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How Global Currencies Work

Author: Barry Eichengreen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
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A powerful new understanding of global currency trends, including the rise of the Chinese yuan At first glance, the history of the modern global economy seems to support the long-held view that the currency of the world’s leading power invariably dominates international trade and finance. But in How Global Currencies Work, three noted economists overturn this conventional wisdom. Offering a new history of global finance over the past two centuries and marshaling extensive new data to test current theories of how global currencies work, the authors show that several national monies can share international currency status—and that their importance can change rapidly. They demonstrate how changes in technology and international trade and finance have reshaped the landscape of international currencies so that several international financial standards can coexist. In fact, they show that multiple international and reserve currencies have coexisted in the past—upending the traditional view of the British pound’s dominance before 1945 and the U.S. dollar’s postwar dominance. Looking forward, the book tackles the implications of this new framework for major questions facing the future of the international monetary system, including how increased currency competition might affect global financial stability.


Currency Statecraft

Author: Benjamin J. Cohen
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
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At any given time, a limited number of national currencies are used as instruments of international commerce, to settle foreign trade transactions or store value for investors and central banks. How countries whose currencies gain international appeal choose to use this status forms their strategy of currency statecraft. In different circumstances, issuing governments may welcome and promote the internationalization of their currency, tolerate it, or actively oppose it. Benjamin J. Cohen offers a provocative explanation of the strategic policy choices at play. In a comprehensive review that ranges from World War II to the present, Cohen convincingly argues that one goal stands out as the primary motivation for currency statecraft: the extent of a country’s geopolitical ambition, or how driven it is to build or sustain a prominent place in the international community. When a currency becomes internationalized, it generally increases the power of the nation that produces it. In the persistent contestation that characterizes global politics, that extra edge can matter greatly, making monetary rivalry an integral component of geopolitics. Today, the major example of monetary rivalry is the emerging confrontation between the US dollar and the Chinese renminbi. Cohen describes how China has vigorously promoted the international standing of its currency in recent years, even at the risk of exacerbating relations with the United States, and explains how the outcome could play a major role in shaping the broader geopolitical engagement between the two superpowers.


What s Wrong with Modern Money Theory

Author: Gerald A. Epstein
Publisher: Springer
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This Palgrave Pivot assesses the validity of Modern Money Theory’s approach to macroeconomic policy, specifically monetary and fiscal policy. Whereas other papers have focused primarily on theoretical and doctrinal issues, this book focuses primarily on an analysis of MMT’s policy approach. Though drawing on academic literature, this book’s approach is empirical and policy-based, making it accessible to scholars and the public alike. It addresses a burning question in the policy and politics of the US and elsewhere where MMT is gaining a policy foothold, especially among progressive activists and politicians: Is MMT, in fact, a good guide for progressive macroeconomic policy? The main focus of this book is to explain why the answer to this question is no.


Finance Development December 2017

Author: International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
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Finance & Development, December 2017


Globalizing Capital

Author: Barry Eichengreen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
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Essential reading for understanding the international economy—now thoroughly updated Lucid, accessible, and provocative, and now thoroughly updated to cover recent events that have shaken the global economy, Globalizing Capital is an indispensable account of the past 150 years of international monetary and financial history—from the classical gold standard to today's post–Bretton Woods "nonsystem." Bringing the story up to the present, this third edition covers the global financial crisis, the Greek bailout, the Euro crisis, the rise of China as a global monetary power, the renewed controversy over the international role of the U.S. dollar, and the currency war. Concise and nontechnical, and with a proven appeal to general readers, students, and specialists alike, Globalizing Capital is a must-read for anyone who wants to understand where the international economy has been—and where it may be going.


The Decline of Sterling

Author: Catherine R. Schenk
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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The demise of sterling as an international currency was widely predicted after 1945, but the process took thirty years to complete. Why was this demise so prolonged? Traditional explanations emphasize British efforts to prolong sterling's role because it increased the capacity to borrow, enhanced prestige, or supported London as a centre for international finance. This book challenges this view by arguing that sterling's international role was prolonged by the weakness of the international monetary system and by collective global interest in its continuation. Using the archives of Britain's partners in Europe, the USA and the Commonwealth, Catherine Schenk shows how the UK was able to convince other governments that sterling's international role was critical for the stability of the international economy and thereby attract considerable support to manage its retreat. This revised view has important implications for current debates over the future of the US dollar as an international currency.


Cultures of Expertise in Global Currency Markets

Author: Leon Wansleben
Publisher: Routledge
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Notwithstanding financial crises, global foreign exchange markets have undergone a tremendous growth during the last two decades. Foreign exchange (FX) is often thought of as a site where economic actors exchange currencies for buying foreign goods or selling goods in foreign countries, but the FX markets are better understood as financial spheres, dominated by speculative actors. A key question is how this huge global speculative sphere has developed, and what maintains it. Thus far, global currency markets have been largely neglected by the new approaches to finance, and until now no study has existed to chart the interplay of their structural evolution and their shape as knowledge spheres. This new book offers a systematic study of FX markets from a knowledge sociological perspective, empirically focussing on analysts within these markets. It makes the argument that market structures are reflected in, and become stabilised by, distinct cultures of financial expertise. These cultures connect the actions and perceptions of loosely coupled, globally distributed market players, and establish shared sets of strategies of how to observe, valuate and invest. This highly original book will be of interest to scholars of economics, sociology and political science, and in particular to all those with an interest in the sociology of finance and the role of finance in the contemporary world.


Trading in the Global Currency Markets 3rd Edition

Author: Cornelius Luca
Publisher: Penguin
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Completely updated third edition-insights into the lucrative foreign exchange markets for both beginner and expert traders. A renowned authority on international investing brings the complex machinations of the foreign currency markets vibrantly to life. Cornelius Luca clearly and concisely analyzes the various currencies, market forces, and emerging technologies-and illuminates them all with real-world examples and graphics.


Do China and Oil Exporters Influence Major Currency Configurations

Author: Marcel Fratzscher
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
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This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Analyzes the impact of the shift away from a U.S. dollar focus of systemically important emerging market economies (EMEs) on configurations between the U.S. dollar, the euro and the yen. The report analyzes the market impact on major currency pairs of official statements made by EME policy-makers about their exchange rate regime and reserve composition. Such statements have an economically significant impact on the euro, and to a lesser extent the yen against the U.S. dollar. Communication hinting at a weakening of EMEs¿ U.S. dollar focus contributed to the appreciation of the euro against the U.S. dollar in recent years. Overall, the results underscore the growing systemic importance of EMEs for global exchange rate configurations. Ill.


Rethinking Money

Author: Bernard A. Lietaer
Publisher: Berrett-Koehler Publishers
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Argues that the world's current philosophies on money have caused the recent financial meltdowns of the United States and Europe, and argues that rethinking the concept of money as cooperative currencies would help solve many of these economic problems.