Determination of the End point of High Temperature Drying

"In 1983, RPRI contracted Woods and Forests Department fo make a practical assessment of the drop in dry bulb temperature across the stack as a method for determining the end-point of high temperature drying.

Determination of the End point of High Temperature Drying

"In 1983, RPRI contracted Woods and Forests Department fo make a practical assessment of the drop in dry bulb temperature across the stack as a method for determining the end-point of high temperature drying. It was also required that other available methods for establishing the drying end-point be reviewed. The findings of an in-mill investigation undertaken by the Department are contained in the reports Part 1 "Variation of moisture content in dried charges of heart-in and heart-excluded timber", June 1984 and Part 2 "Relationship between temperature drop across the kiln charge and the final moisture content of kiln dried timber", January 1985. Details of other methods for determining the end-point are presented in the Part 3 report "Review of literature on in-kiln moisture content and monitoring and end-point determination", April 1985. The results of this study are summarized here and the full repots are attached as appendicies A, B and C" -- Abstract.

Bibliography of High Temperature Kiln Drying of Lumber Classic Reprint

About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work.

Bibliography of High Temperature Kiln Drying of Lumber  Classic Reprint

Excerpt from Bibliography of High-Temperature Kiln Drying of Lumber Comben, A. J. 1955. The effect of high temperature kiln drying on the strength properties of timber. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

High temperature Drying of Lumber

Sharma and Bali ( 33 ) noted a significant reduction in the shrinkage of toon - - a
member of the mahogany family - - dried at high temperature . Tangential
shrinkage was reduced more than radial shrinkage and volumetric shrinkage
was not ...

High temperature Drying of Lumber


High temperature Drying of 7 4 Yellow poplar Flitches for S D R Studs

HIGH - TEMPERATURE KILN DRYING High - temperature drying is defined as
the drying of wood at dry - bulb temperatures of 212° F or higher . The
commercial use of high - temperature drying techniques in the United States to
date has ...

High temperature Drying of 7 4 Yellow poplar Flitches for S D R Studs


Bibliography of High temperature Kiln Drying of Lumber

124 . ( See Krischer and Kroll , 1956 and 1959 ) 125 . Krpan , J . 1955 . High
temperature drying of wood . Sumarski List . 79 : 292 - 307 . 126 . Kübler , H .
1963 . Drying in Russia : research and practice . Forest Prod . J . 13 ( 12 ) : 562 -
563 .

Bibliography of High temperature Kiln Drying of Lumber


Energy Conservation in Grain corn Drying with Combination High temperature Low temperature Methods Final Report July 1 1978 September 30 1980

Field drying experiments were carried out during the 1975 through 1978 harvest seasons at the University of Minnesota Rosemount Experiment Station.

Energy Conservation in Grain  corn  Drying with Combination High temperature  Low temperature Methods  Final Report  July 1  1978 September 30  1980

Field drying experiments were carried out during the 1975 through 1978 harvest seasons at the University of Minnesota Rosemount Experiment Station. Several combination drying experiments were conducted each season along with a control (conventional drying) experiment. Based on the results of the field experiments, comparisons of energy requirements for combination and conventional drying were made. Performance of the low-temperature, in-storage phase of combination drying was evaluated using computer simulation. Drying performance using ambient air was compared to performance when small amounts of supplemental heat were added, either solar or constant source heat. Long term weather records were used to evaluate variations in performance from year to year.

Industrial Heat Pump Assisted Wood Drying

higher value of hard-to-dry timbers; and (ix) control limits for the evaporating and
condensing temperatures must be well ... (2002) proposed a dual purpose,
entirely recirculatory heat pump (dehumidifier) dryer for drying high-value seed
pine ...

Industrial Heat Pump Assisted Wood Drying

This book discusses conventional as well as unconventional wood drying technologies. It covers fundamental thermophysical and energetic aspects and integrates two complex thermodynamic systems, conventional kilns and heat pumps, aimed at improving the energy performance of dryers and the final quality of dried lumber. It discusses advanced components, kiln energy requirements, modeling, and software and emphasizes dryer/heat pump optimum coupling, control, and energy efficiency. Problems are included in most chapters as practical, numerical examples for process and system/components calculation and design. The book presents promising advancements and R&D challenges and future requirements.

Energy Conservation in Grain corn Drying with Combination High temperature Low temperature Methods Final Report July 1 1978 December 31 1979

The need to conserve energy has led to efforts to improve efficiency of grain drying systems. Combination high-temperature, low-temperature drying offers potential for meeting this need.

Energy Conservation in Grain  corn  Drying with Combination High temperature  Low temperature Methods  Final Report  July 1  1978 December 31  1979

The need to conserve energy has led to efforts to improve efficiency of grain drying systems. Combination high-temperature, low-temperature drying offers potential for meeting this need. Combination drying is any system in which high-temperature drying is followed by in-storage cooling and low-temperature drying. The high-temperature (120 to 240/sup 0/F) phase can be a continuous flow or automatic batch dryer, or a bin dryer using elevated air temperatures (continuous flow; unstirred, stirred or recirculated batch. The purpose of the high-temperature dryer is to reduce the corn moisture content to a level where drying can be safely completed with in-storage, low-temperature methods. In-storage drying is accomplished by moving low-temperature air through the grain mass. This process may take from four to eight weeks, or longer, to complete. In fact, drying may be halted in late fall and completed during the following spring. Potential advantages of the combination approach compared to conventional drying with in-drying cooling include: reduced energy requirements, increased drying capacity, and improved grain quality. Combination drying studies from four corn harvest seasons (1975 to 1978) at the University of Minnesota Rosemount Experiment Station, and results of simulation analysis of the low-tempeature phase of combination drying are presented. The model used for this analysis was validated with experimental data from the field studies. Finally, design and management recommendations, and economic considerations for combination drying are discussed. (LCL).

Primary Wood Processing

HIGH-TEMPERATURE DRYING ABOVE 100°C Drying with a dry-bulb
temperature above 100°C is termed ... It is questionable whether high-
temperature drying is best viewed as being fundamentally different to drying at t
lower temperatures ...

Primary Wood Processing

This book is primarily a general text covering the whole sweep of the forest industries. The over-riding emphasis is on a clear, simple interpretation of the underlying science, demonstrating how such principles apply to processing operations. The book considers the broad question "what is wood?" by looking at the biology, chemistry and physics of wood structure. Wood quality is examined, and explanations are offered on how and why wood quality varies and the implications for processing. Finally, various "industrial processes" are reviewed and interpreted. All chapters have been written by specialists, but the presentation targets a generalist audience.

High temperature Drying of Mixed Spruce Jack Pine and Balsam Fir

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION A mixture of spruce and jack pine joists was
successfully dried by both conventional and high - temperature schedules .
Spruce lost $ 5.00 / Mbf in value with the conventional schedule but only $ 3.42 /
Mbf ...

High temperature Drying of Mixed Spruce  Jack Pine  and Balsam Fir


Drying and Storage Of Grains and Oilseeds

Systems. In the previous chapter, low-capacity grain drying systems were
discussed; they are mostly in-bin, low-temperature systems. This chapter covers
... High-capacity dryers employ high drying-air temperatures. Depending on the
dryer ...

Drying and Storage Of Grains and Oilseeds

This text and reference discusses the drying of grains, in particular the staple cereals, maize, rice, and wheat, and the oilseeds, soybeans and canola. The basic physical and thermodynamic properties of grain and air are examined, and the theory of the drying process is developed. Design of the optimum operating conditions for on-farm and off-farm dryers are presented. The book is written as an engineering text, but should also prove beneficial to all who are interested in the proper drying and storage of grains. Examples and problems are given in both S.I. and Imperial units.

Advances in Solar Energy Technology

Table 3.6 Approximate number of days for drying at low temperatures . ... In case
of deep bed brying , high temperature drying may cause overheating and
overdrying at the inlet side or in lower layer's and underdrying at the outlet at
upper ...

Advances in Solar Energy Technology

The main objective of writing the three volume 'Advances in Solar Energy Technology' is to consolidate all the relevant latest information available in the field of solar energy (applied and theoretical in nature) and to as sist both the students ( i. e. undergraduate, postgraduate, research scholars etc.) and the professionals (i.e. consulting, design and contracting firms). I have discussed each and every topic in depth rather than a cursory overview. All the material required on a particular topic is included in the chapter and I have wherever possible given useful relationships in equation, graphical and tabular form. It is hoped that this completed Solar Energy Technol ogy will serve the best source material in this field. The first chapter deals with the evacuated tubular col lecors suitable to operate at a temperature of about 150°C with a daily energy collector efficiency in excess of 40 per cent. These collectors thus would be useful for efficient operation of Solar Airconditioning System, Power Generation and Process Heat System. Various advanced features like vacuum insulation, selective black coating, anti-reflective coating, heat pipe, cusp reflector, etc., used in designing this advanced type of collector are discussed separately in this chapter. Transient mathematical model for its perfor mance prediction and different designs of evacuated tubular collectors commercially produced in different countries of the world are described in brief to give the reader a good picture about their scopr and working.

Advanced Drying Technologies Second Edition

In the course of drying, heat is transferred from the material surface to the
sublimation front by conduction through the layer of already dry material. To
perform the process at reasonably high drying rates, a sufficient temperature
difference ...

Advanced Drying Technologies  Second Edition

Presents Drying Breakthroughs for an Array of Materials Despite being one of the oldest, most energy-intensive unit operations, industrial drying is perhaps the least scrutinized technique at the microscopic level. Yet in the wake of today’s global energy crisis, drying research and development is on the rise. Following in the footsteps of the widely read first edition, Advanced Drying Technologies, Second Edition is the direct outcome of the recent phenomenal growth in drying literature and new drying hardware. This edition provides an evaluative overview of new and emerging drying technologies, while placing greater emphasis on making the drying process more energy efficient in the green age. Draws on the Authors’ 60+ Years of Combined Experience Fueled by the current energy crisis and growing consumer demand for improved quality products, this thoroughly updated resource addresses cutting-edge drying technologies for numerous materials such as high-valued, heat-sensitive pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and some foods. It also introduces innovative techniques, such as heat-pump drying of foods, which allow both industrial practice and research and development projects to save energy, reduce carbon footprints, and thus improve the bottom line. Four New Chapters: Spray-Freeze-Drying Fry Drying Refractance Window Drying Mechanical Thermal Expression Requiring no prior knowledge of chemical engineering, this single-source reference should assist researchers in turning the laboratory curiosities of today into the revolutionary novel drying technologies of tomorrow.

Effect of Artificially Drying Seed Cotton Before Ginning on Certain Quality Elements of the Lint and Seed and on the Operation on the Gin Stand

The average increases in value because of drying at this temperature amounted
to $ 3 . 27 per bale , or 8 percent ... The value of the all dried material was
successively decreased as high drying temperatures were used . When using a
tight ...

Effect of Artificially Drying Seed Cotton Before Ginning on Certain Quality Elements of the Lint and Seed and on the Operation on the Gin Stand


How to Dry Foods

Check the suggested drying temperatures for each fruit , pages 27 to 35. Some
fruits contain considerably more water than others and the initial drying
temperature can be as high as 160 ° F ( 70 ° C ) to remove surface moisture
quickly .

How to Dry Foods

Instructions for building an electric, solar, or air-flow dehydrator accompany a variety of recipes using dried foods and techniques for drying fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, nuts and seeds, meat, and fish

Modern Drying Technology Volume 4

Consequently, high-temperature dryers have displaced natural drying almost
completely. High-temperature batch and continuous-flow dryers require
significant quantities of fuel oil or gas for heating the drying air, as well as
electricity for ...

Modern Drying Technology  Volume 4

This five-volume series provides a comprehensive overview of all important aspects of modern drying technology, concentrating on the transfer of cutting-edge research results to industrial use. Volume 4 deals with the reduction of energy demand in various drying processes and areas, highlighting the following topics: Energy analysis of dryers, efficient solid-liquid separation techniques, osmotic dehydration, heat pump assisted drying, zeolite usage, solar drying, drying and heat treatment for solid wood and other biomass sources, and sludge thermal processing.

Evaluation of mixed hardwood studs manufactured by the Saw Dry Rip SDR process

But, the average moisture content of high temperature-dried willow was higher
than the desired 12 percent at 18.4 percent because of wetwood content.1 The
range of moisture contents for both conventional and high-temperature drying
were ...

Evaluation of mixed hardwood studs manufactured by the Saw Dry Rip  SDR  process

In some areas, harvesting mixed hardwood species may be necessary to provide enough log volume to keep a hardwood stud mill in business. Basswood and red maple should make good studs and should be suitable for combination with yellow-poplar, paper birch, or other species shown to be good performers using the Saw-Dry-Rip (SDR) process. This study evaluates basswood, red maple, and black willow for making studs using SDR. Results show that basswood and red maple have lower crook when SDR is used with either conventional or high-temperature drying. Black willow crook is lower using SDR but is still much higher than basswood or maple. This poorer performance is believed to be due to wetwood and poor drying. Wrap in wetwood studs is due to wet pockets that are exposed when ripped from the flitches, causing delayed shrinkage after ripping. The percentage of pieces rejected because of warp, based on the STUD grade, is 50-100 percent lower for SDR than for conventionally sawed studs. Keywords include: Saw-Dry-Rip, SDR, hardwoods, studs, manufacturing, red maple, basswood, black willow, wetwood, sawing.