russian Politics and International Relations, as well as World Politics more generally.

Europe in the Caucasus Caucasus in Europe

Europe‐Asia Studies 66(1): 50–66. Sergunin, Alexander and Leonid Karabeshkin. 2015. “Understanding Russia's soft power strategy.” Politics 35(3–4): 347–363. Sherr, James. 2013. Hard diplomacy and soft coercion: Russias influence abroad.

Europe in the Caucasus  Caucasus in Europe

The book series „European Studies in the Caucasus” offers innovative perspectives on regional studies of the Caucasus. By embracing the South Caucasus as well as Turkey and Russia as the major regional powers, it moves away from a traditional viewpoint of European Studies that considers the countries of the region as objects of Europeanization. This first volume emphasizes the movements of ideas in both directions—from Europe to the Caucasus and from the Caucasus to Europe. This double-track frame illuminates new aspects of a variety of issues requiring reciprocity and intersubjectivity, including rivalries between different integration systems in the southern and eastern fringes of Europe, various dimensions of interaction between countries of the South Caucasus and the European Union in a situation of the ongoing conflict with Russia, and different ways of using European experiences for the sake of domestic reforms in the South Caucasus. Topics range from identities to foreign policies, and from memory politics to religion.

BRICS Media

Available at https://russian.rt.com/world/news/471158-margarita-simonyan-cel-rt Sherr, J. (2013) Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Sheregi, F. E., Dmitriev, N. M. and Arefiev, A. L. (2003) ...

BRICS Media

Bringing together distinguished scholars from BRICS nations and those with deep interest and knowledge of these emerging powers, this collection makes a significant intervention in the ongoing debates about comparative communication research and thus contributes to the further internationalization of media and communication studies. The unprecedented expansion of online media in the world’s major non-Western nations, exemplified by BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) is transforming global communication. Despite their differences and divergences on key policy issues, what unites these five nations, representing more than 20 per cent of the global GDP, is the scale and scope of change in their communication environment, triggered by a multilingual, mobile Internet. The resulting networked and digitized communication ecology has reoriented international media and communication flows. Evaluating the implications of globalization of BRICS media on the reshaping of international communication, the book frames this within the contexts of theory-building on media and communication systems, soft power discourses and communication practices, including in cyberspace. Adopting a critical approach in analysing BRICS communication strategies and their effectiveness, the book assesses the role of the BRICS nations in reframing a global communication order for a ‘post-American world’. This critical volume of essays is ideal for students, teachers and researchers in journalism, media, politics, sociology, international relations, area studies and cultural studies.

The Great Game in West Asia

... James Sherr, Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad (London: Chatham House, 2013). 2. For an overview of Russia's “foreign agents” law, see “NGO law Monitor: Russia,” International Center for Not-For-Profit Law, ...

The Great Game in West Asia

The Great Game in West Asia examines the strategic competition between Iran and Turkey for power and influence in the South Caucasus. As much of the world's attention has been diverted to conflicts and flashpoints near and far, a new great game has been unravelling between Iran and Turkey in the South Caucasus.

The Obama Doctrine

James Sherr, Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad (London: Chatham House, 2013), chapters 4–5. Michael Gordon, “Russia Displays a New Military Prowess in Ukraine's East,” New York Times, April 21, 2014; ...

The Obama Doctrine

"An incisive evaluation of foreign policy and the meaning of power in the Obama era"--

Power and Complacency

Conley et al., “Russian Soft Power”; Hedenskog and Larsson, “Russian Leverage,” 6–7; Grigas, Legacies, Coercion and Soft Power, 1; Sherr, Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion, 17–18. 87. Quinlivan, “Russia's Military.” 88.

Power and Complacency

"Power and Complacency: American Survival in an Age of International Competition highlights the disconnect between America's approach to international competition and the realities of how its adversaries conceive of war"--

Rival Power

2. Joseph S. Nye Jr., “Think Again: Soft Power,” Foreign Policy, 23 February 2006. 3. Fiona Hill, “Moscow Discovers Soft Power,” Current History, vol. 30, no. 2, 2006, p. 341. 4. James Sherr, Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's ...

Rival Power

A nuanced and comprehensive study of the political dynamics between Russia and key countries in Southeast Europe Is Russia threatening to disrupt more than two decades’ of E.U. and U.S. efforts to promote stability in post-communist Southeast Europe? Politicians and commentators in the West say, “yes.” With rising global anxiety over Russia’s political policies and objectives, Dimitar Bechev provides the only in-depth look at this volatile region. Deftly unpacking the nature and extent of Russian influence in the Balkans, Greece, and Turkey, Bechev argues that both sides are driven by pragmatism and opportunism rather than historical loyalties. Russia is seeking to assert its role in Europe’s security architecture, establish alternative routes for its gas exports—including the contested Southern Gas Corridor—and score points against the West. Yet, leaders in these areas are allowing Russia to reinsert itself to serve their own goals. This urgently needed guide analyzes the responses of regional NATO members, particularly regarding the annexation of Crimea and the Putin-Erdogan rift over Syria.

Putin s Propaganda Machine

Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy Marcel H. Van Herpen. ———. “Vladimir Putin Meets with Members of the Valdai ... Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad. London: Chatham House, 2013. Shevtsova, Lilia.

Putin s Propaganda Machine

Putin’s Propaganda Machine examines Russia’s “information war,” one of the most striking features of its intervention in Ukraine. Marcel H. Van Herpen argues that the Kremlin’s propaganda offensive is a carefully prepared strategy, implemented and tested over the last decade. Initially intended as a tool to enhance Russia’s soft power, it quickly developed into one of the main instruments of Russia’s new imperialism, reminiscent of the height of the Cold War. Van Herpen demonstrates that the Kremlin’s propaganda machine not only plays a central role in its “hybrid war” in Ukraine, but also has broader geopolitical objectives intended to roll back the influence of NATO and the United States in Europe. Drawing on years of research, Van Herpen shows how the Kremlin built a multitude of soft power instruments and transformed them into effective weapons in a new information war with the West. /span

Russian Imperialism Revisited

Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad. London: Chatham House. Shevtsova, L. (2007) Russia Lost in Transition: The Yeltsin and Putin Legacies. Brookings Institution Press. Solzhenitsyn, A. (1980).

Russian Imperialism Revisited

This book examines the nature of Russia’s relations with the former Soviet states (FSS), in particular with countries which formed the Commonwealth of Independent States, in order to assess whether there has been a resurgence of Russian imperialism since the collapse of the USSR. The book sets out to determine whether Russian leaders have attempted to restore a sphere of influence over the former Soviet republics or whether Russia’s policies reflect a genuine desire to establish normal state-to-state relations with the new states. It adopts a comprehensive approach, analysing Russia’s policies towards the FSS across a broad range of areas: energy, trade and investment; military assistance, security provision and peacekeeping; conflict management, political support, and alliance formation. While not denying the Kremlin’s assertive role in the FSS, this book challenges the assumption that Russia has always intended to restore a sphere of influence over its ‘Near Abroad’. Rather, it argues that Russia’s policies are much more complex, multi-faceted, and often more incoherent than is often assumed. In essence, Russia's actions generally reflect a combination of legitimate state interests, enduring Soviet legacies, and genuine concerns over events unfolding along Russia’s borders. This book also shows that, at times, Great-Power nostalgia and a real difficulty with discarding Russia’s imperial legacy shapes Russia’s behaviour towards the FSS. This book will be of great interest to students of Russian politics and foreign policy, east European politics, and International Relations in general.

Age of Iron

... Strategic Asia 2017–18; Bobo Lo, Russia and the New World Disorder (washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2015); and James Sherr, Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia's Influence Abroad (London: Chatham House, 2013). 20.

Age of Iron

"Age of Iron attempts to describe the past, present, and possible future of conservative nationalism in American foreign policy. It argues that a kind of conservative US nationalism long predates the Trump presidency, and goes back to the American founding. Different aspects of conservative American nationalism have been incorporated into the Republican Party from its creation. Every Republican president since Theodore Roosevelt has tried to balance elements of this tradition with global US foreign policy priorities. Donald Trump was able to win his party's nomination and rise to the presidency, in part, by challenging liberal internationalist assumptions. Yet in practice, he too has combined nationalist assumptions with global US foreign policy priorities. The long-term trend within the Republican party, predating Trump, is toward political populism, cultural conservatism, and white working-class voters -- and this has international implications. Republican foreign policy nationalism is not about to disappear. The book concludes with recommendations for US foreign policy, based upon an understanding that the optimism of the post-Cold War quarter-century is over. Nationalism; conservatism; populism; Trump presidency; American foreign policy; liberal internationalism; US diplomatic history; geopolitics; American party politics; the Republican Party"--