This book will be of particular concern to scholars and researchers involved with medical sociology, the sociology of work, complex organizations, social change, and occupational health policy.
Author: Earl Wysong
Category: Political Science
Wysong analyzes the nature and extent of the involvement of seven major health and safety professional organizations in the development of the most significant national reform effort in occupational health policy since the OSH Act of 1970: The High Risk Occupational Disease Notification and Prevention Act. The professions have long been a focus of study in sociology; however, this is the first book to examine how the interests and involvement of health professional's organizations on a national health policy issue are linked to external interests and dynamic contextual factors. By illuminating how professional societies' policy choices are embedded within and shaped by economic and political contexts, Wysong refines prevailing new class interpretations of professionals' interests where policy reforms are concerned. This book will be of particular concern to scholars and researchers involved with medical sociology, the sociology of work, complex organizations, social change, and occupational health policy.
Declining Enrollments and Institutional Closures Except for at the major ... applicants dwindles and the costs of higher education continue to rise.11 Most ...
Author: Julee T. Flood
Publisher: ILR Press
Understanding the risks involved in hiring new faculty is becoming increasingly important. In Managing Risk in High-Stakes Faculty Employment Decisions Julee T. Flood and Terry Leap critically examine the landscape of US institutions of higher learning and the legal and human resource management practices pertinent to college and university faculty members. To help minimize the potential pitfalls in the hiring and promotion processes, Flood and Leap suggest ways that risk management principles can be applied within the unique culture of academia. Claims of workplace harassment and discrimination, violation of free speech and other First Amendment rights, social movements decrying unequal hiring practices, and the growing number of non-tenure track and adjunct faculty, require those involved in hiring and promotion decisions to be more knowledgeable about contract law, best practices in hiring, and risk management, yet many newly appointed administrators are often not sufficiently trained in these matters or in understanding how they might be applied in an academic setting. Human resource departments, hiring committees, department chairs, and academics seeking faculty jobs need resources such as Managing Risk in High-Stakes Faculty Employment Decisions now more than ever. Outlines critical issues affecting U.S. higher education Analyzes the social and psychological biases that can arise during hiring, promotion, and tenure decisions Discusses contract and constitutional law from the perspective of institutions of higher learning Illustrates complex interactions that shape contractual, constitutional, and collegial issues in institutions of higher learning Examines contract rights and controversies for tenured and tenure-track faculty Describes how risk management processes can help to deal with these complicated, but critical, issues Addresses constitutional issues associated with academic freedom and free speech on campus Investigates the nebulous, but important, issue of collegiality Discusses the future for institutions of higher learning in hiring faculty
Part of the realistic approach to high-stakes risk is realizing that while these indicators of increased risk are not certain, the uncertainty they entail ...
Author: M. Jablonowski
Category: Business & Economics
The threat we face from high-stakes risk has never been higher. These challenges include environmental pollution, fragile financial systems and the threat of widespread geopolitical violence. This book suggests that a return to natural risk levels – those in accordance with naturally occurring background levels – is both desirable and achievable.
A Nation at Risk and Its Predecessors The standards movement in education is often assumed to have begun with the 1983 release ofA Nation at Risk, ...
Author: Kathryn A. McDermott
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
Category: Political Science
Performance accountability has been the dominant trend in education policy reform since the 1970s. State and federal policies set standards for what students should learn; require students to take “high-stakes” tests to measure what they have learned; and then hold students, schools, and school districts accountable for their performance. The goal of these policies is to push public school districts to ensure that all students reach a common threshold of knowledge and skills. High-Stakes Reform analyzes the political processes and historical context that led to the enactment of state-level education accountability policies across the country. It also situates the education accountability movement in the broader context of public administration research, emphasizing the relationships among equity, accountability, and intergovernmental relations. The book then focuses on three in-depth case studies of policy development in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Kathryn McDermott zeroes in on the most controversial and politically charged forms of state performance accountability sanctions, including graduation tests, direct state intervention in or closing of schools, and state takeovers of school districts. Public debate casts performance accountability as either a cure for the problems of US public education or a destructive mistake. Kathryn McDermott expertly navigates both sides of the debate detailing why particular policies became popular, how the assumptions behind the policies influenced the forms they took, and what practitioners and scholars can learn from the successes and failures of education accountability policies.
A leader who does not address the high-risk but lowfrequency or low-probability ... _ Risk + + Opportunity High Stakes y tniatrecn U Courage in Crisis 43.
Author: Constance Dierickx
Category: Business & Economics
What makes some leaders so effective when the stakes are high, while others fall short? Why are some able to not only survive but to lead their organizations to new heights even in risky, fast-changing times? The answer is succinct but multi-layered: such leaders display courage, judgment, and fortitude. High-stakes leadership does not require unnatural powers, nor is it predicated on a dangerous situation. The three signature character traits can be cultivated by anyone at any level in any organization, big or small. Organizational and leadership consultant Constance Dierickx describes high-stakes leadership in a simple, three-part model that illuminates the mindsets, strategies, and tactics leaders must draw upon to make tough decisions, take an unpopular stand, or ignore convention, providing real-world examples across a range of sectors and industries. Dierickx developed her model of high-stakes leadership to help her clients—executives at organizations ranging from start-ups to nonprofits to large, global companies—better define what they need to bring strategy to life. This, she found, is the great gulf in business, the vast space between idea and results. High-Stakes Leadership helps leaders sharpen their ability to: act decisively, with clarity and focus test ideas using reason, and course correct as needed be resolute and inspire others to continue, even in the face of challenges Leading requires the courage to make conscious decisions about what to do, the judgment to separate information from short-term trends, and the fortitude to remain true to oneself and one’s mission. When leaders do these things, they also become teachers, leading their teams by example, often without realizing it. The essential aspects of good leadership endure even as the environment and tactics change. Indeed, courage, judgment, and fortitude are not merely tools for survival, they are the means by which we sculpt the future.
A simple decision tree for classifying heart attack victims as high or low-risk patients is a good example of a simple heuristic used to accomplish a very ...
Author: Donna Walker Tileston
Publisher: Corwin Press
Teach for declarative and procedural knowledge and boost student achievement with these practical, research-proven strategies for incorporating state standards and benchmarks into lessons and assessments.
Persistence might be an important factor in helping at-risk students pass high stakes tests. Most states that have a high school exit exam afford students ...
Author: Louis J. Kruger
Meet the challenges of high stakes testing in the practice of school psychology School psychologists can be a positive influence on how students, teachers, parents, schools, and communities cope with the challenges and opportunities associated with high stakes testing. Unfortunately, there has been a significant lack of literature to guide school psychologists and related school-based practitioners on this topic. High Stakes Testing: New Challenges and Opportunities for School Psychology is a timely groundbreaking book that provides useful and thought-provoking information to help psychologists meet the challenges of high stakes testing and create new roles for themselves in helping children succeed. This book discusses practical ways to help provide academic support to facilitate student success on high stakes tests, reduce the impact of stress associated with high stakes testing, assess the data from the tests to improve programs, and take a leadership role in the appropriate use of the tests. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB) and its accountability provisions has helped create and sustain a climate where student performance on state-created achievement tests often has high stakes implications for students, families, and schools. High Stakes Testing: New Challenges and Opportunities for School Psychology provides important background information about high stakes testing, including the legal, historical, and political context of high stakes testing, pertinent psychometrics, and a review of research on academic and non-academic outcomes as it relates to high stakes testing. Using this information as a foundation, the book then identifies new roles and opportunities for school psychologists with respect to high stakes testing. This book is comprehensively referenced. Topics in High Stakes Testing: New Challenges and Opportunities for School Psychology include: advocating for the appropriate use of state-wide assessments the influence of item response theory (IRT) on the development of high stakes tests whether the accountability system of NCLB is truly improving student’s learning the impact of high stakes tests on classroom instruction and student motivation strategies for helping students succeed on high stakes tests available resources to cope with the stress of high stakes testing and more High Stakes Testing: New Challenges and Opportunities for School Psychology is a thought-provoking, horizon-expanding resource for school psychologists, public school educators, administrators, school counselors, curriculum coordinators, and special education teachers involved in organizing, administering, and preparing students to take high stakes tests.
Release on 1999-01-16 | by National Research Council
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6336.html 120 HIGH STAKES: TESTING FORTRACKING, ... before first grade and at-risk controls who went directly on to first grade.
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Everyone is in favor of "high education standards" and "fair testing" of student achievement, but there is little agreement as to what these terms actually mean. High Stakes looks at how testing affects critical decisions for American students. As more and more tests are introduced into the country's schools, it becomes increasingly important to know how those tests are used--and misused--in assessing children's performance and achievements. High Stakes focuses on how testing is used in schools to make decisions about tracking and placement, promotion and retention, and awarding or withholding high school diplomas. This book sorts out the controversies that emerge when a test score can open or close gates on a student's educational pathway. The expert panel: Proposes how to judge the appropriateness of a test. Explores how to make tests reliable, valid, and fair. Puts forward strategies and practices to promote proper test use. Recommends how decisionmakers in education should--and should not--use test results. The book discusses common misuses of testing, their political and social context, what happens when test issues are taken to court, special student populations, social promotion, and more. High Stakes will be of interest to anyone concerned about the long-term implications for individual students of picking up that Number 2 pencil: policymakers, education administrators, test designers, teachers, and parents.
The movement began with the publication of a small report, A Nation at Risk, in 1983. The report spoke of the need to make American education more rigorous ...
Author: Dale D. Johnson
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
High Stakes is a critical ethnography of an underfunded public elementary school in this era of accountability and high stakes testing. The book was written during the year the authors served as third and fourth grade teachers, and it juxtaposes the experiences of mostly minority children of poverty and their teachers with an examination of high stakes testing policies and the loss of a comprehensive education to political dictates.
The standards/accountability/ high-stakes testing movement that was launched by the BRT and A Nation at Risk has taken public schooling far from the ...
Author: Dale D. Johnson
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Stop High-Stakes Testing: An Appeal to America's Conscience is a compelling indictment of the use of high-stakes assessments with punitive consequences in our public schools. The authors trace the history of the policy and document the inequities for children of poverty that undergird high-stakes testing practices. Lack of dental and medical care, environmental violence, insufficient school funding, racism, and classism_all factors that contribute to this dire situation_are discussed in depth. The authors make a convincing case for discontinuing the unjust testing that has been forced on our nation's public school children.
Core characteristics of high-stakes contexts are high risk, high impact decision making and – in not so few cases – constraining factors such as limited ...
Author: Chwee Beng Lee
This book examines the types of problems and constraints faced by specialists in the areas of security, medicine, mental health, aviation and engineering. Every day we rely on highly trained specialists to solve complex problems in high-stakes environments, that is, environments involving direct threats to the preservation of human life. While previous work has tended to focus on problem solving in a single domain, this book covers multiple, related domains. It is divided into three parts, the first of which addresses the theoretical foundations, with coverage of theories of instructional design and expertise. Part two covers the five high-stakes domains and offers directions for training in these domains. In turn, part three provides practical guidelines for instructional design in high-stakes professions, including learner analysis, task analysis, assessment and evaluation. The book is intended for a broad readership, including those who operate in high-stress, time-pressure occupations. Trainers at professional organisations can utilise the theoretical frameworks and training strategies discussed in this book when preparing their clients for complex, real-world problem solving. Further, the book offers a valuable resource for academics and graduate students, as well as anyone with an interest in problem solving.
Although high-stakes tests existed in some states, they had not been deemed ... Nevertheless, to alleviate the situation, A Nation at Risk called for ...
Author: Amy L. Kelly
The High Stakes of Testing explores student experiences and perceptions of standardized testing through a governmentality lens informed by critical pedagogy. This research exposes prevalent mechanisms of control, adverse effects, and the urgency of student voice work in our schools.
She had attributed his reaction more to concerns about his position at ... debts and finally 68 High-Stakes Honeymoon The Interpreter #1380 High-Risk Affair ...
Author: RaeAnne Thayne
While honeymooning solo might be unconventional, ex-bride-to-be Olivia Lambert couldn't see wasting a fabulous trip to Costa Rica just because her former fiancé turned out to be pond scum. Imagine her surprise when a handsome stranger appeared in the jungle…silver machete in his hand and fiendish gleam in his eye…. Well, maybe not so fiendish. Because Ren Galvez was actually one of the good guys. And he was trying to save Olivia—the curvy blonde in the skimpy bikini—from a near-certain death at the hands of one of the bad guys. But who was going to save Ren from her?
For the fourth grade student who is at risk , the extra help may be a huge benefit . But what about the class of twenty - five first graders who are left ...
Author: M. Gail Jones
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
To understand how high-stakes accountability has influenced teaching and learning, this book looks at the consequences that high-stakes tests hold for students, teachers, administrators, and the public, and demonstates the negative effects of such testing on nontested subjects, minority students, and students with special needs.
It was hard to miss that fact when his high-risk, high-adrenaline career had destroyed their relationship. But coming face-to-face with the reality of a ...
Author: Fiona Brand
Special Forces agent Carter Rawlings was back — and Dani Marlow's world was spinning in his wake. The local arson attacks for which she was being blamed were only part of the problem. The feelings Carter's reappearance had ignited threatened far more dangerous territory — a past she tried to keep hidden, especially from him. With the trouble on her land and Carter's tantalizing presence, Dani had to think about her future. Did she want to keep avoiding the truth — that she loved Carter and wanted to make a life with him — or could she finally face the stakes head-on, deal with her enemies and seal her heart to that of the only man she's ever loved?
To some extent, some indications of a characteristic of high-stakes ... by: 'eliminating high-risk candidates, encouraging candidates to register at a lower ...
Author: Theo J.H.M Eggen
High-stakes educational testing is a global phenomenon which is increasing in both scale and importance. Assessments are high-stakes when there are serious consequences for one or more stakeholders. Historically, tests have largely been used for selection or for providing a ‘licence to practise’, making them high-stakes for the test takers. Testing is now also used for the purposes of improving standards of teaching and learning and of holding schools accountable for their students’ results. These tests then become high-stakes for teachers and schools, especially when they have to meet externally imposed targets. More recent has been the emergence of international comparative testing, which has become high-stakes for governments and policy makers as their education systems are judged in relation to the performances of other countries. In this book we draw on research which examines each of these uses of high-stakes testing. The articles evaluate the impact of such assessments and explore the issues of value and fairness which they raise. To underline the international appeal of high-stakes testing the studies are drawn from Australia, Africa, the Caribbean, Europe, former Soviet republics and North America. Collectively they illustrate the power of high-stakes assessment in shaping, for better or for worse, policy making and schooling. This book was originally published as a special issue of Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice.
Risk and reward: Perspectives on the implementation of Kentucky's ... of the initial effects of high stakes accountability initiatives on local schools.
Author: Jennifer King Rice
In this third volume of Research in Education Fiscal Policy and Practice, editors Jennifer King Rice and Christopher Roellke have assembled a diversity of research studies focused on the current policy environment of high stakes accountability and how this context has impacted educators and students at multiple levels of the system. This effort to leverage student performance through high stakes reform has accelerated and intensified considerably since the 2002 reauthorization of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act, commonly referred to as No Child Left Behind (NCLB).In order for high stakes accountability reforms to realize their stated aims, targeted schools must have or acquire the resources and capacity to meet prescribed performance standards (Hess, 1999; Malen & Rice, 2005; Mintrop, 2003, 2004; Wong, et al., 1999), yet little systematic research has been assembled to document the implications of high stakes accountability systems on the resources and capacity of schools and school systems. This book aims to fill that gap. With this in mind, authors were asked to pay specific attention to challenges school systems confront as a result of NCLB and other high stakes reforms. The contributing authors were asked to think of policymakers and practitioners at local, state, and national levels as the intended audiences for their work. Our contributors responded with a collection of studies examining the relationship between high stakes reform and school district staffing, the recruitment and distribution of high quality teachers, curriculum making, and the provision of supplemental educational services to children. Our book is organized into three sections. The first provides a framework for assessing the impact of high stakes accountability policy on school capacity and also addresses implementation challenges at both state and local levels. The second section focuses on the impact of federal and state policymaking on teacher staffing and workplace conditions. The final section includes three chapters that provide a range of critiques on federal policymaking, including legal challenges to NCLB.
Advocates for Debra P. filed a lawsuit when she was denied a high school diploma ... to the tectonic shift caused by the 1983 release of A Nation at Risk, ...
Author: Michael Russell
As a nation, we spend more than $1 billion a year on federally mandated educational tests that 30 million students must take each year. The country spends an additional $1.2 billion on test preparation materials designed to help students pass these tests. While test mandates were put in place with good intentions, increasingly educational leaders and policy makers are questioning these test based reform efforts. Some question whether these programs are doing more harm than good. Others call for the development of more and better tests. Given the vast amount of resources our nation pours into testing, is it time we pay closer attention to these testing programs? Is it time we hold the testing industry and policy makers accountable for the tests they make and use? Is it time we invest resources to develop new ways of testing our students? The Paradoxes of HighStakes Testing explores these and other questions, as it helps parents, teachers, educational leaders, and policy makers better understand the complexities of educational policies that use tests as a lever for improving the quality of education. The book explores: >> how testing is used to enable teachers and schools to be more effective and improve student learning, >> why testing is so ingrained in the American psyche and why policy makers rely on testing policies to reform our educational system, >> what we can learn from a long history of testbased reform efforts that have occurred over centuries and across continents, >> what effects testing has on teaching and learning in our schools when it is used to solve political, social, or economic problems. Most importantly, the book describes several ways in which testing can be improved to provide more accurate and more useful measures of student learning. Many of these improvements capitalize on technology to provide teachers with more detailed, diagnostic information about student learning and measure skills that some leaders argue are essential for the 21st century work force. Exploring what is within reach is critical because current testing policies are hindering these improvements. Finally, given that testing is and will continue to be an integral part of our educational system, the book concludes that, like other sectors of our society, educational testing must be more closely monitored to ensure that high quality tests are used to measure student achievement and to minimize the negative effects that testing has on students, schools, and our society. Given the opportunity our nation has to rethink and redesign its testing policies, The Paradoxes of HighStakes Testing presents a clear strategy to maximize the positive effects of educational testing.
Release on 1994-02-01 | by National Research Council
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Aircraft development has always been a high-risk, demanding business. Historically, new product development costs have often exceeded ...
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The third in a series of sector-specific assessments of U.S.-Japan technology linkages, this book examines U.S.-Japan relationships that develop or transfer aircraft technology, the motivations of participating organizations, and the impacts on U.S. and Japanese capabilities. Incorporating detailed accounts of the business and technology aspects of U.S.-Japan aircraft alliances, the volume also describes the U.S. and Japanese policy contexts, presents alternative scenarios for the future and outlines how linkages with Japan can be leveraged as part of a strategy to reenergize U.S. leadership in this critical industry.
But since Ellen was bitten directly in an artery where venom travels much faster, it's probably already into her torso. Its high risk either way, but if I.
Author: Kathy Herman
Eighteen-year-old Angie Marks, tattooed and pierced, shows up in the small town of Baxter without a place to stay. When eccentric millionaire Patrick Bailey hires her to be his housekeeper, and then when Angie risks her own safety to help Mr. Bailey get his twin great-grandsons out of a rattlesnake's strike zone, she finds herself fully at the center of the town's curiosity. At Monty's Diner they say she might be involved with Billy Joe Sawyer, using rattlers to intimidate the key witnesses in his upcoming trial. Is she? Or does Angie Marks have her own agenda?